CPAP Effective In Elderly Sleep Apnea Patients

Prof. Mary J Morrell Faculty of Medicine, National Heart & Lung Institute Professor of Sleep & Respiratory Physiology Imperial College, LondonMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Prof. Mary J Morrell
Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute
Professor of Sleep & Respiratory Physiology
Imperial College, London


Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Prof. Morrell: Our results showed that when older patients with obstructive sleep apnea were treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) they had significantly less daytime sleepiness than those not treated with CPAP. A comparison of the costs and benefits of treatment suggested that CPAP would meet the usual criteria for being funded by the NHS.
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Standardized Tobacco Packaging Did Not Change Purchasing Habits

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: 
Michelle Scollo
Senior policy adviser, Tobacco
Centre for Behavioural Research in Cancer

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer:  Each November the Cancer Council Victoria conducts a survey asking smokers about their tobacco purchasing habits and smoking attitudes, intentions and behaviours. This study compared what smokers said about where and what they purchased in:

  • November 2011, a year before the introduction of world-first legislation mandating standardized packaging of tobacco products throughout Australia
  • In November 2012, while the new plain packs were being rolled out onto the market and
  • In November 2013 one year later.

The tobacco industry had strenuously opposed the legislation, but—contrary to the industry predictions and continuing claims in other countries contemplating similar legislation—we found:

1.       No evidence of smokers shifting from purchasing in small independent outlets to purchasing in larger supermarkets
2.       No evidence of an increase in use of very cheap brands of cigarettes manufactured by companies based in Asia and
3.       No evidence of an increase in use of illicit unbranded tobacco.
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Should Antidepressants Be Use For Post-Surgical Pain?

Ian Gilron, MD, MSc, FRCPC Director of Clinical Pain Research Professor of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine, Biomedical & Molecular Sciences, and Center for Neuroscience Studies Queen's University Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario, CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Ian Gilron, MD, MSc, FRCPC
Director of Clinical Pain Research
Professor of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine,
Biomedical & Molecular Sciences, and
Center for Neuroscience Studies Queen’s University
Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Gilron: Pain is the most common symptom which prevents recovery from surgery. Even with the best available treatments today, many patients still suffer from moderate to severe pain after surgery.

Antidepressants - drugs used to treat depression – are also proven effective for treating chronic pain due to nerve disease and fibromyalgia. However, there has been much less research on the effects of antidepressant drugs on pain after surgery.

Our group conducted a systematic review of all published clinical trials of antidepressant for post surgical pain.

Slightly more than half of these studies suggested some benefit of these drugs but the details of this review led us to conclude that there is not yet enough evidence to recommend these medications for post surgical pain treatment.

Given the possibility that these medications could be useful treatments for pain after surgery, we believe that future studies of higher scientific quality and which involve larger numbers of patients should be carried out in the hopes of finding safer and more effective treatments for pain after surgery.
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Dietary Flavonoids May Reduce Risk Of Breast Cancer

Ying Wang PhD Epidemiology Post-Doc Fellow American Cancer Society Inc Atlanta, GA 30303MedicalResearch.com Interview with: 
Ying Wang PhD
Epidemiology Post-Doc Fellow
American Cancer Society Inc
Atlanta, GA 30303


Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Wang: Previous studies suggest that higher intake of fruits and vegetables are associated with lower risk of breast cancer risk, especially estrogen receptor (ER) negative (ER-) tumors that are more aggressive and difficult to treat. We found that postmenopausal women who had higher intake of flavones, a subgroup of flavonoids that are widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, had lower risk of breast cancer. Furthermore, higher intake of flavan-3-ols which is high in non-herbal tea was associated with lower risk of ER- but not ER positive breast cancer.
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Indoor Mold Exposure Can Post Health Risk To Asthma Patients

Dr. Richard Sharpe PhD Study - Health and Housing European Centre for Environment and Human Health University of Exeter Medical school Knowledge Spa, Royal Cornwall Hospital Truro, Cornwall,MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Richard Sharpe PhD
Study – Health and Housing
European Centre for Environment and Human Health
University of Exeter Medical school
Knowledge Spa, Royal Cornwall Hospital
Truro, Cornwall,

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Sharpe: By systematically reviewing the findings from 17 studies across 8 different countries, we’ve found that increased levels of the fungal species Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium can pose a significant health risk to people with asthma. The presence of these fungi in the home can worsen symptoms in both children and adults.
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Power Toothbrushes Can Harbor Surprising Number Of Bacteria

Donna Warren Morris, RDH, Med Professor, Dean's Academy of Distinguished Teaching Scholars Houston, TX 77054  MedicalResearch.com Interview with: 
Donna Warren Morris, RDH, Med
Professor, Dean’s Academy of Distinguished Teaching Scholars
Houston, TX 77054

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: Power toothbrushes can harbor microorganisms that have been shown to cause disease and infections. A solid-head design was found to have less growth of microorganisms than two others with hollow head designs.
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CHEST Consensus Statement: Care of the Critically Ill and Injured During Pandemics and Disasters

The American College of Chest Physicians released an expert consensus statement, Care of the Critically Ill and Injured During Pandemics and Disasters
while the global health-care community cares for patients with the Ebola virus.Three of the authors discussed this important statement with MedicalResearch.com.

Asha V. Devereaux, MD, MPH Sharp Hospital, Coronado, CAAsha V. Devereaux, MD, MPH
Sharp Hospital
Coronado, CA

Jeffrey R. Dichter, MD Allina Health, Minneapolis, MN, and Aurora Health, Milwaukee, WIJeffrey R. Dichter, MD
Allina Health, Minneapolis, MN
and Aurora Health, Milwaukee, WI

 

Niranjan Kissoon, MBBS, FRCP(C) BC Children's Hospital and Sunny Hill Health Centre University of British Columbia, Vancouver, CanadaNiranjan Kissoon, MBBS, FRCP(C)
BC Children’s Hospital and Sunny Hill Health Centre
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada


Medical Research: What are the main ethical concerns and criteria for evaluating
who may be eligible for treatment during a pandemic or disaster?

Dr. Asha Devereaux: The main ethical concerns regarding eligibility for treatment during a pandemic will be access to limited or scarce resources. Who should get treatment and who decides will be some significant questions whenever there is a scarcity of healthcare resources. Transparency and the fairness of the ethical framework for decision-making will need to be made public and updated based upon the changing dynamics of resources and disease process.

Dr. Niranjan Kissoon: There is work to be done in this area and engagement of citizens, government, medical community, ethicists and legal experts in the process is important.

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Impetigo Effectively Treated With Short Course of Antibiotics

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Asha Bowen FRACP
Menzies School of Health Research
Charles Darwin University
Darwin, NT, Australia

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Bowen: The Skin Sore Trial found that short courses (3 days of twice daily dosing or 5 days of once daily dosing) of oral co-trimoxazole worked just as well for treating impetigo in remote Indigenous Australian children as the standard treatment with an intramuscular injection of penicillin (BPG). Despite many randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on this common infection of childhood, few have been conducted where impetigo is severe and endemic and with over 100 million children affected at any one time, ongoing research is needed. This is only the second RCT to study impetigo in children where the problem is endemic and often severe. In our study, 70% of children had severe impetigo with a median of 3 body regions affected. BPG injections are painful and we knew from previous studies that not many children were receiving them. Our study confirmed that 30% of children had injection site pain 48 hours after receipt of the injection and 5 children ran away when they found out that they were randomised to the injection arm of the study.
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Genetic Variants Increase Risk of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Patients on Warfarin

Christopher D. Anderson, MD, MMSc Neurocritical Care | Acute Stroke Center for Human Genetic Research Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School Broad Institute of Harvard and MITMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Christopher D. Anderson, MD, MMSc
Neurocritical Care | Acute Stroke
Center for Human Genetic Research
Massachusetts General Hospital
Harvard Medical School
Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Anderson: Previous studies have linked Apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon variants with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) particularly in the lobar (cortical and subcortical) regions of the brain, but it was not known whether this association would extend to warfarin-related ICH, or whether the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage on warfarin would be multiplicatively compounded by APOE epsilon allele status.  Our results demonstrate that APOE e2 and e4 variants are associated with more than a two-fold risk of lobar ICH for patients on warfarin, in comparison to warfarin-exposed individuals without ICH.  This observed association was strongest when analyzing subjects with definite or probable Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy (CAA), as defined by the Boston Criteria.  No association between APOE e2 or e4 and non-lobar ICH was identified following our replication phase.  Furthermore, we did not detect an interaction between APOE status and warfarin status in ICH subjects using a case-only design.
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Photodynamic Therapy Removed More Actinic Keratoses Than Cryotherapy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gayatri Patel, MD, MPH Division of General Medicine UC Davis Medical CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Gayatri Patel, MD, MPH
Division of General Medicine
UC Davis Medical Center

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Patel: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we sought to determine the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of actinic keratoses relative to other common treatments. We included only randomized controlled trials and preformed a meta-analysis on homogenous studies. The primary finding of the study was that PDT has a better chance of removing actinic keratoses on the face or scalp than treatment with cryotherapy.
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