How Does Fruit Juice Affect Weight Gain in Children?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Brandon Auerbach, MD, MPH Acting Instructor Division of General Internal Medicine University of Washington

Dr. Auerbach

Brandon Auerbach, MD, MPH
Acting Instructor
Division of General Internal Medicine
University of Washington

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The question of whether 100% fruit juice causes poor health outcomes in children, such as weight gain, has been a subject of controversy. On one hand, 100% fruit juice contains vitamins and nutrients that many children lack, is often cheaper than whole fruit, and may help kids with limited access to healthy food meet their daily fruit requirements.

On the other hand, leading nutrition experts have expressed concern that fruit juice contains amounts of sugar equal to or greater than those of sugary drinks like regular soda. Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics warn that 100% juice can be a significant source of calories and contribute to obesity if consumed excessively.

Our main finding was that consuming 1 serving/day of 100% fruit juice was not associated with weight gain in children. Children ages 1 to 6 years gained a small amount of weight, but not enough to negatively impact health. Children ages 7 and older gained no weight. We did not study amounts of 100% fruit juice higher than 1 serving/day.

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Physically Active Children May Have Reduced Symptoms of Depression

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Lars Wichstrøm, PhD
NTNU Social Reseach, Trondheim, Norway; and
Department of Psychology
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Trondheim, Norway

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Previous research has linked physical activity, and particularly moderate to vigorous physical activity to less depression in adolescents and adults, but the potential prospective relationship between physical activity and depression in middle childhood has not yet been identified.

The main findings in this study support existing research by showing that physically active children have fewer symptoms of depression two years later compared to less physically active children, but there is no relationship between sedentary behavior and depressive symptoms in middle childhood.

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Parental Obesity Affects Early Childhood Development

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Edwina Yeung, Ph.D Investigator in the Division of Intramural Population Health Research Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Developm

Dr. Edwina Yeung

Edwina Yeung, Ph.D
Investigator, Division of Intramural Population Health Research
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: About 1 in 5 pregnant women in the United States is obese. Other studies have looked at mothers’ obesity in terms of children’s development, but no U.S. studies have looked at whether there might be a contribution from the father’s weight.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: One of the main findings of this study is that maternal obesity is associated with a delay in fine motor skill– the ability to control movement of small muscles, such as those in the fingers and hands. Paternal obesity is associated with a delay in personal-social skills including the way the child interacts with others. Having both a mother and a father with severe obesity (BMI≥35) was associated with a delay in problem solving ability.

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Early Planned Birth Linked To Developmental Delays

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jason Bentley, MBiostat Doctoral Fellow Menzies Centre for Health Policy University of Sydney

Jason Bentley

Jason Bentley, MBiostat
Doctoral Fellow
Menzies Centre for Health Policy
University of Sydney

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Planned birth (labor induction or pre-labor caesarean section) is a decision to intervene and so determines a gestational age at birth that would have otherwise been later if pregnancy had progressed through to spontaneous labor. Significant changes in clinical practice have seen an increase in planned births before 39-40 completed week’s gestation from an increased use of primary and repeat cesarean section and a greater use of labor induction. At a population level this has resulted in a decrease in modal gestational age with planned birth accounting for almost half of births before 39-40 weeks.

Clinical research has indicated that the threshold for planned birth and the gestational age for intervening has reduced. Numerous reasons have been given as justification for this including litigation, patient and provider perception of safety versus risk, reduced perinatal mortality, increased fetal monitoring, maternal age, obesity and convenience. There has also been the clinical perception that birth just before the optimal date carries little significant morbidity, with a focus on short-term risks to mother or baby only rather than longer-term outcomes. It is of paramount importance to ensure there are no unintended harms from such a significant shift in clinical practice.

This study investigated whether the timing of planned birth was associated with poorer developmental outcomes at school age.

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Family-Centered Advanced Care Planning for Adolescents With HIV

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Maureen E. Lyon PhD Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, Center for Translational Science/Children’s Research Institute, Children’s National The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences Washington, District of Columbia

Dr. Maureen E. Lyon

Maureen E. Lyon PhD
Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine,
Center for Translational Science/Children’s Research Institute, Children’s National
The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences
Washington, District of Columbia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Despite policy recommendations to include adolescents with chronic and life-limiting conditions in decision-making about their own end-of-life care, barriers continue in clinical practice, including fear of distressing vulnerable adolescents and providers’ beliefs that these conversations are potentially harmful.

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Widespread Rotavirus Vaccination Has Greatly Reduced Infections in Children

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Harvey Kaufman MD
Quest Diagnostics
Madison, New Jersey

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Quest Diagnostics is the leading provider of diagnostic information services, meaning we provide information and insights from our laboratory test services. This includes analyzing results of our laboratory test data in order to provide insights into health, wellness and disease to help providers, patients and health plans make better healthcare decisions.

A Quest Diagnostics Health Trends™ study published in the Pediatrics evaluated 276,949 de-identified test results from children ages infant through 9 years over an 11-year period to determine trends in laboratory rotavirus detection and the impact of the rotavirus vaccine on rotavirus detection. Vaccination is recommended for infants. In the study, two patients groups were evaluated for rotavirus vaccine – likely vaccinated (children who were infants after vaccine availability) and unlikely vaccinated (children who were infants prior to vaccine availability).

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Children in Some US Communities Still Have Very High Risk of Lead Poisoning

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Leland McClure, PhD Director in Medical Affairs for Quest Diagnostics Fellow of the American Board of Forensic Toxicology

Dr. Leland McClure

Leland McClure, PhD
Director in Medical Affairs for Quest Diagnostics
Fellow of the American Board of Forensic Toxicology

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Dr. McClure: Quest Diagnostics is the leading provider of diagnostic information services, providing clinical lab testing to about one in three American adults each year. As a result, we’ve amassed the largest private clinical laboratory database in the United States, based on 20 billion data points from lab testing. Quest uses this data (in de-identified, HIPAA compliant form) to perform research — called Quest Diagnostics Health Trends(TM) — to reveal insights on important health issues to inform clinical patient management and health policy. Other Health Trends reports have focused on diabetes, pregnancy and influenza, among others.

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Childhood Infections Linked to Later Life Obesity and Impaired Vascular Function

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Markus Juonala, MD, PhD Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville Victoria, Australia

Dr. Markus Juonala

Markus Juonala, MD, PhD
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville
Victoria, Australia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Juonala: This is an epidemiological follow-up study investigating whether childhood infections and socieconomic status are associated with cardiovasular risk factor and early chances in vasculature.

The main finding was that childhood infections were associated with obesity and impaired vascular function in adulthood among those individuals with low socioeconomic status.

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Swaddled Infants At Greater Risk of SIDS

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Anna Pease Senior Research Associate University of Bristol

Dr. Anna Pease

Dr Anna Pease
Senior Research Associate
University of Bristol

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Pease:  We tried to gather evidence of whether there was an association between swaddling for sleep and SIDS. This was a review, not a new original study, but it is the first time these data have been brought together to try to quantify any risk between swaddling and SIDS. We only found 4 studies and they were quite different making it difficult to pool the results. We did find, however, that the risk of SIDS when placing infants on their side or front for sleep increased when infants were swaddled.
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All Preterm Children At Risk of Emotional and Behavioral Problems Upon School Entry

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Jorijn Hornman, BSc (MD PhD student)
Departments of Health Sciences
University Medical Center Groningen
University of Groningen, Netherlands

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Preterm children are at increased risk of emotional and behavioral problems compared to full-term children. Prevalences vary with degree of prematurity and assessment age. Unknown was whether stability of these problems upon school entry differs between preterm and full-term children.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: We found that preterm children had higher rates than full-term children of persistent (7.2% versus 3.6%), emerging (4.3% versus 2.3%), and resolving (7.5% versus 3.6%) emotional and behavioral problems. Early preterm children –born at <32 weeks gestation- had the highest rates of persistent (8.2%) and emerging (5.2%) problems, and moderately preterm children –born at 32-35 weeks gestation- the highest rates of resolving problems (8.7%).

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