Medical Tetrahydrocannabinol May Be Beneficial For Seizures and Chemotherapy Side Effects

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Wong

Dr. Wong

Shane Shucheng Wong, MD
Massachusetts General Hospital
Boston, Massachusetts 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Medical cannabis is now legal in 29 states and the District of Columbia, and in those areas with active programs, children and adolescents can legally access medical cannabis with certification from their doctor and consent from a parent. This means that doctors and families need to understand what we know and what we don’t yet know about medical cannabis in order to make the best decision for the health of the individual child. Two synthetic cannabinoids – compounds that act on specific receptors in the brain – have been approved for medical use in the U.S., both of which mimic a form of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), the compound responsible for the “high” of recreational cannabis use. Dronabinol (Marinol) is approved to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in both children and adults, while the pediatric use of nabilone (Cesamet) carries a caution. A third cannabinoid, cannabidiol, is currently in phase 3 trials for treatment of seizures.

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How Does Fruit Juice Affect Weight Gain in Children?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Brandon Auerbach, MD, MPH Acting Instructor Division of General Internal Medicine University of Washington

Dr. Auerbach

Brandon Auerbach, MD, MPH
Acting Instructor
Division of General Internal Medicine
University of Washington

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The question of whether 100% fruit juice causes poor health outcomes in children, such as weight gain, has been a subject of controversy. On one hand, 100% fruit juice contains vitamins and nutrients that many children lack, is often cheaper than whole fruit, and may help kids with limited access to healthy food meet their daily fruit requirements.

On the other hand, leading nutrition experts have expressed concern that fruit juice contains amounts of sugar equal to or greater than those of sugary drinks like regular soda. Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics warn that 100% juice can be a significant source of calories and contribute to obesity if consumed excessively.

Our main finding was that consuming 1 serving/day of 100% fruit juice was not associated with weight gain in children. Children ages 1 to 6 years gained a small amount of weight, but not enough to negatively impact health. Children ages 7 and older gained no weight. We did not study amounts of 100% fruit juice higher than 1 serving/day.

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Physically Active Children May Have Reduced Symptoms of Depression

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Lars Wichstrøm, PhD
NTNU Social Reseach, Trondheim, Norway; and
Department of Psychology
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Trondheim, Norway

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Previous research has linked physical activity, and particularly moderate to vigorous physical activity to less depression in adolescents and adults, but the potential prospective relationship between physical activity and depression in middle childhood has not yet been identified.

The main findings in this study support existing research by showing that physically active children have fewer symptoms of depression two years later compared to less physically active children, but there is no relationship between sedentary behavior and depressive symptoms in middle childhood.

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Parental Obesity Affects Early Childhood Development

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Edwina Yeung, Ph.D Investigator in the Division of Intramural Population Health Research Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Developm

Dr. Edwina Yeung

Edwina Yeung, Ph.D
Investigator, Division of Intramural Population Health Research
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: About 1 in 5 pregnant women in the United States is obese. Other studies have looked at mothers’ obesity in terms of children’s development, but no U.S. studies have looked at whether there might be a contribution from the father’s weight.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: One of the main findings of this study is that maternal obesity is associated with a delay in fine motor skill– the ability to control movement of small muscles, such as those in the fingers and hands. Paternal obesity is associated with a delay in personal-social skills including the way the child interacts with others. Having both a mother and a father with severe obesity (BMI≥35) was associated with a delay in problem solving ability.

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Early Planned Birth Linked To Developmental Delays

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jason Bentley, MBiostat Doctoral Fellow Menzies Centre for Health Policy University of Sydney

Jason Bentley

Jason Bentley, MBiostat
Doctoral Fellow
Menzies Centre for Health Policy
University of Sydney

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Planned birth (labor induction or pre-labor caesarean section) is a decision to intervene and so determines a gestational age at birth that would have otherwise been later if pregnancy had progressed through to spontaneous labor. Significant changes in clinical practice have seen an increase in planned births before 39-40 completed week’s gestation from an increased use of primary and repeat cesarean section and a greater use of labor induction. At a population level this has resulted in a decrease in modal gestational age with planned birth accounting for almost half of births before 39-40 weeks.

Clinical research has indicated that the threshold for planned birth and the gestational age for intervening has reduced. Numerous reasons have been given as justification for this including litigation, patient and provider perception of safety versus risk, reduced perinatal mortality, increased fetal monitoring, maternal age, obesity and convenience. There has also been the clinical perception that birth just before the optimal date carries little significant morbidity, with a focus on short-term risks to mother or baby only rather than longer-term outcomes. It is of paramount importance to ensure there are no unintended harms from such a significant shift in clinical practice.

This study investigated whether the timing of planned birth was associated with poorer developmental outcomes at school age.

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Family-Centered Advanced Care Planning for Adolescents With HIV

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Maureen E. Lyon PhD Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, Center for Translational Science/Children’s Research Institute, Children’s National The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences Washington, District of Columbia

Dr. Maureen E. Lyon

Maureen E. Lyon PhD
Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine,
Center for Translational Science/Children’s Research Institute, Children’s National
The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences
Washington, District of Columbia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Despite policy recommendations to include adolescents with chronic and life-limiting conditions in decision-making about their own end-of-life care, barriers continue in clinical practice, including fear of distressing vulnerable adolescents and providers’ beliefs that these conversations are potentially harmful.

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Widespread Rotavirus Vaccination Has Greatly Reduced Infections in Children

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Harvey Kaufman MD
Quest Diagnostics
Madison, New Jersey

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Quest Diagnostics is the leading provider of diagnostic information services, meaning we provide information and insights from our laboratory test services. This includes analyzing results of our laboratory test data in order to provide insights into health, wellness and disease to help providers, patients and health plans make better healthcare decisions.

A Quest Diagnostics Health Trends™ study published in the Pediatrics evaluated 276,949 de-identified test results from children ages infant through 9 years over an 11-year period to determine trends in laboratory rotavirus detection and the impact of the rotavirus vaccine on rotavirus detection. Vaccination is recommended for infants. In the study, two patients groups were evaluated for rotavirus vaccine – likely vaccinated (children who were infants after vaccine availability) and unlikely vaccinated (children who were infants prior to vaccine availability).

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Children in Some US Communities Still Have Very High Risk of Lead Poisoning

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Leland McClure, PhD Director in Medical Affairs for Quest Diagnostics Fellow of the American Board of Forensic Toxicology

Dr. Leland McClure

Leland McClure, PhD
Director in Medical Affairs for Quest Diagnostics
Fellow of the American Board of Forensic Toxicology

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Dr. McClure: Quest Diagnostics is the leading provider of diagnostic information services, providing clinical lab testing to about one in three American adults each year. As a result, we’ve amassed the largest private clinical laboratory database in the United States, based on 20 billion data points from lab testing. Quest uses this data (in de-identified, HIPAA compliant form) to perform research — called Quest Diagnostics Health Trends(TM) — to reveal insights on important health issues to inform clinical patient management and health policy. Other Health Trends reports have focused on diabetes, pregnancy and influenza, among others.

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Childhood Infections Linked to Later Life Obesity and Impaired Vascular Function

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Markus Juonala, MD, PhD Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville Victoria, Australia

Dr. Markus Juonala

Markus Juonala, MD, PhD
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville
Victoria, Australia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Juonala: This is an epidemiological follow-up study investigating whether childhood infections and socieconomic status are associated with cardiovasular risk factor and early chances in vasculature.

The main finding was that childhood infections were associated with obesity and impaired vascular function in adulthood among those individuals with low socioeconomic status.

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Swaddled Infants At Greater Risk of SIDS

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Anna Pease Senior Research Associate University of Bristol

Dr. Anna Pease

Dr Anna Pease
Senior Research Associate
University of Bristol

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Pease:  We tried to gather evidence of whether there was an association between swaddling for sleep and SIDS. This was a review, not a new original study, but it is the first time these data have been brought together to try to quantify any risk between swaddling and SIDS. We only found 4 studies and they were quite different making it difficult to pool the results. We did find, however, that the risk of SIDS when placing infants on their side or front for sleep increased when infants were swaddled.
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All Preterm Children At Risk of Emotional and Behavioral Problems Upon School Entry

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Jorijn Hornman, BSc (MD PhD student)
Departments of Health Sciences
University Medical Center Groningen
University of Groningen, Netherlands

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Preterm children are at increased risk of emotional and behavioral problems compared to full-term children. Prevalences vary with degree of prematurity and assessment age. Unknown was whether stability of these problems upon school entry differs between preterm and full-term children.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: We found that preterm children had higher rates than full-term children of persistent (7.2% versus 3.6%), emerging (4.3% versus 2.3%), and resolving (7.5% versus 3.6%) emotional and behavioral problems. Early preterm children –born at <32 weeks gestation- had the highest rates of persistent (8.2%) and emerging (5.2%) problems, and moderately preterm children –born at 32-35 weeks gestation- the highest rates of resolving problems (8.7%).

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No Causal Association Found Between Vaccines and Deaths in Young People

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Natalie L. McCarthy, MPH

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta, Georgia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Recently, deaths immediately following 4vHPV vaccination have garnered intense media attention.  Often, these media stories do not take into account the background rates of death in older children and young adults or disclose the potential for non-vaccine related causes of death.  The publicity surrounding deaths temporally associated with HPV and the paucity of studies examining deaths in adolescents following vaccination, was the basis for our evaluation of deaths following vaccines administered to individuals 9 through 26 years of age in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD). The VSD is a collaborative project between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and several integrated healthcare systems, which monitors the safety of vaccines in the U.S.

This study assessed the risk of death in the first 30 days following vaccination, described the causes of death, and included an evaluation of the potential association of vaccination and death among older children and young adults. The risk of death was not increased during the 30 days following vaccination, and no deaths were found to be causally associated with vaccination. The causes of death were consistent with what would be expected for this age group.

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Video Interaction Project Improved School Readiness In Impoverished Children

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Alan Mendelsohn, MD Associate professor, Departments of Pediatrics and Population Health

Dr. Alan Mendelsohn

Alan Mendelsohn, MD
Associate professor, Departments of Pediatrics and Population Health

Adriana Weisleder, PhD

Adriana Weisleder, PhD Research scientist, Department of Pediatrics NYU Langone Medical Center

Dr. Adriana Weislander

Research scientist,
Department of Pediatrics
NYU Langone Medical Center

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In the last decade, scientists have begun to understand the mechanisms by which poverty can cause changes in brain development that can lead to higher rates of behavior problems and lower educational achievement for disadvantaged children. This study shows that pediatric-based programs that promote reading aloud and play can help prevent these problems before they arise.

The Video Interaction Project (VIP) – the main program studied in the research – takes place at regular pediatric check-ups starting at birth. A trained parenting coach meets with the family at each visit and records the parent and child playing and reading together with materials provided by the program. The coach then reviews the video with the parent to identify and reinforce positive interactions and encourage strong parent-child relationships. The second intervention program, Building Blocks, is a lower-intensity option in which families receive parenting pamphlets and learning materials monthly by mail to facilitate reaching specific developmental goals.

The results of the three-year randomized-controlled trial showed notable benefits for children’s social and emotional development. Children of families who participated in the Video Interaction Project had better attention and play skills as toddlers and reduced hyperactivity and aggression at three years, compared to children in a control group. For the highest risk families, hyperactivity was reduced by more than half.  These findings are important because a child’s ability to control or regulate his or her behavior is a critical factor in their learning and success at school.

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Mixing Alcohol With Energy Drinks Linked To Binge Drinking In Adolescents

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Jennifer A. Emond, M.Sc., PhD
Research Instructor
Department of Epidemiology
Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College
Cancer Control Research Program
Lebanon, NH  03756

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Emond: Several studies have documented a link between consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks and an increased risk of negative outcomes while drinking, including binge drinking. It is known that mixing energy drinks with alcohol increases the risk for binge drinking–the high caffeine intake consumed when mixing energy drinks with alcohol may cause individuals to feel what is been called “wide-awake drunk,” and they may underestimate their level of intoxication. However, most studies to date have been conducted among undergraduate college students, and we wanted to know if those same associations were also observed among adolescents. In our study of 3,342 adolescents and young adults between the ages of 15-23, we also found a positive link between a history of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks and abusive alcohol use. Specifically, 22.3% of participants had ever consumed an energy drink mixed with alcohol (including 9.7% of 15-17 year olds), and such a history of mixed use was associated with a more than 4-fold increased likelihood of engaging in binge drinking. Importantly, that association was just as strong among 15-17 year olds as it was among the older participants. One critical component of our study was that we also looked at a validated outcome for alcohol use disorder (i.e., the participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT]), and participants with a history of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks were also 4.2 times more likely to meet that clinically defined criteria for alcohol use disorder as defined for adolescents. Again, those associations were observed for all participants, regardless of age.

Our study has limitations. It was cross-sectional, so we cannot prove that mixed use of alcohol and energy drinks causes abusive alcohol use behaviors. However, our study does support that mixed use of alcohol with energy drinks can identify adolescents at risk for alcohol abuse. Continue reading

Inhaled Nitric Oxide Still Used Off-Label In Preterm Infants

Marc Ellsworth, M.D Neonatology fellow at the Mayo Clinic Children’s CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Marc Ellsworth, M.D
Neonatology fellow at the
Mayo Clinic Children’s Center

MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Ellsworth: Inhaled Nitric Oxide (iNO) is a drug that has FDA approval for use in neonates >34 weeks gestational age. It is used for severe respiratory failure secondary to pulmonary hypertension. However, it has been previously shown that neonatologists have been using this medication off-label and especially in the most premature neonates. Over the last 10 years there have been multiple large studies trying to determine a clinical use (ie long term benefit) for iNO in preterm neonates (patients where there is no FDA approval for iNO use currently). Despite evidence of short term benefit (improved clinical stability) use of this drug has not been shown to improve long-term outcomes (death and chronic lung disease) in premature neonates. As a result of these findings the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) released a consensus guideline in 2011 indicated that available evidence did not support the routine use of iNO in preterm neonates and discouraged this use of this expensive therapy in preterm neonates. Similarly, in 2014 the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a similar statement with similar recommendations.

In 2014 a group of NICUs (collectively called the Neonatal Research Network) associated with the NICHD published a report showing that the use of Inhaled Nitric Oxide in preterm infants (ie off-label) decreased following the report in 2011.

However, I did not feel that these NICUs were representative of the United States alone as the Neonatal Research Network consists of only a handful of NICUs (~15) and is directly associated with the NICHD. As a result I wanted to get a better idea of Inhaled Nitric Oxide use in a population based study to see if the trends were similar (ie use of iNO has been decreasing) on a much larger, more representative scale. (Editorial comment: My anecdotal experience was that rates of iNO use off-label have not decreased in preterm neonates since the 2011 report).

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Unvaccinated Children Have Higher Risk Of Developing Shingles

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Su-Ying Wen, MD
Chief of Department of Dermatology,
Taipei City Hospital, Renai Branch, Taipei City, Taiwan
Department of Dermatology, Taipei City Hospital, Renai Branch, Taipei City, Taiwan

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Su-Ying Wen: Though herpes zoster is seen as a disease of the elderly, it can affect individuals in any age group including children. There are limited population-based data regarding pediatric herpes zoster.

We reported a higher incidence rate of pediatric herpes zoster than in previous studies. The higher incidence observed in this population-based study might be because it was measured in a cohort of children who were all infected with varicella rather than as other reports including individuals free of varicella infection in the denominator. Children younger than 2 years at the diagnosis of varicella had a significantly higher risk and shorter duration of developing herpes zoster. Continue reading

Study Finds Fewer Childhood Allergies In Homes Where Dishes Washed By Hand

Dr. Bill Hesselmar University of Gothenburg SwedenMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Bill Hesselmar

University of Gothenburg
Sweden

MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Hesselmar: The hygiene hypothesis is the background for this study, and the hypothesis states that children’s immune system need to be stimulated by bacteria and microbes to mature in a proper way prevent the children from developing immune mediated diseases such as allergies. There are increasing support for the hygiene hypothesis, with less allergies found in children from milieus with a rich microbial exposure such as: growing up on a farm or in a developing country, in children with many siblings, and after vaginal delivery as compared to caesarean section. Even though these findings are interesting from a theoretical point of view, they can’t be use in primary prevention since you can’t recommend anyone to live by a farm. We are investigating if there are harmless “microbial sources” in different daily life-situations that are good enough to stimulate children’s immune system. So far we have observed two such possible sources, the sharing of children’s pacifier (Pediatrics 2013) and hand dishwashing (this study). These are, however, only observational data – we have only found an association between hand dishwashing and a lower risk of allergy, we don’t know for sure that the lower risk of allergy was just because of the hand dishwashing. So far we regard it as an “interesting observation”, which need to be confirmed in new studies before any general conclusions could be made.

The main findings was a lower risk of allergy (Odds Ratio 0,57) in children from hand dishwashing families as compared to children from families who use machine dishwashing.        Continue reading

Less Than Half of Adolescents Report Getting Enough Sleep

Katherine M. Keyes, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Epidemiology Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health New York, NY 10032MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Katherine M. Keyes, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor of Epidemiology
Columbia University
Mailman School of Public Health
New York, NY 10032

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Keyes: The Monitoring the Future study is an annually conducted survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade high school students in the United States, covering a wide range of adolescent health behaviors. The same questions on adolescent sleep were queried every year since 1991, allowing us to examine historical trends in the amount of sleep adolescents report. We found that there have been substantial decreases in the proportion of adolescents who report 7 or more hours of sleep on a regular basis, across all age groups and across all demographic groups. In the most recent years, after age 15, less than half of adolescents report regularly getting 7 or more hours of sleep every night. Given the importance of sleep in both the short and the long term for adolescent health, these findings suggest substantial public health concern. Continue reading

For Most Birth Defects Survival Poorer Among Minorities

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Ying Wang, PhD, MPH

Data Management, Analysis & Research
Office of Primary Care and Health System Management
New York State Department of Health
Empire State Plaza  Albany, NY  12237

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Wang: The purpose of the study was to examine the survival of children with one or more of 21 major birth defects in the United States.  We used data from 12 population-based birth defects surveillance programs that participate in the National Birth Defects Prevention Network.  The study included nearly 100,000 infants born with birth defects between 1997 and 2007.

We found that children who were born with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (a severe congenital heart defect) had the lowest chance of survival across multiple ages (up to 28 days of life, 1 year, 2 years, and 8 years of life), compared to children with any other birth defects studied.  We also found that the chances of survival up to 1 year of life was greater than 90% for babies born with spina bifida, cleft palate, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, pyloric stenosis, gastroschisis, or Down syndrome. For most birth defects, survival was poorer among non-Hispanic black mothers and Hispanic mothers compared to non-Hispanic white mothers.
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Childhood Hospital Readmissions Linked to Chronic, Complex Conditions

Mark Brittan MD MPH Assistant Professor, Pediatric Hospital Medicine Children's Hospital Colorado University of Colorado School of MedicineMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Mark Brittan MD MPH
Assistant Professor, Pediatric Hospital Medicine
Children’s Hospital Colorado
University of Colorado School of Medicine

MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Brittan: As hospitals face reimbursement penalties for excess readmissions, clinicians are increasingly focused on improving care transitions in order to reduce readmissions. We are interested in learning about feasible ways to reduce pediatric readmissions so that we can improve the quality of care and experience of children and families who are being discharged from the hospital. The purpose of this study was to assess whether outpatient follow-up visits after hospital discharge can help to prevent readmissions. We chose to examine this question in a population of medically complex children enrolled in Medicaid. Children with medical complexity account for a growing proportion of pediatric hospitalizations and inpatient costs. These children are often dependent on technology (for example, ventilator machines, feeding tubes, and chronic indwelling catheters), and can have very complex care plans and medication regimens. Publically insured children are also vulnerable to increased hospital utilization and may not always have optimal or easy access to outpatient services. Showing a relationship between post-discharge outpatient visits and fewer readmissions would suggest that improvements in coordination of care or access to outpatient follow-up care may help to reduce readmissions in these children. To assess this relationship, we retrospectively analyzed 2006-2008 Colorado Medicaid claims data from which we were able to gather demographic, clinical, and visit information for all enrollees.

In our study, we excluded children who were readmitted within 3 days of hospital discharge so that we could evaluate children who had a chance to follow-up. The study cohort included 2415 medically complex children aged 6 months to 18 years who were hospitalized at least once. Of these children, 6.3% were readmitted on days 4 – 30 after hospital discharge. Almost 22% of the children had an outpatient follow-up visit within 3 days of discharge, and 40% had a visit on days 4-29 after discharge. In the final analysis, we found expected associations between readmission and previously described risk factors, including number of patient comorbidities and longer initial hospital length of stay. Examining the relationship between outpatient follow-up and readmission, we found that children with later outpatient follow-up visits (days 4-29) were significantly less likely to be readmitted than those who did not have an outpatient visit on days 4-29 after discharge.

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Pediatric Office Visits May Miss Autism Diagnosis

Terisa P. Gabrielsen, PhD, NCSP Assistant Professor, School Psychology Dept. of Counseling Psychology and Special Education Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Terisa P. Gabrielsen, PhD, NCSP

Assistant Professor, School Psychology
Dept. of Counseling Psychology and Special Education
Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Gabrielsen: One of the keys to improving outcomes for individuals with outcomes is to begin intervention as early as possible, which means we need to identify autism symptoms as early as possible, preferably during the early toddler years.  The current study grew out of a screening feasibility study to see what would happen if pediatricians followed the AAP guidelines for screening every child for autism at ages 18 and 24 months as part of their regular pediatric care appointments.  That study  was conducted in a large, independent community pediatrics practice.  We found that universal screening of 796 patients helped to identify 10 toddlers with autism who had not previously been referred for evaluations.  Physicians had previously identified 3 others with autism in the group, and toddlers with other delays, such as language delays, were also identified through the screening process.  We wondered what some possible causes were for the low rate of autism referrals and designed the current study to look for what information was available to a pediatrician during the timespan of a typical pediatric exam.  We found that even in toddlers with autism, a brief (10-minute) sample contains an overwhelming ratio of typical behaviors (averaging 89%) compared to infrequent atypical behaviors (11%)  that would indicate the presence of autism.  We had autism experts identifying the behaviors from videos of the evaluations of children in the previous study, so they had many luxuries that a clinician doesn’t have during an exam (i.e., ability to focus on one aspect of development, ability to rewind and re-view behaviors).  After watching the 10-minute video observations, we asked our experts, “Would you refer this child for an autism evaluation?”  We found that even the experts missed referring a child for an autism evaluation 39% of the time when the only data available were the brief observations.

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Cesarean Delivery May Increase Risk of Childhood Inflammatory Diseases

Professor of Pediatrics Hans Bisgaard, MD, DMSc Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Prof. Bisgaard

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Professor of Pediatrics Hans Bisgaard, MD, DMSc
Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood
Herlev and Gentofte Hospital,
University of Copenhagen, Denmark

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Prof. Bisgaard: The purpose of this study was to look for a shared risk factor for immunological diseases which make its debut in childhood. During the recent decades a parallel increase in prevalence of immune diseases such as asthma, allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 1 diabetes have been observed in westernized countries. The rate of cesarean delivery has increased in the same period and has previously been associated with the development of some of these diseases. This study takes advantage of the unique and valuable nationwide registry data in Denmark to establish a large population based cohort (2 million term children) with 35 years of follow up (in the period 1977-2012). We found cesarean delivery to be a common risk factor for a range of childhood immunological diseases: asthma, juvenile arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, connective tissue disorders, immune deficiencies and leukemia, but with no association to psoriasis, celiac disease, and diabetes type 1.

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Text Message Improves Pediatric Flu Vaccination Rates

Melissa Stockwell, MD, MPH, FAAP Florence Irving Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Population and Family Health Columbia University - College of Physicians & Surgeons and Mailman School of Public Health Medical Director, New York-Presbyterian Hospital Immunization Registry (EzVac) Co-Director, Primary Care Clinician Research Fellowship in Community Health New York, NY 10032MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Melissa Stockwell, MD, MPH, FAAP

Florence Irving Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Population and Family Health, Columbia University – College of Physicians & Surgeons and Mailman School of Public Health
Medical Director, New York-Presbyterian Hospital Immunization Registry (EzVac);
Co-Director, Primary Care Clinician Research Fellowship in Community Health

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response:  Influenza can be a very serious disease and is more than just a bad cold.  Some children who are 6 months through 8 years need two doses of the influenza vaccine in a season depending on if and when they received previous influenza vaccine doses. We know that only about half of these families who want to vaccinate their children against the flu and get the first dose, come back to get the second dose.
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Infant Feeding: Racial and Ethnic Differences Require Culturally-Tailored Counseling

Dr. Eliana M. Perrin, MD, MPH Associate Vice Chancellor for Research, and Director, Office of Research Development University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill  and Associate Professor Department of Pediatrics, Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7225MedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with:
Dr. Eliana M. Perrin, MD, MPH
Associate Vice Chancellor for Research, and Director, Office of Research Development
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill  and
Associate Professor
Department of Pediatrics, Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine
Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7225

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Perrin: The study included a large, diverse sample of 863 low-income parents of two-month-olds participating in Greenlight, an obesity prevention trial taking place at four medical centers: UNC, New York University, Vanderbilt University and the University of Miami.  Among all of the parents, behaviors that are thought to be related to later obesity were highly prevalent. Exclusive formula feeding was more than twice as common (45 percent) as exclusive breastfeeding (19 percent). Twelve percent had already introduced solid food, 43 percent put infants to bed with bottles, 23 percent propped bottles instead of holding the bottle by hand (which can result in overfeeding), 20 percent always fed when the infant cried, and 38 percent always tried to get their children to finish their milk.  In addition, 90 percent of the infants were exposed to television and 50 percent actively watched TV (meaning parents put their children in front of the television in order to watch).  There were differences in these behaviors by race and ethnicity, and study results show that culturally-tailored counseling should be offered to parents of different backgrounds who may feed and play with their children differently.

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