AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Heart Disease / 27.02.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rosangela Akemi Hoshi, Ph.D. Lemann Foundation Cardiovascular Research Postdoctoral Fellowship Center for Lipid Metabolomics Divisions of Preventive and Cardiovascular Medicine Brigham and Women's Hospital Boston, MA  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you describe the IgG N-glycan profile? Response: Glycans are sugar coatings of proteins, made of monosaccharide building blocks, that are involved in a variety of biological pathways.  Different sugar structures can dictate or modify the protein’s activity through specific interactions with cellular receptors. For example, proteins lacking glycans have a reduced level or a complete loss of function. Glycans are of such importance that the 2022 Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded for glycan-based science. In this study, we examined glycans attached to Immunoglobulins G (IgG) and their link with incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to their impact on IgG inflammatory properties. Since inflammation is not only a cause, but also an aggravating factor and a mediator of a worse prognosis in cardiometabolic disorders and CVD, we investigated whether different glycan structures may characterize an at-risk phenotype for CVD development. Determining glycan profiles involved in multiple conditions can serve prognostic and diagnostic purposes. Yet, unlike other types of macromolecules, glycans are still not as much explored, characterizing a promising but underappreciated class that should be further investigated. (more…)
Author Interviews, Nature, Technology, University of Pittsburgh / 26.02.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jishnu Das, Ph.D. Center for Systems Immunology Departments of Immunology and Computational & Systems Biology, Assistant Professor School of Medicine University of Pittsburgh MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study? How does this new AI model work?  How is it different from other models? Response: Modern multi-omic technologies generate an enormous amount of data across scales of organization, and with differing resolution. While recent machine learning methods have harnessed these to predict clinical/physiological outcomes, they are often black boxes that do not provide meaningful inference beyond prediction. Differences in data generation modalities, redundancy in the data, as well as large numbers of irrelevant features make inference of biological mechanisms from high-dimensional omic datasets challenging. To address these challenges, we developed a machine learning technique called SLIDE (Significant Latent Factor Interaction Discovery and Exploration). We reasoned that features that are directly measured by current technologies are constrained by strengths and weaknesses of current platforms. So, while some observed features may be excellent correlates of outcomes of interest, inferring biological mechanisms from these multi-omic datasets requires us to delve beyond the observable into the hidden states, i.e., latent factors. These hidden states encapsulate the true drivers of underlying biological processes and capture a complex multi-scale interplay between entities measured by these datasets. Our method moves beyond simple biomarkers/correlates (“the what”) to hidden states that actually explain clinical/physiological outcomes (“the how” and “the why”). (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, JAMA / 22.02.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Benjamin N. Breyer, MD, MAS Department of Urology Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics University of California, San Francisco Adrian M. Fernandez, MD Department of Urology University of California, San Francisco MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: This is a cross-sectional study utilizing data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) to identify injuries and hospitalizations related to electric bicycles accidents in the United States from 2017-2022.  The NEISS database collates injury data associated with products, including electric bicycles, and samples a nationally representative selection of emergency departments. National estimates of e-bicycle injuries and hospitalizations were derived using estimates accounting for NEISS complex survey design. (more…)
Aging, Author Interviews, Dermatology / 19.02.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Frank Wang MD William B. Taylor Endowed Professor of Clinical Dermatology Associate Professor, Dermatology Associate Chair for Education Assistant Program Director, Dermatology Residency Program University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? How is the cross-linked hyaluronic acid obtained? Where was it injected? Response: As the skin undergoes photoaging due to chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, it loses dermal collagen, which in turn leads to wrinkling, lines, and loss of support. The loss of collagen is, in large part, due to reduced function of the skin’s collagen-producing cells, dermal fibroblasts. We wanted to investigate whether it was possible to reverse the decreased function of fibroblasts in photodamaged skin, by introducing a space-filling material into the dermis, injected CL-HA dermal filler. The CL-HA filler we used was donated to us for research purposes. We performed injections of CL-HA into the mid-dermis (as is normally done when injected into the face) of severely photoaged forearm skin of human participants over the age of 60. We then examined skin samples at various time points, including 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-injection. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Orthopedics, Weight Research / 14.02.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Matthew Magruder, MD PGY3 Orthopaedic Residency Program Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation Maimonides Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions. Approximately 37.3 million people in the United States, accounting for 11.3% of the total population, have diabetes, and 100.1 million, or 41.9%, of all US citizens are obese. Furthermore, these numbers are only projected to increase in the coming decades. This is an issue for orthopaedic surgeons because diabetes and obesity have consistently been demonstrated to be risk factors for complications following total joint replacements, especially total hip replacements. Therefore, we are in desperate need of new and more effective tools in mitigating the risk of poor outcomes in our joint replacement patients. Semaglutide, and other GLP-1 agonists, are potentially a new tool that can be used to help decrease the risks following joint replacement surgery. Initially a medication to treat diabetes, semaglutide has recently been approved by the FDA to treat obesity as well, as randomized controlled trials have consistently demonstrated significant weight loss with minimal side effects. The purpose of our study was to see what effect the use of semaglutide had on total hip arthroplasty patient outcomes. (more…)
Author Interviews, Memory / 14.02.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Frederic Meunier PhD Professor and Academic Senior Group/Unit Leader/Supervisor Queensland Brain Institute and Isaac O Akefe DVM, PhD Clem Jones Centre for Ageing Dementia Research Queensland Brain Institute The University of Queensland St Lucia Academy for Medical Education, Medical School Brisbane QLD Australia     MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The brain is the body’s fattiest organ, with fatty compounds called lipids making up 60% of its weight. Fatty acids are the building blocks of a class of lipids called phospholipids. In our study, we first showed that levels of saturated fatty acids increase in the brain during neuronal communication and long-term memory formation, but we didn’t know what was causing these changes. (more…)
Author Interviews, Inflammation, Kidney Disease, Nature, Rheumatology / 08.02.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: A/Prof. Joshua Ooi, PhD Head, Regulatory T-cell Therapies Translational Research Facility Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: In 2017, we published a landmark Nature paper showing that people who are protected from autoimmune disease have specialized molecules on immune cells. These specific molecules are missing in patients that develop autoimmune disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension / 06.02.2024

People need to be able to control their blood pressure if they want to live a healthy life. In this guide, we will supply you with practical information and easy tips to maintain your blood pressure. As a matter of fact, you don’t need to be a medical professional, we will simplify it for you. Whether you are already embarking on your blood pressure quest or searching for a better way of achieving it, this guide is your partner. So, let's get started!

What is Blood Pressure? 

Basically, blood pressure is the force that your blood applies throughout your arteries. It guarantees that the blood and oxygen go to tissues and organs of the body without any issues. To control it efficiently, the preliminary step is in its understanding. Not to worry – you do not need to be a medical genius to understand this concept. After you become familiar with this, we shall look into how to manage the same in healthy ways.

The Impact of Your Lifestyle 

blood-pressure-Photo by CDC from UnsplashIt is your lifestyle that determines your blood pressure levels. Your nutritional intake and the level of activity have a significant part as well.  First, monitor what you eat. Try to have your daily intake equally distributed among fruits, vegetables, whole grain and lean proteins. Cutting back on salty food can also do great magic.  In terms of physical activity, even minor adjustments can yield significant results. Moreover, a consistent practice of physical activity, such as brisk walking or swimming, may lower your blood pressure over a period of time. Remember, you don’t have to run a marathon – being dedicated is what you should focus on doing. With these modifications, you are  moving proactively towards normalized blood pressure levels. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Cancer Research / 04.02.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Takemi Tanaka, Ph. D. Professor, Stephenson Cancer Center Department of Pathology, School of Medicine University of Oklahoma Health Science Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Our previous cohort study has shown that breast cancer progresses 60 days after diagnostic biopsy in early-stage ER+ breast cancer. Others have also reported increased breast cancer mortality due to surgery delay. These observations raised the question of how slow-growing ER+ breast cancer progresses so quickly in just 60 days following diagnosis, prompting us to hypothesize whether needle biopsy of breast tumors accelerates pro-metastatic changes. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Opiods / 03.02.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joshua D. Madera, MD Department of Medical Education Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine Scranton PA What is the background for this study? Response: The US population continues to be drastically impacted by the opioid epidemic, with opioid-related deaths significantly increased compared to European countries. While prescription opioid distribution has gradually declined since its peak in 2011 [1], the rate of opioid prescriptions remains increased compared to 2000. Furthermore, there is considerable interstate variability in opioid distribution across the US. Identifying patterns in this variability may guide public health efforts to reduce opioid-related harms. Therefore, the primary objective of this study [2] from Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine was to explore variations in production quotas and state-level distribution of ten prescription opioids between 2010 and 2019. (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research / 31.01.2024

The market for personal genetic-testing kits is experiencing significant growth, enabling individuals to explore their ancestry and health vulnerabilities for a few hundred dollars. Genetic testing, or DNA test, is a medical examination designed to detect mutations in genes, chromosomes, or proteins. These mutations serve as indicators for the presence or absence of genetic conditions. Moreover, DNA tests can reveal your susceptibility to particular health conditions or the likelihood of passing on a genetic disorder. Before you go to DNA testing in Gainesville, GA, know everything in detail. (more…)
Author Interviews, Respiratory, Social Issues, University of Michigan / 31.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Wilson N. Merrell
Ph.D. Student
Department of Psychology
University of MichiganWilson N. Merrell Ph.D. Student Department of Psychology University of Michigan MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: From the common cold to COVID-19, people get sick all the time. Because our social worlds don’t pause just because we are feeling ill, we often still need to navigate in-person events ranging from work and school to first dates and family dinners even while we’re feeling under the weather. In these kinds of social situations, do we always tell others when we’re feeling sick, or are there times when we may want to downplay our illness? After all, we tend to react negatively to, find less attractive, and steer clear of people who are sick with infectious illness. To the extent that we want to avoid these negative social outcomes while sick, it therefore makes sense that we may take steps to cover up our sickness in social situations. Given that this concealment could serve individual social goals (like allowing you to connect with others) at the cost of broader harms to public health (through the spread of infectious disease), we found this behavior both theoretically novel and practically timely. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Genetic Research, Hearing Loss, Lancet, Pediatrics / 29.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Zheng-Yi Chen, D.Phil. Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surger Harvard Medical School Boston, MA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  Would you briefly explain the process and indication Response: This clinical trial is to use gene therapy to treat a type of genetic hearing loss. Genetic hearing loss mainly affects children. One in 600 newborns can have genetic hearing loss. There is no drug treatment for any type of hearing loss except for cochlear implants, which have limitations. This study focuses on a type of genetic hearing loss, DFNB9, due to a missing gene called Otoferlin. Without Otoferlin,  children are born with complete hearing loss and without the capacity to speak. The goal of the trial is to study if gene therapy is safe and efficacious in treating children so they can regain hearing and the ability to speak. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hearing Loss, JAMA, Pediatrics, USPSTF / 28.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Li Li, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H Walter M. Seward Professor Chair of Family Medicine Director of population health University of Virginia School of Medicine Editor-in-chief of The BMJ Family Medicine Dr. Li joined the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in January 2021   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Speech and language delays and disorders can be challenging for children and their families and can lead to difficulties with reading and writing as children grow up. The Task Force looked at the evidence on screening for speech and language delays and, unfortunately, there is not enough evidence to tell us whether or not it is helpful to screen all children 5 years old and younger for speech and language delays and disorders. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Aging, Author Interviews, Cannabis, JAMA / 19.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Patricia Di Ciano, PhD Scientist, Institute for Mental Health Policy Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology University of Toronto Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute Collaborative Program in Neuroscience MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: It is now fairly well established that cannabis has a detrimental effect on driving. The most consistently reported effect of cannabis on driving is to increase ‘weaving’ on the road. We know that cannabis use is on the rise in people over 65 years of age. In fact, over the past few years cannabis use is increasing the most in this age group. Despite this, there are few studies of the effects of cannabis on people over 65; most studies have been conducted on younger adults. We know that there are important age-related changes in the way the body works that may alter the impact of cannabis on the body. Also, older adults may have more experience with cannabis and this can change the effects of cannabis. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, NEJM / 18.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: John Sapp MD FRCPC FHRSHeart Rhythm, Division of Cardiology QEII Health Sciences Centre Dalhousie University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Cardiac resynchronization is a robust therapy for heart failure in patients with ventricular dysfunction, left bundle branch block and left bundle branch block. It has been shown to improve heart failure status, symptoms, survival and reduce new onset ventricular arrhythmias for appropriate candidates. The RAFT study (NEJM 2010) enrolled patients with functional class II and III heart failure, wide QRS duration on ECG and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, and demonstrated a reduction in heart failure hospitalization and mortality during a mean follow-up of 44 months. The long-term outcomes are not known. (more…)
Author Interviews, Immunotherapy, Kidney Disease, NEJM / 15.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: VisterraMohit Mathur MD, FASN, FNKF, FRCP (Glasgow) Clinical fellow in Nephrology at UofT DM (Nephrology), MRCP.UK (SCE in Nephrology). Director, Clinical Development Visterra Waltham, MA 02451 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you briefly describe the condition of IgA Nephropathy? Response: IgA Nephropathy is the commonest primary glomerular disease in the world. It is an autoimmune kidney disease that typically presents with urinary abnormalities, elevated blood pressure and reduced kidney function. Until recently IgAN was considered to be a benign disease, but recent studies have indicated that a majority of patients will progress to End stage kidney disease in their lifetime. Steroids have been the mainstay of treatment in IgAN, but they come at a very high burden of side effects. Thus, there is an urgent requirement to develop novel and safe treatment options for patients with IgAN. APRIL is considered to be a key cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of IgAN, hence we decided to target APRIL as a therapeutic modality in IgAN. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mental Health Research, Pharmaceutical Companies / 14.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lauren Davis Lauren C. Davis, MBS Department of Medical Education Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine Scranton, PA 19409   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Financial conflicts of interest (COIs) resulting from ties between academia and industry have been under scrutiny for their potential to hinder the integrity of medical research. COIs can lead to implicit bias, compromise the research process, and erode public trust (1-6). The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), standardizes symptom criteria and codifies psychiatric disorders. This manual contributes to the approval of new drugs, extensions of patent exclusivity, and can influence payers and mental health professionals seeking third-party reimbursements. Given the implications of the DSM on public health, it is paramount that it is free of industry influence. Previous research has shown a high prevalence of industry ties among panel and task force members of the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5, despite the implementation of a disclosure policy for the DSM-5 (7,8). This study (9) determined the extent and type of COIs received by panel and task-force members of the DSM-5-TR (2022) (10). As the DSM-5-TR did not disclose COI, we used the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Open Payments (OP) database (11) to quantify them. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brain Injury, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Inflammation / 14.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Samir Mitragotri Ph.D. Hiller Professor of Bioengineering Hansjorg Wyss Professor of Biologically Inspired Engineering Area Chair, Bioengineering Core Faculty Member, Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering Harvard John A. Paulson School Of Engineering And Applied Sciences MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has a heavy burden on the world, affecting ~70 million people globally each year. Despite its prevalence, there are no clinically approved treatments beyond symptom management. There is an urgent need to develop effective therapies to alleviate the damage caused by TBI.   MedicalResearch.com:  What do macrophages typically do?  As part of the innate immune system, macrophages migrate to areas of injury to eat pathogens or debris and manage inflammation in response to injury or infection. However, in the majority of cases of TBI, there is no actual infection from a foreign pathogen, leading to excessive inflammation that spreads damage beyond the initial impact. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Nutrition, Sugar / 12.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Scott Kaplan PhD Assistant Professor of Economics United States Naval Academy Annapolis, MD 21402 Scott Kaplan PhD Assistant Professor of Economics United States Naval Academy Annapolis, MD 21402   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Sugar-sweetened beverages (colloquially known as SSBs), which include sodas, fruit drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks, and sweetened coffee drinks, are the leading source of added sugars in the American diet, according to the CDC. They are associated with serious negative health outcomes, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, heart disease, kidney disease, non-alcoholic liver disease, gum disease, tooth decay, and other conditions. As a result, several cities across the US have implemented sugar-sweetened beverage excise (per ounce) taxes, generally ranging from 1-2 cents per ounce. Most existing studies evaluating the impact of SSB taxes on SSB volume purchased and prices focus on a single city; this study is among the first to provide a composite estimate of the impact of local SSB taxes on purchases and prices of SSBs using retail scanner data from five cities across the US that implemented SSB taxes between January 1, 2017 and January 1, 2018. The five taxed cities we examine are Philadelphia, San Francisco, Oakland, Boulder, and Seattle.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, Kidney Disease, Medicare / 11.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kalli Koukounas, MPH Ph.D. Student, Health Services Research Brown University School of Public Health Providence, RI MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:  On Jan. 1st, 2021, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented the End-Stage Renal Disease Treatment Choices (ETC) Model, one of the largest randomized tests of pay-for-performance incentives ever conducted in the US. The goal of the model was to enhance the use of home dialysis and kidney transplant or waitlisting among kidney failure patients in traditional Medicare. The model randomly assigned approximately 30% of US dialysis facilities and nephrologists to receive financial incentives, ranging from bonuses of 4% to penalties of 5%, based on their patients’ use of home dialysis and kidney transplant/waitlisiting. The payment adjustments apply to all Medicare-based reimbursement for dialysis services. Prior research has demonstrated that dialysis facilities that disproportionately serve populations with high social risk have lower use of home dialysis and kidney transplant, raising concerns that these sites may fare poorly in the payment model. Using data released by CMS, we examined the first year of ETC model performance and financial penalties across dialysis facilities, stratified by the measured social risk of the facilities’ incident patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Neurological Disorders, NYU, Pediatrics / 09.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Laura Gould, MSc, MA, PT Research Scientist SUDC Registry and Research Collaborative Comprehensive Epilepsy Center Department of Neurology NYU Langone Grossman School of Medicine     MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Sudden Unexplained death in childhood (SUDC) is the unexplained death of a child on or after their 1st birthday that remains unexplained after a comprehensive death investigation. About 400 SUDC occur annually between the ages of 1-18, but more than half occur in toddlers, aged 1-4 years. Since most deaths are sleep related and unwitnessed with unremarkable autopsies, mechanisms of deaths have eluded our understanding. Febrile seizures are common in young children; ~ 3% of US children 6 months to 5 years will experience one. SUDC however has been associated with a 10-fold increase in febrile seizures; our study is the first to implicate them at time of death. The SUDC Registry and Research Collaborative (www.sudcrrc.org) at NYU Langone Health has enrolled over 300 cases of unexplained child death; seven with audiovisual recordings from the child’s bedroom during their last sleep period. More than 80% of the cases enrolled in the registry were children 1-4 years at the time of death. The seven cases with videos were aged 13-27 months with normal development and no pathogenic disease-causing variants by whole exome sequencing. (more…)
Author Interviews, Autism, JAMA, Pediatrics, Technology / 08.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Karen F. Heffler, MD Researcher, Autism Spectrum Disorder Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry Drexel University College of Medicine Philadelphia, PA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? children-watching-tv-pexels-photo-4740522 Response: Atypical sensory processing is common in neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting approximately 60% of children with ADHD and up to 90% of children with autism. Sensory symptoms are associated with hyperactivity, restricted/repetitive behavior, irritability, behavioral problems, and emotional dysregulation. Sensory-related meltdowns and symptoms can be very disruptive to family-life, interfere with family participation in community events and are associated with increased caregiver stress. Prior to this study there was little understanding of potential risk factors for atypical sensory processing. The researchers used data from the National Children’s Study to determine the association between early-life screen time and sensory processing outcomes among toddlers. (more…)
Abuse and Neglect, Author Interviews, Gender Differences, Genetic Research, Science, University of Michigan / 05.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jianzhi "George" ZhangMarshall W. Nirenberg Collegiate ProfessorDepartment of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of MichiganAnn Arbor, MI 48109-1085 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: A few percent of humans perform same-sex sexual behavior (SSB), a trait that is partially heritable. Because SSB leads to fewer children, the stable maintenance of SSB-associated alleles in populations has been a long-standing Darwinian paradox. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to resolve this paradox, but most of them lack clear empirical evidence. One version of the antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis posits that SSB-associated alleles are subject to heterosexual advantage. Specifically, it was found that SSB-associated alleles are associated with more sexual partners when in heterosexuals (individuals of exclusive opposite-sex sexual behavior), which could lead to more offspring, potentially compensating the reduced reproduction of SSB individuals. While the above mechanism has likely worked in premodern societies, our recent study (PNAS 2023) found that it is no longer working in the modern United Kingdom, because the widespread use of contraception has decoupled the number of offspring from the number of sexual partners in heterosexuals. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Kidney Disease, Salt-Sodium / 03.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lu Qi, MD, PhD, FAHA Interim Chair, Department of Epidemiolog HCA Regents Distinguished Chair and Professor Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine Director, Tulane University Obesity Research Center Director, Tulane Personalized Health Institute New Orleans, LA 70112 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Adding salt to foods is a behavior reflecting long-term preference to salty diets. High sodium intake is a major risk factor for chronic kidney disease. In our previous studies, we have found that adding salt to foods at the table is related to various disorders including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and mortality.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Gender Differences / 03.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christian Carbe, PhD Department of Medical Educatio Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine Scranton, PA 18509   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Transgender patients often experience pronounced healthcare disparities compared to their cisgender counterparts. Disparities in the treatment of transgender patients resulting from deficiencies in cultural competency perpetuate poor health outcomes, such as suicide, substance misuse, depression, harassment, and victimization. Individuals within the transgender community often face systemic barriers within the medical field, including a lack of comprehensive access to health insurance, discrimination from providers, and incompetent provider training in transgender-specific health needs. This report evaluated the changes in knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of the psychosocial and medical needs of the transgender community among first-year undergraduate medical students that attended the Northeastern Pennsylvania Trans Health Conference. Our broader goal is to develop and refine longitudinal interventions to improve skills and sensitivity of future physicians to provide compassionate and competent gender diverse and transgender healthcare. (more…)
Author Interviews / 23.12.2023

Being a family caretaker is a labor of affection and a big duty, regardless of whether you are looking for your parents, spouse, or any other senior loved one. You must have the information and resources needed to provide the finest treatment possible in order to carry out such a vital responsibility. An elderly adult's ability to maintain excellent health depends on much more than just prescription drugs and medical care. If you want those closest to you to grow old at ease, independently, and vivaciously, here are the top 5 tips to go along with it.
  1. Encourage periodic tests and check-ups for seniors
Maintaining your elderly parents' well-being and averting probable problems requires routine tests and examinations. Evaluations help identify common persistent illnesses including diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol as well as serious illnesses like breast or colorectal cancer. If the elderly person has a chronic condition, monitoring is crucial to preventing and minimizing the consequences of deteriorating symptoms and financial and medical challenges. As It might be difficult for our senior loved ones to remember to get periodic tests done, a compelling senior home care can help them promote active participation, provide transportation, and more. (more…)
Author Interviews / 20.12.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Amy Kennalley, MBS First Year Medical Student Department of Medical Education Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:   Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a major public health crisis in the United States. Despite the availability of effective treatments, including the medication-assisted treatment (MAT) with methadone, many individuals with OUD do not receive the care they need. Over the COVID-19 pandemic, there were several policy changes related to take-home doses of methadone, which may have impacted access to this lifesaving medication. The Drug Enforcement Administration's (DEA)'s Automated Reports and Consolidated Ordering System (ARCOS) is a database that tracks the distribution of controlled substances, including methadone distributed to opioid treatment programs (OTPs). This data can be used to assess trends in methadone distribution over time. Additionally, the Medicaid State Drug Utilization Data (SDUD) database provides comprehensive information on methadone prescribing to Medicaid patients. By analyzing data from both ARCOS and SDUD, we aimed to provide a comprehensive picture of methadone distribution for OUD treatment in the United States. These findings1 are important because drug overdose deaths, primarily involving opioids, increased substantially (49%) from 2019 (70,980) to 2021 (~106,000).2 (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Dental Research, JAMA, Respiratory / 18.12.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael Klompas MD, MPH, FIDSA, FSHEA Hospital Epidemiologist Brigham and Women’s Hospital Professor of Medicine and Population Medicine Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Can teeth be safely brush in patients who are comatose, intubated or have NG tubes? Response: Pneumonia is thought to occur when secretions from the mouth get into the lungs.  Since there are many microbes in the mouth, there’s a risk that secretions from the mouth that get into the lungs will lead to pneumonia.  Toothbrushing may lower this risk by decreasing the quantity of microbes in the mouth. It is indeed safe and appropriate to brush the teeth of someone who is comatose, intubated, or who has an NG tube.  Indeed, our study found that the benefits of toothbrushing were clearest for patients receiving mechanical ventilation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, NYU / 14.12.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Angélica Cifuentes Kottkamp, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine NYU Grossman School of Medicine Associate Program Director Infectious Diseases & Immunology Fellowship Associate Director for Research & Diversity NYU Langone Vaccine Center & VTEU Attending Physician H+H Bellevue Virology Clinic Division of Infectious Diseases & Immunology NYU Grossman School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? How does the JYNNEOS vaccine differ from the smallpox vaccine? Response: JYNNEOS vaccine is a smallpox vaccine that was repurposed for Mpox given the similarities between the two viruses (smallpox and mpox). The vaccine (JYNNEOS) had been studied in people without HIV therefore there was a gap in knowledge in how this vaccine, especially the small dose (intradermal dose), would work in patients with HIV. These patients resulted to be the most affected by the mpox outbreak suffering the worse outcomes of the disease with the highest death rates. (more…)