Success of TAVR for Failed Aortic Prosthetic Valves

Dr. Danny Dvir MD St Paul’s Hospital, Vancouver British Columbia, CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Danny Dvir MD
St Paul’s Hospital, Vancouver
British Columbia, Canada

Medical Research: Who were the patients studied?

Dr. Dvir: The VIVID registry included high-risk patients with failed aortic bioprostheses treated with valve-in-valve. These patients had many comorbidities and high risk scores for early mortality with conventional redo surgery.

Medical Research: What are the treatment options for these patients?

Dr. Dvir: Patients with failed bioprosthetic valves are conventionally treated with redo surgery. Transcatheter valve-in-valve is a less-invasive approach.
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Metastatic Prostate Cancer: New Androgen Blocker Improved Survival, Quality of Life

Tomasz M. Beer, M.D. FACP OHSU Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University OR 97239MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Tomasz M. Beer, M.D. FACP
OHSU Knight Cancer Institute
Oregon Health and Science University
OR 97239


Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Beer: In the study, we found that compared to placebo, enzalutamide improves overall survival, progression-free survival, quality of life, and delays the need for chemotherapy. Enzalutamide is superior to placebo with respect to all planned endpoints, across all subsets of the patient population in the study.  Enzalutamide treatment is associated with an excellent safety profile.
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Omega-3 Fatty Acid May Protect Brain from Alcohol Binges

Michael A. Collins PhD Professor of Molecular Pharmacology Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine Maywood IL 60153MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Michael A. Collins PhD
Professor of Molecular Pharmacology
Loyola University Chicago
Stritch School of Medicine
Maywood IL 60153

Medical Research: What are the main findings of your study?

Dr. Collins: There were several:

  • First, we found that a cadre of neuroinflammatory proteins which promote or are stimulated by increased oxidative stress were significantly altered in a brain neurodegeneration model involving high alcohol binges in adult (male) rats. Most surprising was that the alterations were selectively evident in the three brain regions that contain a lot of dying neurons, and not in regions lacking neurodamage.
  • Additionally, in an alcohol-binged adult rat brain cultures, the same neuroinflammatory protein alterations, along with the neuronal damage, were replicated.
  • We further observed that binging the cultures depleted a key omega-3 fatty acid, termed DHA, in brain membranes. When these binged brain cultures were then supplemented with DHA, the neuroinflammatory protein changes and the neurodegeneration were largely or completely inhibited.
  • The results link specific oxidative stress-associated neuroinflammatory routes to the brain neuronal demise arising from high binge alcohol exposures.
  • They also reveal that supplementation with an omega-3 fatty acid reported to be neuroprotective with respect to other insults may be effective as well in suppressing the brain-damaging effects of excessive alcohol binges.

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Child–Parent Resemblance in Body Weight Weaker in Minorities

Qi Zhang, Ph.D. Associate Professor School of Community and Environmental Health Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Qi Zhang, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
School of Community and Environmental Health
Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA


Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Zhang: This study found the child-parent resemblance in body weight status varied by socio-demographics in the U.S. In short, the resemblance in BMI is weaker in minorities, older children and lower socioeconomic groups.
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Engineering A Probiotic To Reduce Obesity

Sean Davies PhD Department of Pharmacology Vanderbilt UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Sean Davies PhD
Department of Pharmacology
Vanderbilt University

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Davies: N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) is a fat-like molecule normally produced by small intestine of mammals in response to eating high fat foods that helps signal a feeling of fullness to the brain.  This sensation of fullness is what normally helps us decide to stop eating, but in obese people it appears that not enough NAPE is produced so that not enough of that signal gets sent to the brain.  So we wanted to find a way to increase the amount of NAPE made in the intestinal tract, with the hope that this would help protect against obesity. Our approach was to engineer a probiotic bacteria that normally colonizes the gut of humans and other mammals so that it would make NAPE.  Our hope was that when this gut bacteria made the NAPE, it would be absorbed by the intestine and help supplement the NAPE already being made by the intestine so that a more complete sensation of fullness would be send to the brain.

What we found was that our engineered bacteria made a significant amount of NAPE and that when fed to mice, the bacteria would colonize the gut like normal and that the intestinal cells could absorb this NAPE.  Most importantly, we found that mice that received this bacteria ate less of the high fat diet than mice that were not treated or that received bacteria that did not make NAPE. Because the mice ate less of the high fat diet, and also because they burned the fat they had more effectively, the mice receiving the bacteria producing NAPE had only 50% of  the body fat of the control mice.  While the control mice showed the early signs of developing diabetes, the mice that received the NAPE producing bacteria showed almost no signs of developing diabetes. So the presence of these NAPE producing bacteria protected the mice from the harmful effects of the high fat diet.

Another key findings was that because the bacteria live in the GI tract and keep producing the NAPE for many weeks, we didn’t have to keep administering the bacteria to the mice to keep up the protective effect.  Even a month after we stopped giving the bacteria producing NAPE, the mice were still protected from the effects of the high fat diet.  Eventually after about six weeks, the bacteria died out and the mice started eating the same amount of food as the control mice, but even for at least another six weeks after this, they still weighed less than the control mice.

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Pre-Dementia Syndrome Characterized by Slow Gait, Cognitive Complaints

Joe Verghese, MBBS, MS Professor of Neurology and Medicine, Chief, Integrated Divisions of Cognitive & Motor Aging (Neurology) and Geriatrics (Medicine), Director, Resnick Gerontology Center, Murray D Gross Memorial Faculty Scholar in Gerontology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, NY 10461MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Joe Verghese, MBBS, MS
Professor of Neurology and Medicine,
Chief, Integrated Divisions of Cognitive & Motor Aging (Neurology) and Geriatrics (Medicine),  Director, Resnick Gerontology Center,
Murray D Gross Memorial Faculty Scholar in Gerontology,
Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome (MCR) is a newly described pre-dementia syndrome that is characterized by presence of slow gait and cognitive complaints in older adults without dementia or mobility disability. In this study, we report that the prevalence of Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome was 9.7% in 26,802 adults aged 60 and older from 22 cohort studies based in 17 countries. Presence of Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome was also associated with an almost two-fold risk of developing dementia.
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Night Light May Drive Breast Cancer Growth

MSteven M. Hill, Ph.D. Professor, Structural & Cellular Biology Edmond & Lily Safra Chair for Breast Cancer Research Co-Director, Molecular Signaling Program, Louisiana Cancer Research Consortium Director, Tulane Circadian Biology CenteredicalResearch.com Interview with
Steven M. Hill, Ph.D.
Professor, Structural & Cellular Biology
Edmond & Lily Safra Chair for Breast Cancer Research
Co-Director, Molecular Signaling Program, Louisiana Cancer Research Consortium
Director, Tulane Circadian Biology Center

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Hill: The main findings of our study are that exposure to even dim light at night can drive human breast tumors to a hyper metabolic state, activating key tumor cell signaling pathways involved in tumor cell survival and proliferation, leading to increased tumor growth, all resulting in a tumor which is completely resistant to tamoxifen therapy. Our work shows that this effect is due to the repression of nighttime melatonin by dim light at night. When nighttime melatonin is replace the tumors become sensitive to tamoxifen resulting in cell death and tumor regression.
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Adverse Childhood Experiences Common in Military Men

John Blosnich, Ph.D., M.P.H., Post-doctoral fellow at the Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Healthcare System.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
John Blosnich, Ph.D., M.P.H.,
Post-doctoral fellow at the Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion
Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Healthcare System.

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Blosnich: I think there are two main findings from our study:

First, since the beginning of the All-Volunteer U.S. military in 1973, there has been a shift in childhood experiences among men who have served in the military.

Second, the childhood experiences of women who have served in the military have been largely similar across the Draft and All-Volunteer Eras.
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Breast Cancer Growth: Role of Hormones and Aromatase Inhibitors

Rajkumar Lakshmanaswamy, PhD Research Director of the Center of Excellence in Cancer Research The Paul L. Foster School of Medicine Texas Tech University Health Sciences CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Rajkumar Lakshmanaswamy, PhD
Basic Science Research Director of the Center of Excellence in Cancer Research.
The Paul L. Foster School of Medicine
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center


Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Lakshmanaswamy: Our study supports a growing body of research suggesting a safe and effective role for natural steroid hormones in treating postmenopausal breast cancer, with fewer detrimental side effects and an improved health profile than with standard anti-hormone therapies. Using a mouse model mimicking human breast cancer after menopause, we found that treatment with estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone was associated with greater physical activity, improved cognition, and better cardiovascular and bone health, which demonstrates the potential significance of hormone treatment in postmenopausal women.

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Heart Transplant Waiting List: Women Dying Faster Than Men

Dr. Eileen Hsich MD Director of the Women’s Heart Failure Clinic Associate Medical Director for the Heart Transplant Program Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OhioMedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation 
Dr. Eileen Hsich MD
Director of the Women’s Heart Failure Clinic
Associate Medical Director for the Heart Transplant Program
Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio


Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Hsich: Women are dying on the heart transplant waiting list at a faster rate than men for almost a decade (see Figure 1) and few studies have even addressed this problem. The occurrence is largely driven by gender differences in survival at the most urgent status (UNOS Status 1A) but the cause remains unclear. Although data is limited our findings raise concern that women are not successfully bridged to transplantation while they remain at high status and are inactivated due to worsening condition.

Figure 1. Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients: Mortality on Waiting List For Heart Transplantation

Heart waiting list by gender 2000-2009

 

Figure derived from table in Scientific registry of transplant recipients: Heart waiting list by gender 2000-2009. Available at:
Http://srtr.Transplant.Hrsa.Gov/annual_reports/2010/1103_can-gender_hr.Htm
accessed january 9, 2014.

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