Smoking Deaths Disproportionately Affect Poor and Black Americans

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Jane Henley MSPH

Epidemiologist
Division of Cancer Prevention and Control

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? 

Response: The Surgeon General concluded that cigarette smoking causes at least 12 types of cancer: oral cavity and pharynx, esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, pancreas, larynx, lung, bronchus and trachea, bladder, kidney and renal pelvis, cervix, and acute myeloid leukemia. Other tobacco products — cigars, chewing tobacco and snuff — and secondhand smoke are also linked to some of these cancers.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: We examined rates and trends of new cases and deaths from these cancers using U.S. registry and mortality data from 2004 to 2013. We broke the data down by characteristics that might display disparities — sex, age, race, ethnicity, state, county-level poverty and education, rural/urban continuum, and cancer site.

We found that about 660,000 people were diagnosed with and 343,000 people died each year from these cancers. Rates were higher among men, black men and women, and people in counties with low education or high poverty. Rates ranged by state from a low of 130 cases in Utah (126 in Puerto Rico) to a high of 248 cases in Kentucky. Incidence decreased 1.3 percent per year and mortality decreased faster, at about 1.6 percent per year; decreases were observed across most groups, but not at the same rate. Disparities persist among certain groups with higher rates or slower declines in rates.

We also looked at changes in cancer death rates from 1970 to 2014 and estimated that 1.3 million tobacco-related cancer deaths were averted since 1990, in part because of comprehensive cancer and tobacco control efforts to reduce tobacco use and other cancer risk factors, early detection of cancer, and improvements in cancer treatment.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Further reducing tobacco use can save thousands more people from getting and dying from cancer. Based on current estimates, about 36.5 million people smoke, and about half will die from a smoking related disease, unless programs are implemented to help them quit smoking. Comprehensive cancer and tobacco control programs actions can be done at the state and local level, such as:

• Promoting healthy, tobacco-free environments
• Increasing access to early detection and care for tobacco-related cancers
• Helping cancer survivors who use tobacco quit
• Better assisting communities disproportionately impacted by cancer

And of course, increasing the price of tobacco products and ongoing media campaigns, like Tips from Former Smokers, have a huge impact.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study?

Response: Ongoing surveillance efforts are needed to monitor changes in the number of new cases and deaths from tobacco-related cancers and whether there are differences among communities or groups of people. This work will provide insight into the impact of comprehensive cancer and tobacco control efforts and how to target these efforts in the areas where they’re needed most.

MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add?

Response: You can find more information at https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/tobacco/

MedicalResearch.com: Thank you for your contribution to the MedicalResearch.com community.

Citation:

Henley SJ, Thomas CC, Sharapova SR, et al. Vital Signs: Disparities in Tobacco-Related Cancer Incidence and Mortality — United States, 2004–2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65:1212–1218. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6544a3.

Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions.

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