Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Global Health, Infections, Lancet, Pediatrics / 21.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_51012" align="alignleft" width="150"]Tori Cowger, MPH Ph.D Student | Population Health Sciences Department of Epidemiology Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Tori Cowger[/caption] Tori Cowger, MPH Ph.D Student | Population Health Sciences Department of Epidemiology Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Globally, approximately one million cases of tuberculosis disease (TB) and 233,000 TB-related deaths occurred among children aged younger than 15 years during 2018. TB in children and adolescents is clinically and epidemiologically heterogeneous, making diagnosis, care, and prevention challenging. Understanding this heterogeneity can inform TB care and prevention efforts, and efforts to eliminate disparities in TB incidence and mortality in these groups. In this study, we describe the epidemiology of TB among children and adolescents in the United States, and report TB incidence rates for US territories and freely associated states and by parental country of birth, which have not been previously described.
Allergies, Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Pharmaceutical Companies / 21.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_51005" align="alignleft" width="159"]Todd Green MD Vice President of Medical Affairs North America DBV Technologies Dr. Todd Green[/caption] Todd Green MD Vice President of Medical Affairs North America DBV Technologies https://www.dbv-technologies.com   Dr. Green discusses the recent announcement that DBV Technologies is submitting a BLA for Viaskin Peanut to the FDA.   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this announcement? How common is peanut allergy in children?  DBV Technologies is a global clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company whose mission is to improve the lives of patients with food allergies and other immunological diseases through our investigational epicutaneous immunotherapy technology platform. For more than 15 years, we’ve been striving to deliver transformative treatments for patients suffering with the burden and life-threatening risk of food allergies. On August 7, 2019 DBV announced the submission of its Biologics License Application (BLA) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for Viaskin® Peanut for the treatment of peanut-allergic children ages 4 to 11 years. This submission addressed the additional data needed on manufacturing procedures and quality controls which were communicated by the FDA in December 2018, when DBV voluntarily withdrew its prior BLA submission for Viaskin Peanut. Peanut allergy is one of the most common food allergies and can cause severe, potentially fatal allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis. In the United States, nearly one million children suffer from a peanut allergy.[1] Fear of life-threatening reactions triggered by accidental peanut exposure during everyday activities may lead to significantly increased anxiety and decreased quality of life for patients and their families.[2,3,4] Currently, avoidance and readiness to manage accidental exposure reactions remain the standard of care. At DBV, we are committed to finding treatments that will help address the urgent unmet medical need of those suffering from food allergies, including peanut allergy, and our mission is to improve the lives of those patients and their families.
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Vitamin D / 21.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_51001" align="alignleft" width="135"]Eduardo Villamor, M.D., M.P.H., Dr.P.H. Professor, Epidemiology School of Public Health University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan Dr. Villamor[/caption] Eduardo Villamor, M.D., M.P.H., Dr.P.H. Professor, Epidemiology School of Public Health University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Vitamin D deficiency has been related to adverse mental health outcomes, including depression and schizophrenia, in adults.  Some studies have suggested a potential role of vitamin D status prenatally on other neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood.  However, few studies had extended into adolescence which is the life period when certain mental health issues that predict disease later in life, namely behavioral problems, first appear. 
Author Interviews, Global Health, Pediatrics, PLoS, Social Issues / 21.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_51027" align="alignleft" width="149"]Jayanta Kumar Bora Guest Researcher IIASA|Laxenburg, Austria & Ph.D. Scholar Indian Institute of Dalit Studies New Delhi, India  Jayanta Bora[/caption] Jayanta Kumar Bora Guest Researcher IIASA|Laxenburg, Austria & Ph.D. Scholar Indian Institute of Dalit Studies New Delhi, India  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Although under-five mortality rate (U5MR) is declining in India, it is still high in a few selected states and among the scheduled caste (SC) and scheduled tribe (ST) population of the country. We examined the disparities in under-five mortality in high focus states of India. The high-focus states in India were designated as such by the Indian government because of their persistently high child mortality and relatively poor socio-economic and health indicators. This study re-examines the association between castes and under-five mortality in high focus Indian states using the most recent Indian Demographic Health Survey data conducted in 2015-16. The study also aims to quantify the relative contribution of socioeconomic determinants to under-five deaths by explaining the gap between socially disadvantaged (SC and ST) and non-disadvantaged castes in high focus states. Identifying disadvantaged groups in high focus states can help to reduce the absolute and relative burden of under-five deaths in India.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, NIH, Pediatrics / 19.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50940" align="alignleft" width="150"]Kenneth S. Korach, Ph.D. Senior Principal Investigator Chief, Receptor Biology Section Reproductive and Developmental Biology Laboratory NIEHS/NIH Dr. Kenneth Korach[/caption] Kenneth S. Korach, Ph.D. Senior Principal Investigator Chief, Receptor Biology Section Reproductive and Developmental Biology Laboratory NIEHS/NIH MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Lavender oil is among the most popular essential oils used today. Our society deems essential oils and other homeopathic remedies as safe alternatives for medical treatment, personal hygiene commodities, aromatherapy, and cleaning products; however, there are many natural products that have effects on the human body, similar to potent synthetic drugs.
Author Interviews, Dental Research, JAMA, Mental Health Research, Mineral Metabolism, Pediatrics / 19.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50911" align="alignleft" width="200"]Rivka Green, MA Doctoral Candidate Clinical Developmental Neuropsychology York University Rivka Green[/caption] Rivka Green, MA Doctoral Candidate Clinical Developmental Neuropsychology York University  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We conducted a study on 512 mother-child pairs from 6 major cities across Canada, about half of whom lived in a region that receives fluoridated water. We found that prenatal fluoride exposure was associated with lower IQ scores in 3-4 year old children.
Author Interviews, Dermatology, Microbiome, Pediatrics / 14.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50847" align="alignleft" width="150"]Zhe-Xue Quan Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering Institute of Biodiversity Science School of Life Sciences, Fudan University Shanghai, China Dr. Zhe-Xue Quan[/caption] Zhe-Xue Quan, PhD Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering Institute of Biodiversity Science School of Life Sciences, Fudan University Shanghai, China  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: The maturation of skin microbial communities during childhood is important for the skin health of children and development of the immune system into adulthood. This necessitates a better characterization of the environmental and genetic factors influencing these microbiome dynamics. We investigated the skin microbiota of children (158 subjects between 1 and 10 years old) and their mothers using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Sample location and age were the primary factors determining a child’s skin bacterial composition. Relative abundances of Streptococcus and Granulicatella were negatively correlated with age, and the alpha diversity at all body sites examined increased during the first 10 years of life, especially on the face. The facial bacterial composition of 10-year-old children was strongly associated with delivery mode at birth. 
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA, Pediatrics / 14.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50819" align="alignleft" width="177"]Dr Juan Pablo Kaski MD(Res) FRCP FESC Director of the GOSH Centre for Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases Great Ormond Street Hospital, University College London Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London, UK Dr. Kaski[/caption] Dr Juan Pablo Kaski MD(Res) FRCP FESC Director of the GOSH Centre for Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases Great Ormond Street Hospital, University College London Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London, UK  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you briefly explain what is meant by Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?  Response: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic condition characterised by abnormal thickening of the muscle of the heart and can affect people of all ages. It is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and, in the last few years, a clinical risk tool that estimates the 5-year risk of SCD in adults with HCM has been developed. However, there are no similar risk models in children, where risk stratification has traditionally been based on clinical risk factors extrapolated from the adult population. We have recently shown that this approach does not discriminate risk well in children, and so the aim of this study was to develop a new risk tool to provide an individualised risk of SCD in children with HCM. 
Author Interviews, Opiods, Pediatrics, Surgical Research / 09.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50574" align="alignleft" width="140"]Kao-Ping Chua, M.D., Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases Susan B. Meister Child Health Evaluation and Research Center University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan Dr. Chua[/caption] Kao-Ping Chua, M.D., Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases Susan B. Meister Child Health Evaluation and Research Center University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgeries performed in children. It is also one of the most common reasons children are prescribed opioids, even though randomized trials suggest that non-opioids like ibuprofen are equally effective for pain control. We were interested in understanding whether it is possible to safely reduce opioid exposure after tonsillectomy in children without increasing the risk of complications such as emergency department visits for uncontrolled throat pain, which could lead to dehydration.
Author Interviews, JAMA, Orthopedics, Pediatrics / 09.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50635" align="alignleft" width="200"]Dr Ahmed Elhakeem PhD Senior Research Associate in Epidemiology University of Bristol Dr. Elhakeem[/caption] Dr Ahmed Elhakeem PhD Senior Research Associate in Epidemiology University of Bristol MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We know that the denser (stronger) your bones are, the less likely they are to break (fracture). We also have reliable evidence that later maturing adolescents tend on average to have lower bone density than their earlier maturing peers. We wanted to find out how the timing of puberty might influence the development of bone density throughout adolescence and into early adult life. We did this by following up a large group of young people born in the early 90s around Bristol, UK that took part in a unique study (the Children of the 90s study) that included repeated density scans over a 15-year period from age ten to 25. We found that those later maturing adolescents that got their growth spurt at an older age tended to catch-up to some degree to their earlier maturing peers during puberty however, they continued on average to have lower bone density than average for several years into adulthood.
Author Interviews, C. difficile, Pediatrics / 07.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50595" align="alignleft" width="160"]Larry K. Kociolek, MD MSCI  Attending Physician, Division of Infectious Diseases, Associate Medical Director of Infection Prevention and Control, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago  Assistant Professor of Pediatrics Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine Dr. Kociolek[/caption] Larry K. Kociolek, MD MSCI Attending Physician, Division of Infectious Diseases, Associate Medical Director of Infection Prevention and Control, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago Assistant Professor of Pediatrics Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile colonization is very common among infants, yet infants almost never develop symptoms of infection. In adults, it is known that immunity against the toxins that C. difficile produces protect against C. difficile infection (CDI). Our goal was to determine whether or not infants who become colonized with C. difficile develop an immune response against these toxins. We collected stool from healthy infants at multiple time points during the first year of life to determine whether or not they became colonized with C. difficile. Then at 9-12 months old, we collected blood to see if we can identify antibodies in their blood that protect against these toxins. We discovered that colonization with C. difficile during infancy was strongly associated with the development of antibodies. These antibodies were able to protect against the harmful effects of these toxins in a laboratory cell culture model.
Author Interviews, Dental Research, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Vitamin D / 06.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Hans Bisgaard, DMSc, MD Head of COPSAC, Professor Professor of Pediatrics, University of Copenhagen Founder and Head of the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood; Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen and Naestved Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Enamel defects is a global health challenges affecting typically 1/3 of school children and more in some regions. It leads to break down of the teeth and caries later on. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Response: Supplementation with high-dose vitamin D compared to standard dose in the third pregnancy trimester in a mother child cohort of 588 pairs lead to a significant reduction of enamel defects. Enamel defects was found in 28% of children by age 6 after standard dose of vitamin D supplementation (400 i.u.), compared to 15% after 7-fold higher dose vitamin D. 
Author Interviews, Autism, Pediatrics / 05.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50547" align="alignleft" width="200"]Andrey Vyshedskiy PhD Boston University, Boston Dr. Vyshedskiy[/caption] Andrey Vyshedskiy PhD Boston University, Boston MedicalResearch.com: What gave you the idea for the paper?   Response: I have been interested in the physical properties of imagination since I was nine years old, and was involved in related research since my undergraduate studies. Having been trained in neuroscience, I set out to understand the neurological basis of imagination pertaining to the differences between humans and other animals. In 2008, after fifteen years of research, I allowed myself to speculate on the subject, and published the first edition of “On the Origin of the Human Mind.” From that period to the present day, I have continued to work on the same subject.
Author Interviews, Coffee, Hepatitis - Liver Disease, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 30.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50491" align="alignleft" width="128"]Dr-Hui Wang Dr. Hui Wang[/caption] Prof Hui Wang PhD Wuhan University China MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We started our work in the adverse outcome of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy about 15 years ago. Then, we found that prenatal caffeine intake could result in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the offspring. However, the underlying mechanism was unclear. So, we start the current work, and found that hat maternal caffeine intake disrupts liver development before and after birth, which might be the trigger of the adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the offspring rats. Moreover, we further found that the fetal programming of liver glucocorticoid – insulin like growth factor 1 axis, a new endocrine axis first reported by our team, might participate in such process. 
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 29.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50437" align="alignleft" width="120"]Daniel B. Horton, MD, MSCE Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Epidemiology Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School Rutgers Center for Pharmacoepidemiology and Treatment Science Rutgers School of Public Health Dr. Horton[/caption] Daniel B. Horton, MD, MSCE Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Epidemiology Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School Rutgers Center for Pharmacoepidemiology and Treatment Science Rutgers School of Public Health  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: In 2008, several professional groups made recommendations against the use of cough and cold medicines in young children: the US Food and Drug Administration, for children younger than age 2; cough and cold medicine manufacturers, for children younger than age 4; and the American Academy of Pediatrics, for children younger than age 6. Prior studies showed equivocal findings on the effect of those professional recommendations on physicians' behavior. We studied how trends of physicians' recommendations of cough and cold medicines for children changed after 2008 for different age groups and different kinds of medicines, including cough and cold medicines with and without opioids as well as single-agent antihistamines. 
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, NYU, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 26.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50440" align="alignleft" width="200"]Melanie Jacobson, PhD, MPH Research Scientist at World Trade Center Health Registry New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene NYU School of Medicine in New York, N.Y. Dr. Jacobson[/caption] Melanie Jacobson, PhD, MPH NYU School of Medicine New York, N.Y.  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Our study was about exposure to bisphenols, which are synthetic chemicals found in aluminum can linings, plastics, thermal paper receipts and other consumer products, and their association with obesity among a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents. We found that children who had greater levels of these chemicals in their urine were more likely to be obese compared with children with lower levels.
Author Interviews, JAMA, Opiods, Pediatrics, UCSD / 17.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50286" align="alignleft" width="200"]Lorraine Kelley-Quon, MD, MSHS, FAAP Assistant Professor | Division of Pediatric Surgery Children's Hospital Los Angeles Department of Surgery & Preventive Medicine Keck School of Medicine of USC Dr. Kelley-Quon[/caption] Lorraine Kelley-Quon, MD, MSHS, FAAP Assistant Professor | Division of Pediatric Surgery Children's Hospital Los Angeles Department of Surgery & Preventive Medicine Keck School of Medicine of USC  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Prescription opioids are pharmacologically similar to heroin, and previous research has shown an association between nonmedical opioid use and heroin use. This is the first study to follow a group of teenagers through all 4 years of high school and identify an association between nonmedical prescription opioid use and later heroin use.
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Social Issues / 15.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50215" align="alignleft" width="134"]Dr. Marina Mendonca PhD RECAP project (Research on European Children and Adults Born Preterm) Department of Psychology University of Warwick, UK Dr. Mendonca[/caption] Dr. Marina Mendonca PhD RECAP project (Research on European Children and Adults Born Preterm) Department of Psychology University of Warwick, UK MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Previous research on the social lives of adults born preterm (under 37 weeks gestation) was inconsistent. This meta-analysis brought together data from up to 4.4m adult participants and has shown that those who were born preterm are less likely to form romantic relationships, to have had sexual relations or experience parenthood than full terms. For example, those born preterm were 28% less likely to form romantic relationships and 22% less likely to become parents, when compared to those born full term. When looking at sexual relations, preterm born adults were 2.3 times (or 57%) less likely to ever have a sexual partner. These associations were found for both men and women, and were stronger the lower gestational age. This means that the chances of finding a romantic partner or having children were lower for those born very (<28 weeks gestation) or extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestation), with the extremely pre-term born adults being for example 3.2 times (78%) less likely to ever having had sexual relations when compared to their full term peers. Despite having fewer relationships, we found that when adults who were born preterm had friends or a partner, the quality of these relationships was at least as good as those born full term. 
Author Interviews, Brain Injury, Pediatrics / 11.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50220" align="alignleft" width="144"]Sean C. Rose, MD Pediatric sports neurologist and co-director of the Complex Concussion Clinic Nationwide Children’s Hospital  Dr. Rose[/caption] Sean C. Rose, MD Pediatric sports neurologist and co-director of the Complex Concussion Clinic Nationwide Children’s Hospital  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Very limited data has been collected in children while they are playing contact sports to study the relationship between repetitive head impacts and neurocognitive outcomes.  We previously published a 1-year analysis of youth tackle football players and found no association between the number or severity of head impacts and performance on neurocognitive testing before to after the football season.  We are now reporting the results from the 2nd year of our study, tracking children through two seasons of football participation. We measured head impacts using helmet sensors during the 2016 and 2017 football seasons.  In the total group of 166 players age 9-18, one outcome measure (processing speed), out of the 23 outcome measures studied, declined over time.  However, several other measures that also assessed processing speed did not decline.  Neither the total burden of head impacts nor the intensity of individual impacts were associated with changes in testing performance over the course of the two seasons.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Pediatrics / 09.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50178" align="alignleft" width="150"]Nelly Mauras, MD Chief, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Nemours Children’s Health System Professor of Pediatrics Mayo College of Medicine Dr. Mauras[/caption] Nelly Mauras, MD Chief, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Nemours Children’s Health System Professor of Pediatrics Mayo College of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: Keeping blood sugars close to normal in young children with diabetes is often limited by parental fears of the risks of low blood sugars and impaired cognitive development. Dr. Nelly Mauras, at the Nemours Children’s Health System in Jacksonville FL, along with Dr. Allan Reiss at Stanford University are co-principal investigators of the Diabetes Research in Children Network, a 5-center consortium performing studies in children with diabetes, also including the University of Iowa, Washington University St Louis and Yale University. The investigators recruited 144 children with type 1 diabetes who were 4-7 years old and performed brain imaging (MRIs), did special cognitive tests, and monitored blood sugars using continuous glucose monitors. These studies were repeated after 18 months, approximately 54 months and 74 months, to examine changes in the brain and compare the results with those of 70 children the same age who do not have diabetes.
Author Interviews, Cannabis, JAMA, Pediatrics / 09.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50165" align="alignleft" width="200"]D. Mark Anderson, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Agricultural Economics and Economics Montana State University, IZA, and NBER Dr. Anderson[/caption] D. Mark Anderson, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Agricultural Economics and Economics Montana State University, IZA, and NBER MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Using data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys for the period 1993-2017, we explore the effect medical and recreational marijuana laws have on teen use. We find that medical marijuana laws (MMLs) are not associated with teen marijuana consumption, but recreational marijuana laws (RMLs) are actually negatively associated with teen use. 
Author Interviews, CDC, Emory, Infections, JAMA, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 02.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ms. Cassandra Pingali Ms. Pingali worked on this paper while a a graduate student at Emory University, and completed it post-graduation. She is currently an ORISE fellow at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Immunization Services Division MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Despite high overall immunization coverage in the United States, we are currently experiencing the largest measles outbreak since measles was declared eliminated in 2000. In 2014, California grappled with a very large measles outbreak known as the “Disneyland” outbreak. Later investigation revealed that most of the affected children were unvaccinated against measles despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. In order to prevent future outbreaks, California officials wanted to improve their declining childhood vaccination coverage. California passed two laws and implemented an educational program for school staff to increase vaccination rates in the state. We felt it was important to take a systematic look at these interventions and examine if public health initiatives such as these are working to improve vaccination rates.
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Pediatrics, Technology / 02.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: atomwiseAbraham Heifets, PhD Department of Computer Science University of Toronto  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this announcement? How many children and adolescents are affected by pediatric cancer? Response: Cancer is diagnosed in more than 15,000 children and adolescents each year. Many cancers, including pediatric cancer, do not have effective treatments and for those that do, it is estimated that 80% have serious adverse effects that impact long-term health. 
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 28.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

[caption id="attachment_50035" align="alignleft" width="160"]Amanda Fingarson, DO  Attending Physician, Child Abuse Pediatrics  Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago  Assistant Professor of Pediatrics  Feinberg Northwestern School of Medicine       Dr. Fingarson[/caption]

Amanda Fingarson, DO Attending Physician, Child Abuse Pediatrics Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago Assistant Professor of Pediatrics Feinberg Northwestern School of Medicine 

MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings?

Response: Child physical abuse is a substantial pediatric public health issue, with significant morbidity and mortality. Studies have found that men, particularly children’s fathers and mothers’ boyfriends are common perpetrators of physical abuse. There is still a lack of knowledge, however, about the specific caregiver features that increase a child’s risk for physical abuse.

Our study design was unique, in that it was a multi-center study that compared young children with abusive and accidental injuries. Our primary finding was that abuse was much more likely when a male caregiver was present, and the resulting injuries were more likely to be severe or fatal. The presence of the mother’s boyfriend was the riskiest scenario, with the highest likelihood of abuse. Similarly, we found that caregiver relationships of less than 1 year increased the odds of abuse. Overall, the likelihood of abuse with female caregivers was much lower, with the exception of female babysitters.  A final important finding of our study was that caregiving arrangements that were different than usual at the time of injury were at increased risk of abuse, suggesting that a stable and consistent caregiver is also important. 

Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Sexual Health, Technology / 28.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: texting, sextingCamille Mori, B.A. (hons) M.Sc. candidate Clinical Psychology Program Determinants of Child Development Lab University of Calgary  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Sexting, which is the sharing of sexual messages, images, or videos over technological devices, has recently become a cause for concern among parents, teachers, and policy makers. However, the research on sexting among youth is still in early stages, and evidence of the risks associated with sexting is inconsistent. One way to resolve discrepancies in the field is to conduct a meta-analysis, which statistically summarizes existing research. We conducted a meta-analysis in order to examine the association between sexting and sexual activity (having sex, multiple sexual partners, and lack of contraception use). The associations between sexting and mental health related variables, including delinquent behaviour, substance use, and depression/anxiety were also examined.
Author Interviews, Opiods, Pediatrics / 25.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49907" align="alignleft" width="144"]Jennifer N. Cooper, PhD Principal Investigator Center for Innovation in Pediatric Practice The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Research Assistant Professor of Pediatrics The Ohio State University College of Medicine Dr. Cooper[/caption] Jennifer N. Cooper, PhD Principal Investigator Center for Innovation in Pediatric Practice The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Research Assistant Professor of Pediatrics The Ohio State University College of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Although postoperative opioid prescribing has decreased in recent years due to an increased awareness of the risks of excess opioid prescribing, many patients are still prescribed more opioids than they need after surgery. In the pediatric population, most opioids are prescribed after surgical and dental procedures. Although patients are often prescribed more opioids than they need after surgery, previous studies have found that excess opioids left unused after surgery are rarely properly disposed. These leftover opioids can be misused or accidentally ingested by young children. Previous studies have targeted the problem of non-disposal of opioids leftover after surgery by providing patients and families with educational materials describing proper methods of postoperative opioid disposal. However, these studies have had mixed results with some finding an increase in opioid disposal after education and others finding no effect of such education. In addition to education, another means of facilitating postoperative opioid disposal is the provision of drug disposal products. These products contain compounds that irreversible adsorb or oxidize medications, enabling them to be safely disposed of in the home garbage.
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Genetic Research, Pediatrics / 24.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49846" align="alignleft" width="143"]Philip J. Lupo, PhD, MPH Co-Director, Childhood Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Program, Texas Children's Cancer Center Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics Section of Hematology-Oncology, Member, Dan L. Duncan Comprehensive Cancer Center Baylor College of Medicine Adjunct Associate Professor, Human Genetics Center, Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences University of Texas School of Public Health Dr. Lupo[/caption] Philip J. Lupo, PhD, MPH Co-Director, Childhood Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Program, Texas Children's Cancer Center Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics Section of Hematology-Oncology, Member, Dan L. Duncan Comprehensive Cancer Center Baylor College of Medicine Adjunct Associate Professor, Human Genetics Center, Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences University of Texas School of Public Health   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: While cancer risk in children with certain chromosomal defects like Down syndrome is well established, much less is known for children with birth defects where there is no known genetic cause, sometimes called non-chromosomal defects. Non-chromosomal defects, as a group, affect more children, but one of the primary challenges of understanding risk among these children is that limited sample sizes make studying specific defects, like spina bifida, more difficult. Because of that, we gathered data from birth, birth defect, and cancer registries across Texas, Arkansas, Michigan, and North Carolina to generate a birth cohort of more than 10 million children born between 1992 and 2013. We looked at diagnoses of cancer until 18 years of age to determine differences in cancer risk between those with and without birth defects.
Author Interviews, CDC, JAMA, Nutrition, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 24.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49924" align="alignleft" width="150"]Liping Pan, MD, MPH Epidemiologist Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Dr. Pan[/caption] Liping Pan, MD, MPH Epidemiologist Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Centers for Disease Control and Prevention MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Children with severe obesity face significant health and social challenges. Children with obesity are at higher risk for having other chronic health conditions and diseases, such as asthma, sleep apnea, bone and joint problems, and type 2 diabetes. They also have more risk factors for heart disease such as high blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and high cholesterol than their healthyweight peers. Children with obesity can be bullied and teased more than their healthyweight peers. They are also more likely to suffer from social isolation, depression, and lower self-esteem. Children with obesity are also more likely to have obesity as adults. This can lead to lifelong physical and mental health problems. Adult obesity is associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and many types of cancers.  Childhood obesity is more common among children from lower-income families, as many lack access to healthy, affordable foods and beverages and opportunities for low-cost physical activity.
Author Interviews, Cannabis, Pediatrics / 21.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49903" align="alignleft" width="133"]Marilyn Cyr, Ph.D., Psy.D. Postdoctoral Research Scientist Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry New York State Psychiatric Institute Columbia University Medical Center New York, NY 10032 Dr. Cyr[/caption] Marilyn Cyr, Ph.D., Psy.D. Postdoctoral Research Scientist Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry New York State Psychiatric Institute Columbia University Medical Center New York, NY 10032 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: A hallmark feature of problematic substance use is compulsive drug-seeking long after the drug is no longer experienced as pleasurable and despite the associated adverse consequences of this behavior. Disturbances in cognitive control—an ensemble of processes by which the mind governs behaviors, regulates impulses and guides decisions based on goals—are believed to be involved in the initiation and maintenance of the compulsive drug-seeking that characterizes problematic substance use. Most adults with problematic substance use began having problems with drugs and alcohol in adolescence, a developmental period during which the neural circuits underlying cognitive control processes continue to mature. As such, the adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of substance use, and particularly cannabis, the most commonly used recreational drug by teenagers worldwide.