Bat Borne Nipah Virus Transmitted by Human Secretions

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Birgit Nikolay PhDMATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF INFECTIOUS DISEASESInstitut Pasteur

Dr. Nikolay

Birgit Nikolay PhD
MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Institut Pasteur 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Nipah virus was identified by the World Health Organization as an emerging infectious disease that may cause major epidemics if the pathogen evolves to become more transmissible, leading the organization to prioritize it for research to prevent future health emergencies. In the absence of efficient treatments or vaccines, the only way to control Nipah virus outbreaks is through targeted interventions that limit opportunities of spread. Designing such interventions is challenging in a context where transmission mechanisms remain poorly understood. The study provides important insights to better understand these mechanisms.

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Bats Carry Dangerous Viruses: Why Don’t They Get Sick?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
bats-mattaeMatae Ahn,MD-PhD candidate
Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) Programme
Duke-NUS Medical School

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Bats, as the only flying mammals, are ‘special’ in their ability to host many highprofile viruses without suffering from disease. Such viruses including Ebola virus, Nipah virus and SARS or MERS coronaviruses, are highly pathogenic and often lethal to humans or animals, but yet cause no or minimal disease in bats. In addition, they also live very long relative to their small body size, despite elevated metabolic rates. However, what makes them special is still unclear.

In this study, we discovered dampened NLRP3-mediated inflammation in bats in response to both ‘sterile’ stressors and infection with three different types of zoonotic RNA viruses. We identified multiple molecular mechanisms of altered bat NLRP3, a critical regulator of virus-induced and age-related inflammation, as the cause. Importantly, the reduced inflammation had no effect on the viral loads, which suggests enhanced immune tolerance to infection in bats. Bats’ natural ability to dampen stress-related and virusinduced inflammation may be a key mechanism underlying their long lifespans and unique viral reservoir status.  Continue reading