100 Genetic Risk Variants For Prostate Cancer Identified

Dr. Jyotsna Batra QUT Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation's  Queensland University of Technology Queensland, AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Jyotsna Batra
QUT Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation’s
Queensland University of Technology
Queensland, Australia

 

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr Batra: Prostate cancer is a disease with upto 40% genetic component. Previous Genome-wide association studies have identified 77 risk loci associated with prostate cancer. This study is further extension of previous GWASs and also involved meta-analysis of multi-ethnic populations. Through this large study involving approximately 90,0000 individuals, 23 new susceptibility loci were identified to be associated with prostate cancer, 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 were identified in multi-ancestry analyses and 1 was associated with early-onset prostate cancer.
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Follicular Lymphoma: PET-CT Surpasses CT For Response Assessment

Judith Trotman MBChB, FRACP, FRCPA Associate Professor Concord Hospital University of Sydney, AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Judith Trotman MBChB, FRACP, FRCPA
Associate Professor Concord Hospital
University of Sydney, Australia


Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Trotman: That PET-CT (applying the cut-off of ≥4 on the now internationally recommended 5 Point Scale) is a more powerful predictor of both Progression Free and Overall Survival than conventional CT in patients responding to first line immunochemotherapy for advanced follicular lymphoma.  It is also a much stronger predictor than the pre-treatment prognostic indices FLIPI and FLIP2. Patients who achieve PET-negative status have a median PFS over 6 years compared to only 17 months in those who remain PET-positive.
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Ultrasound Equal To CT As First Test For Kidney Stone Diagnosis

Rebecca Smith-Bindman, MD Professor in the Departments of Radiology; Epidemiology and Biostatistics; and Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine UCSF San Francisco Calif.MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Rebecca Smith-Bindman, MD
Professor in the Departments of Radiology;
Epidemiology and Biostatistics; and Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine UCSF San Francisco Calif.


Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Smith-Bindman: New technology is rapidly developed in medicine, and its important to understand how that technology should be used to improve patient health outcomes. Sometimes the technology is far better than existing technology and it should replace the earlier technology, and sometimes it is not and therefore should not be used. In this clinical scenario – I e. patients who present to an emergency department with abdomen or back pain thought to possibly reflect kidney stones, ultrasound is a simpler, less expensive , and more readily available test in the emergency department setting and therefore if it is equal to CT with respect to patient outcomes, it should be used as the first test in these patients. Currently, CT is the test widely used for patients with suspected kidney stones.

We assessed a large number of patients with suspected kidney stones seen at one of 15 large academic emergency medicine departments across the country. Patients were assigned to point of care ultrasound performed by an ED physician, radiology ultrasound or radiology CT. We assessed a broad range of patient centered outcomes and found each of the three tests we studied were equivalent in terms of these outcomes including complications related to missed diagnoses, related serious adverse events, time spent in the emergency department and repeated ED visits and hospitalizations. However, the exposure to ionizing radiation was around half as high in patients who underwent ultrasound as their first test, and thus ultrasound should be used as the first imaging test in patients with suspected nephrolithiasis.
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PTSD Increases Risk of Food Addiction in Women

Susan Mason, PhD, MPH Assistant Professor Division of Epidemiology and Community Health Minneapolis, MN  55454MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Susan Mason, PhD, MPH

Assistant Professor
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health
Minneapolis, MN  55454

 

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Mason: We examined 49,408 women enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study II to see if those who had experienced PTSD symptoms at some point in their lives were more likely than those without PTSD symptoms to meet the criteria for food addiction, a measure of perceived dependence on food. We found that the 8% of women with the most lifetime PTSD symptoms were about 2.7 times as likely to meet the criteria for food addiction as women with no lifetime PTSD symptoms. This translates to an elevation in food addiction prevalence from about 6% among women with no PTSD symptoms to about 16% in women with the most PTSD symptoms.

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Active Critical Care Can Increase Number Of Transplant Organs Per Donor

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Darren J. Malinoski, MD, FACS
Assistant Chief of Surgery – Research and Education
Chief, Section of Surgical Critical Care
Portland VA Medical Center Associate Professor of Surgery
Oregon Health & Science University
Portland, OR 97207

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? 

Dr. Malinoski: Our two main findings are that the status of the DMG Bundle prior to organ recovery, at the end of the OPO donor management process, is the most predictive of the number of organs that will be transplanted per expanded criteria donor (ECD) and that the absolute increase in the number of individual DMG elements achieved over time also appears to be relevant.  Taken together, these two findings suggest that the number of organs that will be transplantable from each donor is not necessarily predetermined by their age, comorbidities, and pre-neurologic death condition, but that active critical care management has the ability to affect outcomes and reassessing each donor’s condition over time is necessary.
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Urine Test May Be Good Screen For Cervical HPV Infection

Dr Neha Pathak, MBBS MA(Cantab) Academic Clinical Fellow in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Queen Mary University London.MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr Neha Pathak, MBBS MA(Cantab)
Academic Clinical Fellow in Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Queen Mary University London.

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Pathak: Cervical testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) is being piloted as a more accurate method for cervical cancer screening than current cytology-based (“Pap smears”). However, cervical testing still requires gynaecological examination and a doctor or nurse to take the sample. This could be a deterrent to attending screening as it is invasive and time-consuming. Urine-based HPV testing would be a less invasive and more convenient alternative.

Our study was completed at the Queen Mary University London Women’s Health Research Unit. We pooled the results of 14 studies from around the world which tested 1443 women for HPV in urine and cervical samples. We found that detection of HPV in urine seems to have good accuracy for the detection of HPV present in the cervix. We also found that using first void samples (the first part of the stream of urine) was twenty-two times more accurate than random or midstream urine samples.

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Neuropathy Predisposes Diabetics To Falls on Stairs

Steven Brown School of Healthcare Science Faculty of Engineering Manchester Metropolitan University UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Steven Brown
School of Healthcare Science
Faculty of Engineering
Manchester Metropolitan University UK


Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: Our main findings were increased extremes of sideways sway in patients with diabetes and severe peripheral neuropathy during stair negotiation. Measured by an increase in the amount of lateral separation between the centre-of-mass and centre-of-pressure. Our results showed a 3cm increase in maximum sway in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy during both stair descent and stair ascent.
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Study Confirms Increased Risk, Earlier Onset of Diabetes in South East Asians

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Adam Tabak MD
Clinical Research Associate Epidemiology & Public Health
Institute of Epidemiology & Health
Faculty of Population Health Sciences
University College London, UK

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?  

Dr. Tabak: Some of the major findings are confirmatory, such as the almost 3 times increased risk and an earlier onset of type 2 diabetes among south Asians, and a decreased insulin sensitivity in this ethnic group. The major novel finding is related to the fact that we could model events before diabetes diagnosis. We found a faster increase in fasting glucose before the diagnosis is south Asians compared to whites and that although insulin secretion increased in both ethnicities until 7 years before diagnosis, this increase was faster among whites.
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Study Finds Breast Cancer Screening Should Begin Around Age 40

Blake Cady MD Professor Emeritus of Surgery Brown UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Blake Cady MD
Professor of Surgery (emeritus) at Harvard Medical School
Partners HealthCare, Harvard Medical
School institutions, Boston


 

Medical Research: What are the main findings of this study?

Dr. Cady:  Our findings support mammography screening, and our data is consistent
with the randomized trials. Breast cancer screening with mammography is the most extensively researched screening method ever studied. Only one  “randomized” trial failed to show reduced mortality, (Canadian NCSS studies),  and there were major flaws in its design and execution that negate their results, as noted in multiple critical publications (volunteers, not geographic assignment, palpable masses detected at examination assigned to “screening” arm, large contamination bias (control group got screened anyway), and very poor quality of mammography). Yet it is this NCSS study that is cited by critics and the press.  “Failure Analyses” look backward from death, rather than forward from assignment in randomized trials. The concept of failure studies is well established as noted in recent reports of air-bag failures in cars, and many industrial studies. Seat belt prevention of deaths was discovered by police recording injuries and deaths in crashes after the fact – a failure analysis – not by randomized clinical trials. In breast cancer, failure analyses have advantages of little cost, early results, simplicity, and convenience, compared to randomized trials. Since our results support findings from randomized clinical trials (RCT), they can be accepted as reliable and accurate.

Our findings show that about 71% of deaths from breast cancer occur in the  approximately 20% of our patients not in regular screening programs, while only 29% of deaths occur in the 80% of women who were regularly screened by mammography. By extrapolation, women regularly screened have only about a 5% breast cancer mortality, but women not screened have close to a 50% mortality.

(This is my extrapolation from our data, not direct data from our “Failure Analysis”)
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Action Packed Shows May Make You Eat More

Aner Tal, PhD Food and Brand Lab Department of Applied Economics and Management Cornell University, Ithaca, New YorkMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Aner Tal, PhD
Food and Brand Lab
Department of Applied Economics and Management
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York


Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Tal: Some TV programs might lead people to eat twice as much as other programs.

“We find that if you’re watching an action movie while snacking your mouth will see more action too!” says Aner Tal, Ph.D. lead author on the new article just published in the Journal of the American Medical Association: Internal Medicine. “In other words, the more distracting the program is the more you will eat.” In the study 94 undergraduates snacked on M&Ms, cookies, carrots and grapes while watching 20 minutes of television programming. A third of the participants watched a segment of the action movie The Island, a third watched a segment from the talk show, the Charlie Rose Show, and a third watched the same segment from The Island without sound. “People who were watching The Island ate almost twice as many snacks – 98% more than those watching the talk show!” says co-author Brian Wansink, author of Slim by Design (forthcoming) and Professor and Director of the Cornell Food and Brand Lab. “Even those watching “The Island” without sound ate 36% more.” People watching the more distracting content also consumed more calories, with 354 calories consumed by those watching The Island (314 calories with no sound) compared to 215 calories consumed by those watching the Charlie Rose Show. “More stimulating programs that are fast paced, include many camera cuts, really draw you in and distract you from what you are eating. They can make you eat more because you’re paying less attention to how much you are putting in your mouth,” explains Tal. Because of this, programs that engage viewers more might wind up being worse for their diets.
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