Low Carb Diet Results In More Weight Loss, Better Lipid Control Than Low Fat Diet

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Tian Hu, MD, MS Research Fellow
​Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine
New Orleans, LA 70112

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Hu: Participants on the low-carbohydrate diet lost more weight than those on the low-fat diet at 3, 6, and 12 months. At 12 months, those in the low-carbohydrate group lost an average of almost 8 pounds more than those in the low-fat group.

Participants on the low-carbohydrate diet lost more fat mass and did not lose lean mass (muscle) compared to those on the low-fat diet.

Overall, bad cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) that is a predictor of risk for cardiovascular disease decreased on both diets, but good cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) increased more in the low-carbohydrate group.

Physical activity was similar in the groups throughout the study, suggesting that the greater weight loss among participants in the low-carbohydrate group was not because they exercised more.

When we evaluated the black and white participants separately, the results were similar.

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Heart Attack: Antiplatelet Use in Ambulance May Decrease Stent Thrombosis

Gilles Montalescot M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Cardiology University of Paris VI; Director, Cardiac Care Unit Institute of Cardiology, Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital Paris, FranceMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Gilles Montalescot M.D., Ph.D.
Professor of Cardiology
University of Paris VI; Director, Cardiac Care Unit
Institute of Cardiology, Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital
Paris, France

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Montalescot : Among the 1862 patients with ongoing STEMI who were enrolled in the ATLANTIC study, we found no difference between those randomized to pre-hospital (in-ambulance) ticagrelor 180 mg and those randomized to in-hospital (in-catheterization laboratory) ticagrelor 180 mg in terms of either pre-PCI ST-segment elevation resolution (≥70%) or pre-PCI TIMI 3 flow in the culprit artery, which were the co-primary endpoints. There was also no difference between the groups in terms of major adverse cardiovascular events at 30 days, with the exception that rates of definite stent thrombosis were lower in the pre-hospital ticagrelor group than in the in-hospital group, both in the first 24 hours (0% versus 0.8%, p= 0.008) and at 30 days (0.2% versus 1.2%, p = 0.02). The safety of pre-hospital ticagrelor did not appear to be an issue, since the incidence of non-CABG-related major bleeding was low and similar in both treatment groups, whichever bleeding definition was used (PLATO, TIMI, STEEPLE, GUSTO, ISTH or BARC).
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Females Neglected In Basic Medical Research Studies

Melina Kibbe, MD, FACS, FAHA Professor and Vice Chair of Research Edward G. Elcock Professor of Surgical Research Department of Surgery Northwestern University Institute for BioNanotechnology in Medicine Deputy DirectorMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Melina Kibbe, MD, FACS, FAHA
Professor and Vice Chair of Research
Edward G. Elcock Professor of Surgical Research
Department of Surgery,Northwestern University
Institute for BioNanotechnology in Medicine Deputy Director

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Kibbe: We found that approximately 1/3 of all peer-reviewed published manuscripts in 5 top surgery journals did not state the sex of the animal or cell used for research. Of those that did state the sex, 80% used only males.
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Type 1 Diabetes: New Model Predicts Major Outcomes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Sabita Soedamah-Muthu
Division of Human Nutrition,Wageningen University
Wageningen, the Netherlands
and Prof Trevor Orchard
Department of Epidemiology,
Graduate School of Public Health,
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: We present a new prognostic model combining information on age, glycated haemoglobin, waist-hip ratio, albumin/creatinine ratio and HDL (good) cholesterol to assess the 3, 5 and 7 year risk of developing major outcomes in patients with type 1 diabetes.
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COPPS-2 Evaluates Colchicine Pre-Cardiac Surgery To Prevent AFib and Effusions

Massimo Imazio. MD, FESC  Dipartimento di Cardiologia/Cardiology Department Maria Vittoria Hospital and University of Torino Torino, ItaliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Massimo Imazio on behalf of the COPPS-2 Investigators
Massimo Imazio. MD, FESC
Dipartimento di Cardiologia/Cardiology Department
Maria Vittoria Hospital and University of Torino
Torino, Italia

Medical Research: What is the background for this investigation?

Dr. Imazio: Post-pericardiotomy syndrome, post-operative atrial fibrillation (AF), and post-operative effusions may be responsible for increased morbidity and healthcare costs after cardiac surgery. Postoperative use of colchicine prevented these complications in a single trial (the COPPS trial published on EHJ in 2010).

Here all events occurred within 3 months and colchicine was given after cardiac surgery starting from postoperative day 3 for 1 month. However most postoperative AF events are reported in the first 3 days and thus pre-treatment with colchicine may give better outcomes. Thus we performed the COPPS-2 giving colchicine 48 to 72 hours before surgery for 1 month without a loading dose and weight adjusted doses (i.e. 0.5 mg twice daily for patients >70kg or 0.5 mg once for patients <70Kg) in order to improve patients compliance.The Colchicine for Prevention of the Post-pericardiotomy Syndrome and post-operative atrial fibrillation (COPPS-2 trial) is an investigator-initiated, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. A total of 360 consecutive candidates for cardiac surgery, 180 for each arm, were enrolled in 11 Italian centers between March 2012 and March 2014. Main exclusion criteria were absence of sinus rhythm at enrollment, cardiac transplantation, and contraindications to colchicine. Continue reading

New Angiotensin–Neprilysin Inhibitor Bests Enalapril for Heart Failure

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: John J.V. McMurray, M.D Professor of Medical Cardiology British Heart Foundation, Cardiovascular Research Centre University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
John J.V. McMurray, M.D
Professor of Medical Cardiology
British Heart Foundation,
Cardiovascular Research Centre
University of Glasgow,
Glasgow, United Kingdom

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. McMurray: That compared to an evidence-based dose of an evidence-based ACE inhibitor (enalapril 10 mg bid), LCZ696 reduced the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization by 20%, both the components of that composite and all-cause mortality (the latter by 16%) – all reductions are highly statistically significant and clinically important. LCZ696 treated patients also reported fewer symptoms and physical limitations due to heart failure. We think this is a remarkable finding – to beat what has been the gold-standard, cornerstone, therapy for around 25 years. The findings show conclusively that adding neprilysin inhibition to renin-angiotensin system blockade is superior to renin-angiotensin system blockade alone in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction .
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CPAP Effective In Elderly Sleep Apnea Patients

Prof. Mary J Morrell Faculty of Medicine, National Heart & Lung Institute Professor of Sleep & Respiratory Physiology Imperial College, LondonMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Prof. Mary J Morrell
Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute
Professor of Sleep & Respiratory Physiology
Imperial College, London


Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Prof. Morrell: Our results showed that when older patients with obstructive sleep apnea were treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) they had significantly less daytime sleepiness than those not treated with CPAP. A comparison of the costs and benefits of treatment suggested that CPAP would meet the usual criteria for being funded by the NHS.
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Standardized Tobacco Packaging Did Not Change Purchasing Habits

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: 
Michelle Scollo
Senior policy adviser, Tobacco
Centre for Behavioural Research in Cancer

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer:  Each November the Cancer Council Victoria conducts a survey asking smokers about their tobacco purchasing habits and smoking attitudes, intentions and behaviours. This study compared what smokers said about where and what they purchased in:

  • November 2011, a year before the introduction of world-first legislation mandating standardized packaging of tobacco products throughout Australia
  • In November 2012, while the new plain packs were being rolled out onto the market and
  • In November 2013 one year later.

The tobacco industry had strenuously opposed the legislation, but—contrary to the industry predictions and continuing claims in other countries contemplating similar legislation—we found:

1.       No evidence of smokers shifting from purchasing in small independent outlets to purchasing in larger supermarkets
2.       No evidence of an increase in use of very cheap brands of cigarettes manufactured by companies based in Asia and
3.       No evidence of an increase in use of illicit unbranded tobacco.
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Should Antidepressants Be Use For Post-Surgical Pain?

Ian Gilron, MD, MSc, FRCPC Director of Clinical Pain Research Professor of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine, Biomedical & Molecular Sciences, and Center for Neuroscience Studies Queen's University Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario, CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Ian Gilron, MD, MSc, FRCPC
Director of Clinical Pain Research
Professor of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine,
Biomedical & Molecular Sciences, and
Center for Neuroscience Studies Queen’s University
Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Gilron: Pain is the most common symptom which prevents recovery from surgery. Even with the best available treatments today, many patients still suffer from moderate to severe pain after surgery.

Antidepressants - drugs used to treat depression – are also proven effective for treating chronic pain due to nerve disease and fibromyalgia. However, there has been much less research on the effects of antidepressant drugs on pain after surgery.

Our group conducted a systematic review of all published clinical trials of antidepressant for post surgical pain.

Slightly more than half of these studies suggested some benefit of these drugs but the details of this review led us to conclude that there is not yet enough evidence to recommend these medications for post surgical pain treatment.

Given the possibility that these medications could be useful treatments for pain after surgery, we believe that future studies of higher scientific quality and which involve larger numbers of patients should be carried out in the hopes of finding safer and more effective treatments for pain after surgery.
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Dietary Flavonoids May Reduce Risk Of Breast Cancer

Ying Wang PhD Epidemiology Post-Doc Fellow American Cancer Society Inc Atlanta, GA 30303MedicalResearch.com Interview with: 
Ying Wang PhD
Epidemiology Post-Doc Fellow
American Cancer Society Inc
Atlanta, GA 30303


Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Wang: Previous studies suggest that higher intake of fruits and vegetables are associated with lower risk of breast cancer risk, especially estrogen receptor (ER) negative (ER-) tumors that are more aggressive and difficult to treat. We found that postmenopausal women who had higher intake of flavones, a subgroup of flavonoids that are widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, had lower risk of breast cancer. Furthermore, higher intake of flavan-3-ols which is high in non-herbal tea was associated with lower risk of ER- but not ER positive breast cancer.
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