Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Environmental Risks, Melanoma / 19.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Farhad Islami, MD PhD Scientific Director, Surveillance Research American Cancer Society, Inc  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Many cases of cutaneous melanoma (melanoma) in the United States have been attributed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, but there was little information on the state-by-state burden of melanoma due to UV exposure. We estimated numbers, proportions and age-standardized incidence rates of malignant melanomas attributable to UV radiation in each US state by calculating the difference between observed melanomas during 2011–2015 and expected cases based on rates in a population with theoretically minimum UV exposure. As there is no population completely unexposed to UV radiation, the reference rates we used were historical melanoma incidence rates in Connecticut during 1942–1954, when the melanoma burden was low. For most adults, melanomas diagnosed in that period likely reflected UV exposure accumulated in the 1930s or earlier, when exposure was minimized by clothing style and limited recreational exposure. We estimated that 338,701 melanoma cases (91.0% of total, 372,335) in the United States during 2011–2015 were attributable to UV exposure; 94.3% of all these UV-attributable cases (or 319,412 cases) occurred in non-Hispanic whites. UV-attributable melanoma incidence rates and cases were higher among males than females, but attributable rates and cases in ages <45 years were higher among females. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Pharmaceutical Companies, Testosterone / 18.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Robert E. Dudley, Ph.D. Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President Clarus Therapeutics Dr. Dudley iscusses the recent announcement that Clarus Therapeutics, Inc. has launched  JATENZO® (testosterone undecanoate) capsules for the treatment of appropriate men with testosterone deficiency (hypogonadism): MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this announcement? Response: JATENZO® is the first and only oral softgel testosterone undecanoate and the first oral testosterone product approved by the U.S. FDA in more than 60 years. JATENZO is indicated for testosterone replacement therapy in adult males for conditions associated with a deficiency or absence of endogenous testosterone. The launch of JATENZO means that physicians and men living with testosterone deficiency due to genetic or structural abnormalities finally have a safe and effective oral testosterone replacement therapy. We are proud to commercially launch this unique oral formulation to healthcare providers and the appropriate patients who they treat. JATENZO is now available at pharmacies across the country. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Stroke / 18.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dorothy Sears Ph.D. Professor of Nutrition College of Health Solutions Arizona State University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Historically, heart disease among women has been understudied despite this being the number one cause of death in women. One in three women will die from heart disease.  Older women are the fasting growing population in the US and after menopause experience a dramatic increase in risk for cardiometabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. For these reasons, it is critical to understand the impact of modifiable behaviors on this risk.  Accumulating evidence shows that prolonged sitting is a highly prevalent behavior, associated with cardiometabolic and mortality risk, and greatest in older adults. Thus, overweight or obese postmenopausal women who partake in prolonged sitting time likely have highly compounded cardiometabolic risk. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Columbia, Heart Disease, JAMA / 17.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: George Hripcsak, MD, MS Vivian Beaumont Allen Professor of Biomedical Informatics Chair, Department of Biomedical Informatics Columbia University Director, Medical Informatics Services NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Diuretics are considered among the best drugs to treat hypertension, but there are no randomized studies to tell us which diuretic is best. Hydrochlorothiazide is the most frequently used diuretic for hypertension, but another drug, chlorthalidone, is gaining favor, with the most recent US hypertension guideline expressing a preference for it. Chlorthalidone is known to be longer acting and therefore perhaps more effective. Other (non-randomized) studies have been inconsistent, and some of them imply that chlorthalidone may be more effective. But other studies have shown that chlorthalidone may have more side effects. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Hearing Loss / 14.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Aravindakshan Parthasarathy, PhD Researcher, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Instructor in Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Harvard Medical School  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you briefly explain what is meant by Hidden Hearing Loss? Response: Our ears were not designed for the society our brains created. The World Health Organization estimates that 1 billion young adults are at risk for hearing loss due to prolonged exposure to excessive environmental noise. Anatomical analysis of human ears has shown that half of the nerve fibers connecting the ear to the brain have degenerated by the time we reach 40 years of age. Many of us experience the first symptoms of hearing loss as a difficulty following conversations in crowded places such as restaurants. Hidden hearing loss is an umbrella term used to describe such hearing difficulties experienced by people who show no abnormalities on any of the current tests of hearing used in the clinic. Approximately 10% of visitors to our hospital hearing clinic fit this profile, arriving with a primary complaint of poor hearing but being sent home with a clean bill of hearing health.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Pediatrics / 14.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Mohammadali Khan Mirzaei Institute of Virology Helmholtz Zentrum München Neuherberg, Germany  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Can you briefly explain what is meant by a bacteriophage? Response: Child stunting a severe growth impairment, globally affecting about 1 in 5 of children. The correlation between altered gut microbiota and stunting is already known. In contrast to what we know about the link between altered gut bacteria and stunting, the role of phages was not explored. Phages are the bacterial viruses that match the number of bacterial cells by a 1:1 ratio in the human gut. They are central to the biogeochemistry of most ecosystems by driving bacterial physiology, diversity, and abundance. Therefore, we expect a significant role for them in the human gut. (more…)
ASCO, Author Interviews, Bayer, Cancer Research / 13.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. David S. Hong MD Deputy Chair Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics Division of Cancer MedicineThe University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston, TX    MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?
  • A rare genomic alteration called a neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase (NTRK) gene fusion is a primary oncogenic driver that causes TRK fusion cancer, which has been found in a variety of common tumor types, including GI cancers such as colon, cholangiocarcinoma, pancreatic, and appendiceal cancers. In patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancer, including pancreatic cancer and colorectal cancer, NTRK gene fusions are estimated to have a frequency of ~0.3%.
  • Larotrectinib is an oral and highly selective TRK inhibitor used for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with solid tumors that have an NTRK gene fusion. Under the brand name Vitrakvi®, it is the first and only approved TRK inhibitor exclusively designed to treat tumors with an NTRK gene fusion with approval in the US in 2018 and other worldwide markets in 2019.
  • At ASCO GI 2020, we presented results of a new analysis of the efficacy and safety of larotrectinib specifically in patients with TRK fusion with gastrointestinal cancers, which is an often underdiagnosed patient group. The subset included 14 adult patients with GI tumor types with NTRK gene fusions, including colon, cholangiocarcinoma, pancreas, appendix and hepatic; of the eight patients with colon cancer, seven were microsite instability (MSI)-high.
  • In this subset of patients, the overall response rate (ORR) was 43%. Additionally, median overall survival was 33.4 months at 19 months of follow-up (range 2.8–36.5), median progression-free free survival (PFS) was 5.3 months (range 2.2-9.0) and median time to response was 1.8 months (range 1.7-2.1). In colon cancer patients, the ORR was 50% and the median PFS ranged from 1.5+ to 16.7+ months. 
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Author Interviews, Emergency Care, Opiods / 13.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Casey P. Balio, BA Department of Health Policy and Management Indiana University Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health Indianapolis, IN  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:   There are numerous studies that estimate the prevalence of various opioid-related outcomes including emergency department (ED) encounters, hospitalizations, and overdoses as well as risk factors for these. However, there is limited evidence about repeated opioid-related encounters. This study uses health information exchange (HIE) data for four hospital systems in the state of Indiana from 2012-2017 to identify individual, prescription, encounter, and community characteristics that may be associated with having repeat opioid-related encounters. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Dermatology, Technology / 13.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Jon Deeks PhD, CStat Institute of Applied Health Research Professor of Biostatistics College of Medical and Dental Sciences University of Birmingham, UK MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, and the incidence is increasing. In 2003, the World Health Organization estimated that between two and three million skin cancers occur globally each year, 80% of which are basal cell carcinoma, 16% cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, and 4% melanoma. The potential for melanoma to metastasise to other parts of the body means that it is responsible for up to 75% of skin cancer deaths. Five year survival can be as high as 91-95% for melanoma if it is identified early, which makes early detection and treatment key to improving survival. Early detection of melanoma is reliant on people with new or changing moles seeking early advice from medical professionals. Skin cancer smartphone applications (“apps”) provide a technological approach to assist people with suspicious lesions to decide whether they should seek further medical attention. Of increasing interest are smartphone apps that use inbuilt algorithms (or “artificial intelligence”) that catalogue and classify images of lesions into high or low risk for skin cancer (usually melanoma). Apps with inbuilt algorithms that make a medical claim are now classified as medical devices that require regulatory approval. These apps could be harmful if recommendations are erroneous, particularly if false reassurance leads to delays in people obtaining medical assessment.  CE (Conformit Europenne) marking has been applied to allow distribution of two algorithm based apps in Europe (SkinScan and SkinVision), one of which is also available in Australia and New Zealand. However, no apps currently have United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to allow their distribution in the US and Canada. We have completed a systematic review of studies that examine the accuracy of all apps that use inbuilt algorithms to identify skin cancer in users of smartphones.  We report on the scope, findings, and validity of the evidence. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Dermatology, Gender Differences, JAMA, Melanoma / 12.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Arash Mostaghimi, MD, MPA, MPH Director, Inpatient Dermatology , Brigham and Women's Hospital Instructor, Harvard Medical School Department of Dermatology Brigham and Women's Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Smaller studies have demonstrated increased risk for skin cancer among gay men.  Prior to this study this data had not been confirmed in a nationally representative database. (more…)
Author Interviews, Schizophrenia / 12.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Andrew Satlin, M.D. Chief Medical Officer Intra-Cellular Therapies MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this announcement? How does CAPLYTA (lumateperone) differ from other medications for schizophrenia? Response: Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness and complex disease that presents itself differently in various patients. Antipsychotics are associated with side effects such as weight gain and metabolic disturbances and movement disorders. Many patients often discontinue treatment as a result of these side effects. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved CAPLTA (lumateperone) for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults. We are excited to provide a new option for treating patients living with schizophrenia with an established efficacy and a favorable weight, metabolic and motor side effect profile. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Stem Cells / 12.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Andrew F. Stewart MD Director, Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism Institute Irene and Dr. Arthur M. Fishberg Professor of Medicine Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY 10029 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Both common forms of diabetes result from reductions in the numbers of healthy insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Having said that, people with both T1D and T2D almost always have residual beta cells. One way to approach this problem is by pancreas or islet transplant, or stem cell transplant approaches. These cannot easily or economically be scaled to the 30 million people in the US and the 420 million in the world with diabetes. Therefore, our approach is to develop drugs that can make the remaining beta cells regenerate and re-fill the beta cell tank. (more…)
Author Interviews, Neurology, Pain Research / 12.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Chun Yuen Fong Post-doc research fellow Center for Cognitive and Evolutionary Science University of Tokyo  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Migraine is one of the most prevalent neurological disorders worldwide. However, what exactly trigger a migraine episode is not entirely clear despite years of research. Moreover, migraine sufferers often report having excessive sensitivity to light and certain patterns during the headache-free period. Some researchers suggested that such abnormal sensations were associated with the enhanced cortical hyperexcitability of the migraine sufferers. In our study, we aimed to build on this theory by comparing the neurophysiological activities between regular migraine sufferers and control using electroencephalography (EEG). Using the same research method, we also compared the neural activities between healthy participants who reported having more abnormal visual sensations to those with less. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dental Research, Environmental Risks, Pediatrics / 12.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: R. Constance Wiener, DMD, PhD Associate Professor West Virginia University School of Dentistry MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are chemical groups that have had a wide variety of uses due to their ability to their ability to repel water and stains. They might be found in food packaging, water-repellant clothing and carpeting, paints, fire-fighting foam, and water, for example. Although many are no longer manufactured in the United States, PFAS persist in the environment as they do not readily break down. Adverse health effects have been speculated especially for low birthweight babies, immunological effects, certain cancers and thyroid hormone disruption.1 With these considerations, we hypothesized that there may be an association of PFAS with tooth development and subsequent dental caries (cavities). (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Psychological Science / 11.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Geoffrey Tofler MBBS MB FRACP FACC Professor of Preventative Cardiology, University of Sydney Senior Staff Cardiologist, Royal North Shore Hospital New South Wales, Australia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Bereavement due to the death of a loved one is one of the most stressful experiences to which almost every human is exposed. Grief is an unavoidable and natural reaction to the loss.  While in most people the grief reaction gradually diminishes, an increased risk of heart attack or has been described in the early weeks and months following bereavement.   Although this increase in heart attacks is well recognised, until now there have not been any previous studies to provide guidance on how to safely reduce the risk. (more…)
ASCO, Author Interviews, Bayer, Cancer Research / 11.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: bayer-pharmaceuticalsDr. Kirhan Ozgurdal Global Medical Affairs Physician Oncology, Bayer MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?
  • Regorafenib is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor that potently blocks multiple protein kinases involved in tumor angiogenesis, oncogenesis, metastasis and tumor immunity. It is approved for the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have previously been treated with sorafenib. The safety and effectiveness of regorafenib is being evaluated in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (uHCC),a liver tumor not eligible for curative treatment approaches such as surgery, given the extent of disease.
  • Following the Phase 3 RESORCE trial, which showed that regorafenib significantly improves overall survival versus placebo in patients with uHCC who progressed on prior sorafenib therapy, we conducted an interim analysis (the first 500 of 1000 patients) of the global REFINE observational trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of regorafenib in uHCC in the real-world setting.
  • The REFINE study shows a more varied patient population than the Phase 3 RESORCE trial, including a higher proportion of patients with ECOG performance status ≥1, and a higher proportion with Child–Pugh B liver function.
  • The incidence of regorafenib-related grade ≥3 treatment-emergent adverse events were lower than that reported in the RESORCE trial, possibly indicating improved adverse event management with the use of regorafenib in clinical practice.
  • The median overall survival was longer than that reported in RESORCE, but the proportion of censored patients was high in this interim analysis; the median progression free survival was similar to that reported in RESORCE.
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Aging, Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, University of Michigan / 10.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Renuka Tipirneni, MD, MSc, FACP Assistant Professor Holder of the Grace H. Elta MD Department of Internal Medicine Early Career Endowment Award 2019-2024 University of Michigan Department of Internal Medicine Divisions of General Medicine and Hospital Medicine and Institute for Healthcare Policy & Innovation Ann Arbor, MI 48109 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: While U.S. adults age 50-64 previously had more limited options for health insurance before Medicare at age 65, the Affordable Care Act expanded the number of options, including Marketplace plans (e.g., through HealthCare.gov) and Medicaid. This expanded set of options may complicate decisions about health insurance near retirement. In addition, several policy challenges to the Affordable Care Act may add uncertainty to the decision-making process. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dental Research, Opiods / 10.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Katie J. Suda, PharmD, MS Study Principal Investigator Professor of Medicine University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:   Dentists are one of the top prescribers of opioids; prescribing 1 in 10 opioids in the United States. Dentists also prescribe a lot of opioids to adolescents and young adults which are a high risk population for substance misuse. This is especially true because studies have shown that non-opioid pain medications are similar or more effective for the treatment of oral pain. (more…)
Asthma, Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, NEJM, Pediatrics, Vitamin D / 10.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Augusto A. Litonjua, M.D., M.P.H. Professor - Department of Pediatrics, Pulmonology Interim Chief - Department of Medicine , Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care Professor - Department of Medicine , Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care University of Rochester MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is prevalent worldwide. Prior observational studies have shown that low vitamin D levels have been associated with the development of asthma. Animal studies have reported that antenatal vitamin D is important for lung development in utero. Thus, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women to see if we could prevent the development of asthma and wheezing illnesses in young children. The initial report of the trial results showed that children born to mothers in the vitamin D supplementation arm had lower risks for developing either asthma or recurrent wheezing episodes over the first 3 years, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.051)(Litonjua et al. JAMA 2016). (more…)
Author Interviews / 10.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alexander S. Busch, MD, PhD Department of Growth and Reproduction Rigshospitalet | Copenhagen Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Previous research has focussed a lot on menarche, i.e. the first menstrual bleeding, despite the fact that this represents a late sign of puberty. The secular trend of age at menarche is thought to have slowed down or even stopped. However, we as clinicians observed a rise in referrals with "precocious puberty" (as defined by thelarche, i.e. breast development, before the age of 8 years) over the past decades. Thus, we suspected that age at thelarche is still declining. Given the fact that there has not be any systematic review on secular trends of clinically important puberty sign, we performed this study.  (more…)
Author Interviews, C. difficile, Health Care Systems, Hospital Acquired, JAMA / 06.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Valerie Vaughn MD, MSc Assistant Professor of Medicine; Hospital Medicine VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System and University of Michigan Medical School @ValerieVaughnMD MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Health care-associated infection are a major patient safety problem. Fortunately, they can often be prevented through key practices. The Department of Veterans Affairs has been an early adopters of these key strategies through a combination of policies, directives, and initiatives which have aimed to reduce health care-associated infection. No one had previously looked across infections to see whether key infection prevention practices are being used in the VA. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Menopause, Race/Ethnic Diversity, University of Pittsburgh / 05.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Samar R. El Khoudary, M.D., M.P.H. Associate Professor of Epidemiology and Saad Samargandy, M.P.H. Ph.D. Student University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Research findings suggest that women experience adverse changes in multiple clinical measures of their cardiovascular health during the menopause transition period. We were interested in evaluating the timing of critical changes in arterial stiffness and investigating potential racial differences in how arterial stiffness progresses during the menopause transition. Arterial stiffness refers to the elasticity of arteries and it measures the rate at which blood flows through arteries. Stiffer arteries can lead to dysfunction in how well the heart pumps and moves blood, and damage to the heart, kidneys and other organs. We used a subset of data from SWAN Heart, an ancillary study that enrolled women from Pittsburgh and Chicago between 2001 and 2003 and included two examinations of early markers of cardiovascular health over time. Ultimately, 339 women were included in this study, 36% black and the rest white. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, CT Scanning, Lung Cancer / 04.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Carlijn M. van der Aalst, Ph.D. MPH Department of Public Health Erasmus MC MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among both men and women. About 70% of patients with lung cancer are diagnosed with advanced disease, which results in only 15% surviving five years. About 70% of patients with lung cancer are diagnosed with advanced disease, a stage in which cure is problematic. This results in only 15% surviving five years. Although quit smoking is most effective in preventing lung cancer, about half of all lung cancers are currently diagnosed in former smokers, who remain at high risk for decades after quitting smoking. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST; U.S.) reported a 20% lung cancer-related mortality reduction and a 6.7% reduction in all-cause mortality for CT screening compared with chest radiography screening for lung cancer in 53,454 enrolled subjects at high risk for lung cancer.1 As a consequence, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) requested an independent review and a modelling study. Based on these NLST data, an efficient strategy with a reasonable harm-benefit ratio could be established, resulting in the recommendation to annually screen persons aged 55-80 with ≥30 pack-years of smoking history, who currently smoke or quit smoking <15 years ago. However, data of only one trial provides limited evidence and more trial data are needed. NELSON is the second largest lung cancer screening trial that is adequately designed to provide the evidence that is needed to conclude whether CT screening can reduce lung cancer mortality. (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 04.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Andrea M. Tilstra Doctoral Candidate, Department of Sociology Population Program, Institute of Behavioral Science University of Colorado Boulder MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Average U.S. birth weight declined across the 1990s and 2000s, and this has puzzled most researchers. We investigate this and find that the increases in cesarean deliveries and induction of labor between 1990 and 2013 resulted in a shift in the gestational age distribution of U.S. births. We find that births are less likely to occur at gestational weeks 40+ and much more likely to occur between weeks 37-39. Additionally, results from our simulations show that if U.S. rates of cesarean deliveries and labor induction had not increased over time, then average birth weight would have increased.   (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Circadian Rhythm / 03.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Josef Fritz, Ph.D. PostDoctoral Fellow Circadian and Sleep Epidemiology Laboratory Department of Integrative Physiology University of Colorado Boulder MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Daylight Saving Time (DST), the practice of setting clocks forward by an hour during the summer months and an hour back again during the winter months, is currently given a lot of attention, also because of world-wide discussions whether DST should be abolished, extended, or kept year-around. Since its introduction, mainly with the intention to reduce energy consumption, the spring DST transition has been associated with various adverse outcomes within the first few days after the transition, including an increased risk of myocardial infarctions, strokes, and workplace accidents. When we reviewed the evidence linking DST to traffic accident risk, however, results were not that clear-cut. We thus decided to take a closer look, based on one of the most extensive datasets so far, with 22 years of fatal traffic accident recordings across the US. We also aimed at decomposing the potential overall effect of Daylight Saving Time on traffic accident risk, given that both environmental illumination levels, and geographical factors such as position in time zone, may play a role in modulating fatal traffic accident risk associated with DST, but explicit and concurrent examination of these factors has so far been lacking. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Colon Cancer, Gastrointestinal Disease, JAMA / 03.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jordan J. Karlitz, MD Staff Gastroenterologist Southeast Louisiana Veterans Health Care System Associate Professor, Division of Gastroenterology Director, GI Hereditary Cancer and Genetics Program, Tulane University School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Currently, there is debate over whether average-risk colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 45 or 50. Given this controversy, we sought to conduct a colorectal cancer incidence rate analysis by yearly-age, as opposed to age range blocks (i.e. 30-39, 40-49 etc.) as has been done in the past. We believed that this type of "high definition" analysis would allow a better understanding of incidence rates of those approaching or at screening in age.  We were particularly interested in the transition from age 49 to 50 as this is when average risk screening has historically been recommended.  (more…)
Author Interviews, ENT, JAMA, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Pediatrics / 03.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Jonathan R. Skirko, MD , MHPA, MPH Assistant professor Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology University of Utah Health  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Obstructive sleep apnea is a common problem that that impacts the lives of many people. Understanding treatment effectiveness is important and Health-State Utility is a standardized way of assessing quality of life.  Before this study, we didn't have a way of measuring quality of life in this population in this important way. You have to accurately measure something before you can improve it. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Sugar / 01.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marta Yanina Pepino, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition Division of Nutritional Sciences College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences Administration University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, IL 61801 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: There is a general belief that substituting sugars with low calorie sweeteners contributes to diet healthfulness. However, accumulating data suggest that consuming a diet high in low calorie sweeteners , mainly in diet sodas, is associated with the same health issues than consuming a diet high in added sugars, including an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.  The potential mechanism underlying such association are varied and still unclear. Our findings contribute to the growing evidence  that despite having very little or no calories, sweeteners can affect our metabolism (i.e.  the way we handle blood sugar) and that their effects may be different in people with obesity from those of normal weight. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Science / 31.01.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Steven R. Houser, PhD, FAHA Senior Associate Dean, Research Vera J. Goodfriend Endowed Chair, Cardiovascular Research Chair and Professor, Physiology Director, Cardiovascular Research Center (CVRC) Professor, Medicine Deborah M EatonDeborah M Eaton  Doctorate Student / Research Assistant Temple University   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) accounts for approximately 50% of cases of HF and to date clinical trials with HFpEF patients have failed to produce positive outcomes. Part of this is likely due to the lack of HFpEF animal models for preclinical testing. Our lab addressed this gap in knowledge by developing an animal model that mimics critical features of the human HFpEF phenotype. We performed an in-depth cardiopulmonary characterization highlighting that the model has characteristics of human disease. We then tested the effects of a pan-HDAC inhibitor, vorinostat/SAHA, in collaboration with Dr. Timothy McKinsey, who is an expert in HDAC inhibitors and recently published work1 that laid the foundation for this study.  (more…)