Insulin Sensitivity Predicts Kidney Health in Adolescent Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Petter Bjornstad, M.D.
Children’s Hospital Colorado
University of Colorado Denver
Aurora, CO 80045

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Bjornstad: Type 2 diabetes is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in the Western world. It is therefore of paramount importance to develop a better understanding of the determinants of diabetic nephropathy risk and progression, to improve outcome in adolescents with type 2 diabetes.

We report high rates of microalbuminuria and renal hyperfiltration in adolescents with type 2 diabetes, which forecast early renal morbidity and mortality. In our observational study, insulin sensitivity measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies, rather than adiposity, blood pressure, lipid and glycemic control was associated with markers of renal health (albumin-to-creatinine ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate).
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Parkinson Disease: Naltrexone May Be Useful For Impulse Control

Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Neurology Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 19104-2676 Parkinson's Disease Research, Education and Clinical Center (PADRECC) Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC) Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Daniel Weintraub, M.D.
Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Neurology
Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104-2676
Parkinson’s Disease Research, Education and Clinical Center (PADRECC)
Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC)
Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Weintraub: That there is mixed evidence for the efficacy of naltrexone in the treatment of impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease, and the evidence is sufficient to support further study of this compound class for this indication.  In addition, the study demonstrates that it is possible to conduct a clinical trial in this area.
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Healthiest Diets May Be Most Expen$ive

Dr Michelle Morris Research Fellow Nutritional Epidemiology Group School of Food Science & Nutrition University of LeedsMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr Michelle Morris
Research Fellow
Nutritional Epidemiology Group
School of Food Science & Nutrition
University of Leeds

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Morris: The healthiest diets consumed by UK Women are the most expensive. This study is UK centric, using dietary patterns consumed by UK women and scored for healthiness according to the UK Department of Health Eatwell Plate. Cost of diet was estimated using average prices taken from an evaluated UK food cost database.
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High Protein Low Carb Diet For Type 2 Diabetes Management

Grant Brinkworth PhD Associate Professor Senior Research Scientist CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Sciences Adelaide BC, South AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Grant Brinkworth PhD
Associate Professor
Senior Research Scientist
CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Sciences
Adelaide BC, South Australia

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Brinkworth: Both a very low carbohydrate, high protein, high unsaturated fat diet and a high carbohydrate, low fat diet achieved similar weight loss, improvements in body composition and health risk markers. However, compared to the high carbohydrate, low fat diet, a very low carbohydrate high protein, high unsaturated fat diet had more favourable effects on blood lipid profile, glycemic control (indicated by greater reductions in glycosylated haemoglobin – primary clinical measure of blood glucose control and the requirements for blood glucose controlling drugs) and for reducing daily blood glucose fluctuations.

The findings from this study suggests that a novel eating pattern that markedly limits carbohydrates, increases protein and unsaturated fat may have more favourable therapeutic potential for optimising the management of type 2 diabetes and reducing cardiovascular disease risk.
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Brief Screening Guages Teenage Substance Abuse risk

Sharon Levy, M.D., M.P.H. Director, Adolescent Substance Abuse Program Assistant Professor in Pediatrics Boston Children’s HospitaMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Sharon Levy, M.D., M.P.H.
Director, Adolescent Substance Abuse Program
Assistant Professor in Pediatrics
Boston Children’s Hospital

 
Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Levy: We found that questions that asked about the frequency of alcohol, tobacco and drug use accurately triaged adolescents into “risk categories”.  In other words, kids who reported using alcohol or marijuana “once or twice” last year were unlikely to have a substance use disorder, those who reported “monthly” use were very likely to meet diagnostic criteria for a “mild” or “moderate” substance use disorder while those who reported use weekly or more were very likely to meet diagnostic criteria for a “severe” substance use disorder.
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Diabetes Raises Risk of Oral Cancers

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Yung-Song Lin MD
Chi Mei Medical Center
Taipei Medical University

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Lin: The risks of developing oral cavity cancer, oropharyngeal cancer, and nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) were significantly higher in patients with diabetes.
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Surveillance vs. Surgery For Small Kidney Masses?

MedicDavid C. Johnson, MD, MPH Department of Urology University of North Carolina School of MedicinealResearch.com Interview with:
David C. Johnson, MD, MPH
Department of Urology
University of North Carolina School of Medicine

 

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Johnson: The first main finding from this study is that the likelihood of benign pathology after surgical removal of a renal mass suspected to be malignant based on pre-operative is inversely proportionate to size. This concept is well-established, however we systematically reviewed the literature for surgical series that published rates of benign pathology stratified by size and combined these rates to determine a single pooled estimate of benign pathology of pre-operatively suspicious renal masses for each size strata. Using benign pathology rates from US studies only, we found that 40.4% of masses < 1 cm, 20.9% of masses 1-2 cm, 19.6% of masses 2-3 cm, 17.2% of masses 3-4 cm, 9.2% of masses 4-7 cm, and 6.4% of masses >7 cm are benign.

The more novel finding from this study was the quantification of a previously unmeasured burden of over treatment in kidney cancer. By combining the above mentioned rates of benign pathology with epidemiological data, we estimated that the overall burden of benign renal masses surgically removed in the US to approach 6,000 per year in 2009. This represented an 82% increase over the course of a decade. Most importantly, we found an overwhelmingly disproportionate rise in the surgical treatment of renal masses in the smallest size categories – those which were most likely to be benign. We found a 233%, 189% and 128% increase in surgically removed benign renal lesions < 1 cm, 1-2 cm, and 2-3 cm, respectively from 2000 – 2009 in the US.

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Shift Work May Raise Risk of Diabetes

Professor  Zuxun Lu School of Public Health Tongii Medical College Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhun, Hubei, China.MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Professor  Zuxun Lu
School of Public Health
Tongii Medical College
Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Wuhun, Hubei, China.

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Prof. Lu: The main finding of this systematic review and meta-analysis was that shift work is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus (DM). The association between shift work and DM appeared to be independent of physical activity, family of history of DM and body mass index. We found that the increased risk of diabetes mellitus was more pronounced in rotating shift group and male shift workers than in other shift group and female shift workers, respectively.
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Kidney Transplant: Rejection Decreased By New Drug Regimen

MedicalResearch.com Interview with
Dr. Richard Haynes
Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit
Roosevelt Drive, Headington
Oxford OX3

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Haynes: The main result from this analysis is that alemtuzumab-based induction therapy (ie, alemtuzumab followed by low-dose mycophenolate and tacrolimus with steroid avoidance) reduced biopsy-proven acute rejection by about half during the first 6 months after transplantation among a wide variety of different types of participant, compared to standard basiliximab-based induction therapy (basiliximab followed by standard dose mycophenolate, tacrolimus and steroids). This reduction was achieved despite the lower doses of tacrolimus used and there was no excess of infection observed.
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Tool Identifies ER Patients With Substance Abuse Issues

Wendy Macias Konstantopoulos, MD, MPH Department of Emergency Medicine Division of Global Health & Human Rights Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical SchoolMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Wendy Macias Konstantopoulos, MD, MPH
Department of Emergency Medicine
Division of Global Health & Human Rights
Massachusetts General Hospital
Harvard Medical School

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Macias-Konstantopoulos: Nearly two-thirds (64%) of 3240 emergency department (ED) patients who endorsed using drugs in the last 30 days, met criteria for problematic drug use (DAST-10 score ≥3). Of patients who identified their primary drug of use as being a substance other than cannabis, approximately 91% met criteria for problematic drug use, including nearly 94% of those using illicit drugs and 76% of those using pharmaceuticals. Compared to those who used cannabis primarily, primary non-cannabis users had an almost 15 times higher odds of meeting criteria for problematic drug use. Finally, we know from previous studies that drug-using individuals are more likely to access medical care through the ED and more likely to require hospitalization than their non-drug using counterparts. Our study found that drug-using ED patients who met criteria for problematic drug use tended to have ED triage levels associated with higher levels of severity or resource utilization when compared to drug-using ED patients who did not meet criteria for a drug problem.

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