C-Section and Formula-Fed Babies Have Different Microbiome From Breastfed or Vaginal Births

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Anita Kozyrskyj, PhD, Professor Dept Pediatrics Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta Edmonton, AB   

Dr. Kozyrskyj

Anita Kozyrskyj, PhD, Professor
Dept Pediatrics
Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta
Edmonton, AB   

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The first year of an infant’s life is a critical time for the development of his or her gut microbiome. Gut microbes not only help infants digest food, but they also “train” their developing immune system. An infant’s environment, from the type of birth and infant diet to use of antibiotics, has a large impact in determining which microbes are present. Frequently these early life exposures occur together. Using data from AllerGen’s CHILD birth cohort and a new analytical approach —called Significance Analysis of Microarrays—we quantified changes to gut microbiota throughout the first year of life according to common combinations of early life exposures.

We found that, compared to vaginally-born and breastfed infants, formula-fed or cesarean-delivered infants had different trajectories of microbial colonization in later infancy, which could have implications for their future health.

Continue reading

Intestinal Microbiome Linked To Pediatric Asthma

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Anita Kozyrskyj, PhD, Professor, Dept Pediatrics Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta Edmonton, AB 

Dr. Kozyrskyj

Anita Kozyrskyj, PhD, Professor, Dept Pediatrics
Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta
Edmonton, AB  

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: I was motivated to study the maternal asthma-infant microbiome link by the well-established fact that maternal asthma affects infant birth weight in a sex-specific manner. Based on data from AllerGen’s CHILD birth cohort, Caucasian baby boys born to pregnant moms with asthma—putting them at the highest risk for developing asthma in early childhood—were one-third as likely to have high levels of the microbe, Lactobacillus, in their gut microbiome at 3-4 months after birth.

Continue reading

Frequent Take-Out Food Linked To Increased Cholesterol and Obesity in Children

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Angela S Donin Population Health Research Institute, St George’s University of London, London, UK

Dr. Donin

Dr. Angela S Donin
Population Health Research InstituteSt George’s
University of London
London, UK 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: There are increasing numbers of takeaway outlets, particularly in deprived neighbourhoods. This is driving an increase in consumption of takeaway meals, which previous evidence has shown is linked to higher risks of heart disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity. Little is known about the dietary and health impact of high consumption of takeaway foods in children.

This research found children who regularly ate takeaway meals had higher body fat and cholesterol compared to children who rarely ate take away meals, they also had overall poorer diet quality.

Continue reading

Adolescent Violent Offenders With Childhood Adversity Have Increased Risk of Suicide

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Emma Björkenstam PhD
Department of Public Health Sciences
Karolinska Institutet

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: My research team and I have previously shown that childhood adversity is associated with an elevated suicide risk in young adults, and this increased risk may be explained by maladaptive trajectories during adolescence. We also know that adolescent violent offending is linked with suicide, but up until now, less was known about the role of violent offending in the association between childhood adversity and later suicide.

Our main finding in the current study, based on almost half a million Swedes, is that individuals with a history of childhood adversity who also engage in violent offending in late adolescence, have a substantial increased risk of suicide.

Continue reading

Babies’ Brain Responses Predict Dyslexic Reading Skills in School

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Kaisa Lohvansuu, PhD
Postdoctoral Researcher
Jyväskylä Centre for Interdisciplinary Brain Research
Department of Psychology
University of Jyväskylä 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?
Response: Developmental dyslexia, a specific reading disability, has a strong genetic basis: The risk of having developmental dyslexia at school age is eight times higher than usual if either of the parents has reading difficulty. It has been known that dyslexia and also family risk for dyslexia are strongly associated with a speech perception deficit, but the underlying mechanism of how the impaired speech processing leads to reading difficulties has been unclear.

Continue reading

Parents Encouraged To Keep Screen Devices Out Of Kids’ Bedrooms At Night

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Video Game Addicts” by Michael Bentley is licensed under CC BY 2.0Dr. Marsha Novick, MD

Associate professor of pediatrics and family and community medicine,
Penn State College of Medicine 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The results of this study solidify some well-established data concerning childhood obesity – namely that children who watch more television and have a more sedentary lifestyle are more likely to have an overweight or obese BMI compared with those who are more active. The survey results highlight some associations between increased technology use and difficulty with sleep quantity in children and adolescents.

The data suggest:

  • ​​Increased technology use at bedtime, namely television, cell phones, video games and computers, is associated with a decrease in the amount of sleep children are getting. These children were more likely to be tired in the morning and less likely to eat breakfast.
  • Specifically, children who reported watching TV or playing video games before bed got an average of 30 minutes less sleep than those who did not, while kids who used their phone or a computer before bed averaged an hour less of sleep than those who did not.
  • The data also suggests that children with overweight or obesity were more likely to have trouble falling asleep and trouble staying asleep than their normal BMI counterparts
  • When children were reported by their parents to use one form of technology at bedtime, they were more likely to use another form of technology as well.

Continue reading

New Tool Can Tell Whether Your Child Has a ‘Screen Addiction’

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Cici loves full screen video on the XO” by Mike Lee is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Sarah E. Domoff, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Department of Psychology
Central Michigan University
Research Faculty Affiliate
Center for Human Growth and Development
University of Michigan

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: There has been growing concern that children may become “addicted” to screens, such as tablets and other mobile devices. Children at younger ages are now “owning” their own mobile devices and have increased access to gaming apps and other rewarding functions of these devices. Until now, there hasn’t been a parent report form available to capture addictive like use of screen media in children.

The Problematic Media Use Measure (PMUM) assesses addictive-like use of screen media in children under 12 years and has strong psychometrics. We found that the PMUM does a better job in predicting psychosocial difficulties in children, over and above hours of screen time.

Continue reading

Later Puberty Linked To Lower Adult Bone Density

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Cousminer

Dr. Cousminer

Diana L. Cousminer, PhD
Division of Human Genetics
Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
Philadelphia, PA 19104

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Osteoporosis is a significant public health burden, with origins early in life. Later puberty and lower adolescent bone mineral density are both risk factors for osteoporosis.

Geneticists have identified hundreds of genetic variants across the genome that impact pubertal timing, and we found that collectively this variation also plays a role in bone mineralization during adolescence. Additionally, we found that later puberty caused lower adult bone density.

Continue reading

IVF Linked To Increased Risk of Congenital Heart Defects

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“2010 Nobel Prize in Medicine - development of the in vitro fertilization procedure” by Solis Invicti is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Paolo Cavoretto MD PhD
San Raffaele Scientific Centre
Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department
Milan Italy

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most common forms of congenital disorders and a relevant cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality involving about 0.8% of pregnancies. IVF pregnancies are very common nowadays with increasing rates in the developed countries worldwide. There is no consensus in current practice guidelines whether IVF/ICSI conception represents an indication for performing a fetal echocardiogram according to different eminent scientific societies due to differences in the estimations of the risk for CHD in the available literature.

Continue reading

If Current Trends Continue, Most of Today’s Youth Will Be Obese By Age 35

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Kovalam Beach - Obesity : a rising problem in India” by Miran Rijavec is licensed under CC BY 2.0Mr. Zachary Ward
Center for Health Decision Science
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Boston, MA 02115

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Although the current obesity epidemic in the US has been well documented in children and adults, less is known about the long-term risks of adult obesity for children given their current age and weight.  As part of the CHOICES project (Childhood Obesity Intervention Cost Effectiveness Study), we developed new methods to simulate height and weight trajectories across the life course based on individual-level data.  We also used a novel statistical approach to account for long-term population-level trends in weight gain, allowing us to make more realistic projections of obesity into the future.  Continue reading

Most Common Brain Injuries in Babies Due to Hypoxia and Bleeding

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Baby” by Victor is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Dr Chris Gale
Clinical Senior Lecturer in Neonatal Medicine
Imperial College London and
Consultant Neonatologist at Chelsea and Westminster Hospital
NHS Foundation Trust

 

 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: As part of a drive to make England a safer place to give birth, the Department of Health in England has set a target of reducing the number of babies that incur brain injury during or soon after birth by 20% by 2020 and to halve them by 2030.

Before now United Kingdom health services did not have a standard definition of brain injury in babies and there has been no systematic collection of data for this purpose. With colleagues and in collaboration with the Department of Health, we have devised a practical way to measure the incidence rate of brain injury in babies using routinely recorded data held in the National Neonatal Research Database.

The research estimated that 3,418 babies suffered conditions linked to brain injury at or soon after birth in 2015, which equates to an incidence rate of 5.14 per 1,000 live births. For preterm births (babies born at or less than 37 weeks) the rate was 25.88 per 1,000 live births in 2015, almost six times greater than the rate for full-term births, which was 3.47 per 1,000 live births.

Overall, the research found that the most common type of condition that contributed brain injuries was damage caused by lack of oxygen to the brain, called hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy; this is seen mainly in term babies. For preterm babies, the largest contributor to brain injuries is from bleeding into and around the ventricles of the brain, a condition called periventricular haemorrhage.

It is also the first time that brain injuries in babies have been measured using data gathered routinely during day to day clinical care on NHS neonatal units. The use of routine data required no additional work for clinical staff and provides a valuable way to measure the effectiveness of interventions to reduce brain injury.

Continue reading

Kids Who Have Difficulty Spelling Can Have Trouble Writing As Well

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Sonia Kandel PhD
Professor at the GIPSA-Lab
Université Grenoble Alpes 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: How do we recall a word’s spelling from memory? How do we execute the movements to produce letters? A series of studies conducted by Professor Sonia Kandel at the GIPSA-Lab/University of Grenoble Alpes in France provide evidence indicating that writing is a linguistic process that affects the way we execute the manual movements when we write. For example, the movements involved in writing T-H-R are easier to execute in a word that is pronounced as it is spelled, (e.g. “thrill”) than in a word that is orthographically irregular (e.g. “through”). What happens with writing when spelling processes are impaired like, in dyslexia and dysgraphia?

Continue reading

Babies Can Understand When The Effort Might Be Worth The Reward

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Shari Liu Dept Psychology Harvard University Cambridge, MA 02138 

Shari Liu -image by Kris Brewer.

Shari Liu
Dept Psychology
Harvard University
Cambridge, MA 02138 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Every day, we look out into the social world and see more than pixels changing across our retinas, or bodies moving in space. We see people brimming with desires, governed by their beliefs about the world and concerned about the costs of their actions and the potential rewards those actions may bring. Reasoning about these mental variables, while observing only people’s overt behaviors, is at the heart of commonsense psychology. Continue reading

Up To 40% of Food Allergic Adolescents Experience Severe Reactions

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Peanuts” by Daniella Segura is licensed under CC BY 2.0Vicki McWilliam

Murdoch Children’s Research Institute (MCRI)

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?
Response: Food allergy affects up to 10% of children and 2-3% of adults, and appears to increasing in prevalence. The rise in food allergy prevalence has coincided with increased reports of anaphylaxis. Previous research has shown that adolescents are most at risk of experiencing adverse food reactions and appear to be at higher risk of anaphylaxis fatalities but are an understudied age group in food allergy research.

In a large population representative sample of 10,000 10-14 year olds in Melbourne, Australia we found that alarmingly over 40% had experienced an allergic reaction in the past year and almost 10% reported potentially life threatening reactions. Consistent with other research peanut and tree nuts were the most common trigger foods for reactions and those with nut allergy were most at risk of anaphylaxis. Having more than two food allergies doubled the risk of a food allergic reaction compared to those with a single food allergy. Surprisingly, reactions were found to occur most commonly at home rather than restaurants or school.

Continue reading

Collaborative Effort Allows Oversight of Antipsychotic Medications in Medicaid Children

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Julie M. Zito, PhD Professor of Pharmacy and Psychiatry University of Maryland, Baltimore Pharmaceutical Health Services Department Baltimore, MD 21201

Dr. Zito

Julie M. Zito, PhD
Professor of Pharmacy and Psychiatry
University of Maryland, Baltimore
Pharmaceutical Health Services Department
Baltimore, MD 21201 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The growth of antipsychotic use in children, mainly for the treatment of behavior, has been of increasing concern in recent years. Clinical safety issues (Burcu et al. 2017) and government reports on overuse in the treatment of poor and foster care children (GAO, 2017; 2012) motivated our assessment of peer review programs. These programs are a relatively new approach to Medicaid oversight intended to monitor and assure clinical appropriateness of second generation antipsychotics in children. Critically important is the fact that most antipsychotic use is for child behavioral problems which are off-label conditions, i.e. without sufficient evidence of effectiveness or safety.

Continue reading

Children With Eczema and Food Allergies At Increased Risk of Developing Asthma

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Eczema” by NIAID is licensed under CC BY 2.0Malcolm R. Sears, MB ChB

Firestone Institute for Respiratory Health
St Joseph’s Healthcare and McMaster University
Ontario Canada. 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study was initiated in 2008, funded by AllerGen NCA and CIHR, to determine root causes of allergy and asthma.

We recruited 3623 pregnant mothers in 4 centers across Canada and are following 3495 eligible children from pregnancy to age 5 years.

In this paper we describe some of the findings in early childhood, namely that children who develop skin conditions generally called eczema or atopic dermatitis, who are also sensitized to food allergens (milk, egg, peanut) at 1 year are at high risk of developing subsequent asthma, whereas those with these skin conditions but not sensitized are not at such risk.

Continue reading

Increased Risk of Pregnancy Complications With Both Above and Below Normal BMI

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
 <a href="https://www.flickr.com/photos/kit4na/8570833723">“Pregnancy”</a> by <i> <a href="https://www.flickr.com/people/kit4na/">Tatiana Vdb</a> </i> is licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0"> CC BY 2.0</a>Sarka Lisonkova, MD, PhD

Assistant Professor
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
University of British Columbia.
Children’s and Women’s Health Centre
Vancouver, BC Canada 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We know that high BMI is associated with adverse birth outcomes for baby, including stillbirth, neonatal death, and others illnesses. However, less was known about the association with serious maternal morbidity.

MedicalResearch.com: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report?

Response: Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI is important not only for baby’s health, but also for maternal health. The risk of majority of severe maternal complications, for example acute cardiac or pulmonary problems, increases with BMI above normal values. On the other side, women with BMI below-normal values also have increased risk of some complications, for instance, excessive bleeding before or after delivery that requires transfusion. However, maternal death​ or life-threatening complications are very rare, so the chance of experiencing such event is very low even for women who are obese.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study?

Response: Adopting a healthy lifestyle and reaching normal BMI before pregnancy is the best strategy for healthy pregnancy and optimal childbirth. For women who are underweight, overweight, or obese and already pregnant, it is important to strive for optimal weight-gain during pregnancy and good prenatal care. Modern obstetric care can prevent most severe maternal and infant morbidity by careful monitoring of maternal blood pressure and glucose level during pregnancy, and by timely obstetric interventions when maternal or baby conditions worsen. 

MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add?

Response: The epidemic of obesity in the industrialized countries is alarming. US data show that about 50% of pregnant women are now overweight or obese. Even though maternal death and severe morbidity are very rare, we will see more of these serious adverse events in the future if the trend in obesity continues. This will also put more strain on obstetric services and increase the need for obstetric interventions. High-risk mothers need to be closely monitored during pregnancy and deliver in higher-level hospitals with appropriate resources,  including, for example, availability of maternal-fetal medicine specialist and an intensive care unit.

No disclosures

MedicalResearch.com: Thank you for your contribution to the MedicalResearch.com community.

Citation:

Lisonkova S, Muraca GM, Potts J, Liauw J, Chan W, Skoll A, Lim KI. Association Between Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Severe Maternal Morbidity. JAMA. 2017;318(18):1777–1786. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.16191

Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Modest Increased Risk For Neonatal Side Effects After Prescribed ADHD Meds During Pregnancy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“1. pregnancy” by TipsTimesAdmin is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Ulrika Nörby MScPharm, PhD
Department of E-health and strategic IT
Stockholm County Council
Sweden

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The use of ADHD medication has increased rapidly during the last 10 years, especially among young women. Thereby, questions regarding treatment with these drugs during pregnancy are common. Until now, data concerning fetal safety of ADHD medication have been sparse, especially when it comes to neonatal disorders. For amphetamine preparations, most previous studies concerned illicit drug use during pregnancy, which made it difficult to draw conclusions. Our objective was to estimate birth and neonatal outcomes after maternal use of prescribed ADHD medication during pregnancy.

The main findings were that infants exposed to ADHD medication in utero had a somewhat increased risk of neonatal morbidity, especially CNS-related disorders. The odds ratio (OR) for a CNS-disorder was 1.9 for exposed infants compared to non-exposed infants. Further, exposed infants more often needed treatment at a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), OR 1.5, and were more frequently moderately preterm, OR 1.3. The risk for CNS-related disorders and admission to a NICU was increased also compared to infants whose mothers used ADHD before or after, but not during, pregnancy. This finding suggests a causal relationship between treatment with ADHD medication and the neonatal outcomes. Because of large differences in maternal background characteristics between treated and non-treated women, it is however uncertain to what extent the higher neonatal morbidity is caused by the ADHD medication.

Continue reading

No Link Found Inhaled Steroids and Bone Fractures in Asthmatic Children

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Asthma” by Michael Havens is licensed under CC BY 2.0Teresa To, PhD
Biostatistics, Design and Analysis
Scientific Director
The Hospital for Sick Children
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto
Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We studied asthma prescription drug use in Ontario children aged 2 to 18 years with physician diagnosed asthma between 2003 and 2014.

We found that:

  1. Currently in Ontario, nearly 50% of children with asthma did not fill a prescription for an inhaled corticosteroid during the study period, despite these medications being considered the gold-standard for asthma management.
  2. Our findings did not show clinically important association between inhaled corticosteroids and fracture among children with asthma.
  3. However, systemic corticosteroids (oral or injection) are associated with higher fracture risk in children with asthma (17% higher risk).

Continue reading

Children Can Save Lives By Learning CPR in School

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Young girl learning Hands-Only CPR at the American Heart Association Hands-Only CPR training kiosk at Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport. copyright American Heart Association 2017 Photos by Tommy Campbell Photography
Mimi Biswas M.D., MHSc
University of California Riverside School of Medicine and
Riverside Community Hospital 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This started as  My son’s science project. He wanted to make a video game to teach CPR based on a science fair website. It grew to teaching the whole 6th grade using the AHA CPR training kit alone vs adding the video game or music, staying alive, to help with compression rate.  We found that a 12 year can easily learn the basic concepts of calling for help and starting hands only CPR and they can physically perform effective CPR at this age.

Continue reading

Improved DNA Analysis Reduces False Positive Prenatal DNA Testing For Trisomy Conditions

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Professor Sir Nicholas Wald FRCP FRS Professor of Preventive Medicine Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry Queen Mary University of London London

Prof. Wald

Professor Sir Nicholas Wald FRCP FRS
Professor of Preventive Medicine
Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine
Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry
Queen Mary University of London
London

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Prenatal screening for Down’s syndrome (trisomy 21), Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18) and Patau syndrome (trisomy 13) by maternal plasma DNA analysis has an improved screening performance compared with conventional screening but is too expensive to be performed routinely and has a technical failure rate.

The aim of the study was to take advantage of the improved screening performance of the DNA analysis in conjunction with the existing methods thereby providing a seamless testing interface between the “old” and the “new” methods that would detect a larger proportion of affected pregnancies with a much lower false-positive rate, at a much reduced cost compared with universal DNA testing and with no failed tests. The novel approach was to conduct a conventional screening test using a screening cut-off level that identifies about 10% of women with the highest risks of having an affected pregnancy (much higher than in conventional screening) and then to perform a DNA test using a portion of the original blood sample collected for the conventional test. Progressing to the DNA test was automatic for these high risk women without their having to be recalled for counseling and a fresh blood sample (ie as a reflex response hence the term “reflex DNA screening”).

Continue reading

Up To Certain Number of Hours, Maternal Employment Is Beneficial For Children’s Body Weight

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Jianghong Li, Senior Research Fellow WZB Berlin Social Science Center Berlin, Germany Telethon KIDS Institute, The University of Western Australia West Perth, Western Australia

Dr. Li

Dr. Jianghong Li, Senior Research Fellow
WZB Berlin Social Science Center
Berlin, Germany
Telethon KIDS Institute, The University of Western Australia
West Perth, Western Australia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Over the last three to four decades, the prevalence of child overweight/obesity and maternal employment has both increased worldwide. This co-occurrence has drawn much attention to the connection between these two trends. Previous studies, predominantly based on US samples and cross-sectional data, has linked longer working hours to children’s higher body mass index (BMI), suggesting that any maternal employment was a risk for child health.

Continue reading

Even Treated, HIV-Positive Children Have Ongoing White Matter Brain Damage

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Marcin Jankiewicz  University of Cape Town Cape Town, South Africa
Marcin Jankiewicz 
University of Cape Town
Cape Town, South Africa 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral (CHER) trial, conducted in Cape Town and Soweto, was designed when there was uncertainty whether to start antiretroviral therapy (ART) as soon as HIV was diagnosed (below 12 weeks of age) or to wait until there was evidence of immuno-compromise and disease progression. Also, there were concerns about maintaining adherence, long-term toxicity and also resistance in the setting of few antiretroviral options. Early outcomes showed a decreased risk in childhood mortality in the early treatment arms compared to deferred treatment, becoming standard of care globally.

The CHER cohort is one of the largest and best documented of children receiving ART within the first year of life. Also, age- and community-matched HIV exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV unexposed (HU) uninfected infants were enrolled in parallel for a linked vaccine study.

We therefore had an amazing opportunity to link with a neurodevelopmental sub-study in participants from Cape Town and apply sophisticated neuroimaging modalities that could link with clinical, virological and immunological characteristics.

Continue reading

Nearly Half of Adolescents Had At Least One Sunburn In Past Year

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Dymchurch Beach - May 2012 - Sunburn with Matching Bikini” by Gareth Williams is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Dawn M. Holman, MPH
Behavioral Scientist
Division of Cancer Prevention and Control
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Scientific evidence clearly shows that even one sunburn during adolescence can increase a person’s chances of developing skin cancer as an adult. Surprisingly, little research has been done to understand the factors associated with sunburn during this phase of life. The CDC wanted to examine beliefs, behaviors, and demographic characteristics that might be associated with adolescent sunburns in hopes that the findings could inform future intervention efforts. We used data from the 2015 YouthStyles survey (adolescents aged 12 to 17 years) to explore this research question

Continue reading

Medical Tetrahydrocannabinol May Be Beneficial For Seizures and Chemotherapy Side Effects

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Wong

Dr. Wong

Shane Shucheng Wong, MD
Massachusetts General Hospital
Boston, Massachusetts 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Medical cannabis is now legal in 29 states and the District of Columbia, and in those areas with active programs, children and adolescents can legally access medical cannabis with certification from their doctor and consent from a parent. This means that doctors and families need to understand what we know and what we don’t yet know about medical cannabis in order to make the best decision for the health of the individual child. Two synthetic cannabinoids – compounds that act on specific receptors in the brain – have been approved for medical use in the U.S., both of which mimic a form of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), the compound responsible for the “high” of recreational cannabis use. Dronabinol (Marinol) is approved to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in both children and adults, while the pediatric use of nabilone (Cesamet) carries a caution. A third cannabinoid, cannabidiol, is currently in phase 3 trials for treatment of seizures.

Continue reading

Most Adolescents Not Receiving Important Health Care Preventive Services

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Sally H. Adams, PhD, RN Specialist, Division of Adolescent and Young Adult  Medicine Adolescent and Young Adult Health National Resource Center University of California, San Francisco Benioff Children’s Hospital San Francisco, CA 94118

Dr. Adams

Sally H. Adams, PhD, RN
Specialist, Division of Adolescent and Young Adult  Medicine
Adolescent and Young Adult Health National Resource Center
University of California, San Francisco
Benioff Children’s Hospital
San Francisco, CA 94118

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Major causes of adolescent illness and mortality are preventable. To address this, in the 1990s, professional medical organizations developed healthcare provider guidelines for the delivery of adolescent preventive healthcare. These include the receipt of anticipatory guidance and risk screening services in the effort to promote healthy behaviors and avoid risky behaviors that are intended to be covered within a preventive care visit, but could be addressed in other healthcare visits.

The adolescent developmental period is an important time for adolescents to be engaged with the healthcare system. Transitioning from childhood to adulthood, adolescents are becoming increasingly independent – having more responsibility and freedom for decision making in many areas, including healthy choices in behaviors and activities. While families and community settings (schools, churches) play strong roles in this process, the healthcare system also plays an important role.

Continue reading

Chocolate Milk May Promote Weight Gain in Children and Adolescents

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jorge E. Chavarro, M.D., Sc.D. Assistant Professor of Nutrition and Epidemiology Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Assistant Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02113

Dr. Chavarro

Jorge E. Chavarro, MD, ScD
Associate Professor
Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Channing Division of Network Medicine
Department of Medicine
Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School
Boston, MA 02115

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: It is well known that sugared sweetened beverages (SSBs) promote excessive weight gain and obesity in children. The excess sugars in chocolate milk and other flavored milks puts them in a category that may be closer to sugared sweetened beverages than to plain milk. However, data on whether flavored milks promote weight gain is scarce.

We followed a cohort of 5,321 children and adolescents over a four year period to evaluate whether intake of chocolate milks was related to weight gain. We found that children who increased their intake of flavored milk gained more weight than children whose intake of flavored milk remained stable over this period. Moreover, among those children who did not drink any chocolate milk at baseline, those who started drinking chocolate milk over the course of the study gained substantially more weight than children who remained non-consumers of chocolate milk.

Continue reading

Montessori Education Has Potential To Equalize Performance For Low Income School Children

“Tempura Finger Paint Grand Rapids Montessori School” by Steven Depolo is licensed under CC BY 2.0

“Tempura Finger Paint Grand Rapids Montessori School” by Steven Depolo

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Angeline Lillard PhD

Professor of Psychology
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Montessori education was developed in the first half of the last century, but has been subject to little formal research. Prior research on its outcomes was problematic in using poor control groups, very small samples, demographically limited samples, a single school or classroom, or poor quality Montessori, or data from just a single time point and limited measurements.

This study addressed all these issues: it collected data 4 times over 3 years from 141 children, experimental children were in 11 classrooms at 2 high quality Montessori schools at which the control children were waitlisted and admission was done by a randomized lottery, family income ranged from $0-200K, groups were demographically equivalent at the start of the study, and many measures were taken.

Continue reading

Tanning Salon Compliance With State Laws Restricting Access to Minors Remains Unsatisfactory

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Erik Stratman, MD

Chairman, Department of Dermatology
Marshfield Clinic, WI

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The United States Food and Drug Administration has classified tanning beds as cancer-causing. Tanning bed exposure has been linked with increased risk of melanoma, a deadly form of skin cancer that preferentially affects young people.  While no current federal ban exists on indoor tanning of minors, there have been over 40 states (43) and the District of Columbia that passed laws limiting the use of tanning beds for minors.  Despite these laws, nearly 1.9 million high school students in the United States are tanning in tanning salons.

In this study, researchers posed as minors called 427 tanning salons in 42 states and the District of Columbia.  Following a script that included questions like ‘would my mom have to come with me? I was hoping to come after school.’ Salons were randomly selected by zip code, with 10 salons selected for each state.  Overall, 37.2% of tanning salons were out of compliance with state legislation. Illinois, New Hampshire, and Oregon were the only states scoring 100% compliant with the state law for those tanning salons contacted.  Alabama scored the lowest with 0% compliant for those tanning salons contacted.  Statistically significant decreases in compliance were found for rural, independently owned, and Southern US tanning salons.

Continue reading

Early Surgery for Drug Resistant Epilepsy May Limit Cognitive Disabilities

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Manjari Tripathi Professor, Epileptology, Neurology
Dr. P Sarat Chandra, Chief epilepsy Neurosurgeon
AIIMS, New Delhi

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?:

  1. Surgery for drug resistant epilepsy (DRE) is an accepted procedure for children and there have been multiple surgical series and surgical techniques published in literature. However, till date there are no randomized controlled trials (RCT) available to objectively demonstrate the safety and efficacy of surgical therapy in children with DRE. There are till date only 2 randomized trials for adult patients with drug resistant epilepsy (both for mesial temporal sclerosis only, Wiebe S et al, New Eng J Med, 2001 & Engel J et al, JAMA, 2012).
  2. Children constitute a significant proportion of patients undergoing surgical therapy for DRE (close to 50% in tertiary centers). They have unique problems associated due to uncontrolled epilepsy and some of these include epileptic encephalopathy and status epilepticus. In addition, surgery is also associated with problems like hypothermia, issues related to blood loss etc. Thus the senior author (Manjari Tripathi) and her team felt that a RCT would be very important to objectively assess the role of surgery and hence designed this study.

Continue reading

Traumatic Brain Injury Laws Reduce Rate of Recurrent Concussions in High School Athletes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jingzhen (Ginger) Yang, PhD, MPH Principal Investigator Associate Professor, Center for Injury Research and Policy The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital Dept. of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 43205

Dr. Yang

Jingzhen (Ginger) Yang, PhD, MPH
Principal Investigator
Associate Professor, Center for Injury Research and Policy
The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital
Dept. of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University
Columbus, Ohio 43205 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: From 2009-2014, all 50 states and the District of Columbia passed their state TBI laws, more commonly known as concussion laws, to mitigate severe consequences of concussions.

These laws often include 3 core components:

(1) mandatory removal from play following actual or suspected concussions,
(2) requirements to receive clearance to return to play from a licensed health professional, and
(3) education of coaches, parents, and athletes regarding concussion symptoms and signs.

Our study aimed to evaluate whether the laws achieve the intended impact.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: The main findings showed that:

  • The rates of new and recurrent concussions initially increase significantly after a law goes into effect. This is likely due to more people – athletes, athletic trainers, coaches, and parents – becoming aware of the signs and symptoms of concussion and actually reporting a potential or actual concussion. Lack of knowledge about concussion signs and symptoms may have resulted in underreporting of concussions during the prelaw period. This trend is consistent across sports in our study and other studies looking at youth sports-related concussions.
  • The rate of recurrent concussions shows a significant decline approximately 2 ½ years after the law is in place. This demonstrates that the laws are having an impact. One of the core function of these laws is to reduce the immediate risk of health consequences caused by continued play with concussion or returning to play too soon without full recovery. The decline in recurrent concussion rates in our study is likely the results of the laws requirements of mandatory removal from play or permission requirements to return to play.
  • Football had the highest average annual concussion rate, followed by girls’ soccer and boys’ wrestling. Males had a higher average annual concussion rate than females. However, when comparing the rates in gender comparable sports (basketball, soccer, baseball/softball), females had almost double the annual rate of concussions as males. These results are consistent with findings from other studies. It is possible that girls have higher risk of concussions than boys or are more likely to report injuries. Future studies are needed to look specifically at these disparities.

Continue reading

Insulin Pump Therapy May Be Superior to Multiple Injections in Young People With Type 1 Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Prof. Dr. med. Reinhard Holl
Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Medical Faculty
Aachen University, Aachen,
Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry
University of Ulm, Ulm
Germany 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Today there are two accepted strategies to treat type-1 diabetes: pump or multiple daily injections. In a large group of patients we compared both strategies, and our results indicate advantages for pump therapy with fewer severe hypos, fewer events of diabetic ketoacidosis, and better metabolic control.

Continue reading

Virtual Cartoon Technology Can Ease Pediatric Anxiety in OR Before Anesthesia

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Sunghee Han
Professor
Seoul National Unversity College of Medicine
Seoul National University Hospital
Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicin

What is the background for this new technology and study? What are the main findings?

Response: The time from patient arrival in the operating theatre to induction of general anesthesia is one of the most stressful moments for children undergoing surgery. Various strategies such as ‘pre-operative guided operating room tour’ or ‘therapeutic play intervention’ have been developed in order to reduce children’s pre-operative anxiety. Although these existing simulation-based approaches may be effective, they have not been widely used in real clinical settings with limited budget and resources such as manpower and space.

Virtual Reality(VR), a relatively new technology in the field of healthcare, can allow the user to experience an immersive environment. In this study, using VR technology, we provided the children with a realistic trip to the operating theatre accompanied by ‘My best friend’ Pororo. “Pororo, The Little Penguin” is a very famous cartoon character in Korea and Asia. Most children in Korea watch Pororo in TV, play with Pororo toys since early yeas and perceive Pororo as a ‘close friend’. In the VR content used in this study, Pororo acts as a patient and is subjected to anesthesia and surgery himself. Pororo kindly brings his friend(the viewer; paediatric patient) to the theatre and shows all that is going on in there.

Intervention with the VR content was able to reduce the level of anxiety in paediatric patients and promote collaborative behavior and acceptance of the invasive procedures, especially general anesthesia. Parental satisfaction level was also relatively higher in the VR group.

Continue reading

Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders Lower in Black and Hispanic Children

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Maureen Durkin, PhD, DrPH Professor and Interim Chair Department of Population Health Sciences University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health Madison, WI

Prof. Durkin

Maureen Durkin, PhD, DrPH
Professor and Interim Chair
Department of Population Health Sciences
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
Madison, WI 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Previous studies of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among children in the U.S. have found two consistent patterns.  One is a higher prevalence among white non-Hispanic children than among black non-Hispanic or Hispanic children.  The other is a positive socioeconomic gradient, meaning that ASD prevalence in the U.S. is found to increase with increasing income and other indicators of socioeconomic status.

One of the findings of this new study is that the racial and ethnic differences in autism spectrum disorder prevalence are not explained by socioeconomic factors, because even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors, ASD prevalence was found to be significantly lower in black and Hispanic children than in white non-Hispanic children.  Another finding is that the gap in ASD prevalence between children of high and low socioeconomic status did not change over time between 2002 and 2010, though the overall prevalence of ASD more than doubled during this period.

Continue reading

Antidepressants in Youth Associated With Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Mehmet Burcu, PhD, MS
Department of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research
University of Maryland, Baltimore 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Antidepressants are one of the most commonly used psychotropic medication classes in U.S. youth, with serotonin reuptake inhibitors representing a large majority of total antidepressant use in youth.

The most interesting finding was that the current use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors in youth was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and this increased risk intensified further with the increasing duration of use and with the increasing dose. A secondary analysis also revealed that the risk of incident type 2 diabetes was most apparent in youth who used serotonin reuptake inhibitors for longer durations AND in greater daily doses.

Continue reading

Starting School Before 8:30 AM Associated With More Anxiety and Depression in Adolescents

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Jack Peltz, Ph.D.

Clinical assistant professor in Psychiatry
Rochester Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Approximately 90% of high-school aged adolescents get either
insufficient sleep during school nights or barely meet the required
amount of sleep (ie, 8–10 hours) expected for healthy functioning.(1)

In fact, sleep problems and insufficient sleep are so pervasive for
adolescents that they could be considered an epidemic due to their
adverse impact on adolescent mental and physical health.(2–5)

As a result,addressing insufficient adolescent sleep represents a critical
point of study and intervention. The growing body of evidence suggests
that later school start times (SST), 8:30 AM or later as recommended
by the American Academy of Pediatricians,6 convey
multiple benefits on adolescents, including improved sleep, better
mental and physical health, and improved academic outcomes.(7–10)

This research, however, has focused on the direct effects of delaying
school start times, or specifically how moving SST back directly predicts changes
in an outcome (eg, mental health, academic achievement). This
type of analysis precludes examining the important role that SST
might play as a condition or context under which other sleeprelated
processes take place. For instance, earlier school start times might exacerbate
the impact of sleep-related processes on adolescent behavioral
health outcomes. Thus, incorporating school start times as a larger contextual variable
that might moderate models of sleep and adolescent functioning
represents a gap in the literature and a unique opportunity to advance
conceptual models. Accordingly, the current study examines
the moderating role of school start times on the associations between sleep hygiene,
sleep quality, and mental health.

Continue reading

Employer Health Plans Spend At Least $6 Billion Per Year On Preterm Infant Care

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Scott D. Grosse, PhD National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities CDC 

Dr. Scott Grosse

Scott D. Grosse, PhD
National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities
CDC 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 2007 published estimates of the economic costs associated with preterm birth. That report is publicly available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20669423. The total societal cost over a lifetime of a single year’s cohort of infants born preterm was estimated as $26 billion in 2005 US dollars. The study in Pediatrics sought to provide more current estimates of one component of those costs: medical care between birth and 12 months and to answer two additional questions:

  1. What costs are specifically incurred by employer-sponsored private health plans?
  2. How much of the overall cost burden of prematurity is attributable to infants born preterm with major birth defects (congenital malformations and chromosome abnormalities)?

Continue reading

How Do Viruses Trigger Cough In Asthmatic Children, Even Without Allergies

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Giovanni Piedimonte, MD Steven and Nancy Calabrese Endowed Chair for Excellence in Pediatric Care, Research, and Education Professor & Chair of Pediatrics Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine Case Western Reserve University

Dr. Piedimonte

Giovanni Piedimonte, MD
Steven and Nancy Calabrese Endowed Chair for Excellence in Pediatric Care, Research, and Education
Professor & Chair of Pediatrics
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine
Case Western Reserve University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This study proves that asthmatic children already have a hyperactive calcium channel that’s extremely sensitive to environmental triggers.

If these children contract a virus, such as RSV, the hyperactive channel causes more severe symptoms that may require care in a hospital setting.

When a child developed asthma or bronchitis in the past, doctors thought these conditions could only be triggered by environmental allergens. There was no explanation why two out of three children ages five and under who wheeze and cough – and still test negative for allergies.

We needed to explore the mechanisms of the calcium molecule and the epithelial cells, which seem to trigger these symptoms without an allergic reaction. If the molecule’s behavior is producing the cough, we just need to figure out how to control the molecule to properly deactivate the cough mechanism in the asthmatic child

Continue reading

Treating Iron Deficiency In Infants Has Beneficial Brain and Behavioral Effects In Children

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Staffan Berglund MD PhD Umeå University Sweden

Dr. Berglund

Staffan Berglund MD PhD
Umeå University
Sweden 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Iron deficiency has been associated with impaired neurodevelopment and iron supplementation is recommended to those at risk. While it is well known that very low birth weight infants are at risk of iron deficiency, less has been known regarding the large subgroup of children born with only marginally low birth weight (2000-2500g). In the present study, we previously showed that this relatively common group of otherwise healthy children is at risk of iron deficiency during infancy (Berglund Pediatrics 2010;126).

In the study published this week, we now also found that supplementation during the first six months of life had long term positive effects on their behavioral profile, with significant reduction of externalizing behavioral problems.

Continue reading

TDAP Vaccine During Pregnancy Prevents Whooping Cough In Young Babies

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Tami H Skoff Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, Georgia
Tami H Skoff
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta, Georgia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Infants are at greatest risk for severe pertussis (whooping cough) morbidity and mortality, especially during the first months of life before infant immunizations begin.  CDC and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) currently recommend that women receive a dose of Tdap during the third trimester of each pregnancy.  This recommendation has been in place since 2012.  By getting Tdap, pregnant women pass critical short-term protection to their unborn babies. This helps protect babies until they are old enough to start getting their own whooping cough vaccines at 2 months of age.

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of maternal Tdap during pregnancy at preventing whooping cough in infants <2 months of age.

In our evaluation, Tdap administration during the third trimester of pregnancy prevented more than 3 in 4 (78%) infant cases.  Additionally, Tdap vaccination during pregnancy was even more effective (90%) at preventing whooping cough serious enough that the baby had to get treatment in a hospital.

Continue reading

Asthma Improvement Collaborative Reduced ER Visits and Hospitalizations in Medicaid Population

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Carolyn M. Kercsmar, MD Co-Director, Division of Pulmonary Medicine Director, Asthma Center Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine Cincinnati, Ohio

Dr. Kercsmar

Dr. Carolyn M. Kercsmar, MD
Co-Director, Division of Pulmonary Medicine
Director, Asthma Center
Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center
Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine
Cincinnati, Ohio 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Asthma is the most common chronic condition of childhood and is responsible for substantial morbidity and health care costs, in large portion as a result of emergency room visits and hospitalizations. Moreover, children who live in poverty and are members of minority groups are disproportionately affected.

Our paper reports the results of a quality improvement project that spanned the inpatient, outpatient and community settings and resulted in significant reduction in emergency department visits and hospitalizations for asthma in urban children insured by Medicaid.

MedicalResearch.com: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report?

Response: Broad based interventions that are based on the chronic care model and involve changes in health care systems across multiple setting and disciplines can improve asthma outcomes.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study?

Response: Future work should focus on replicating these findings in other settings and with other personnel, such as community health workers as interventionalists and a formal economic evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of the program. 

Disclosures: This work was supported by Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center and in part by a grant from Health Information Technology Beacon Program to the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center and grant 90BC00116/01 for development of web-based asthma registry and health care use alerts. 

MedicalResearch.com: Thank you for your contribution to the MedicalResearch.com community.

Citation:

Kercsmar CM, Beck AF, Sauers-Ford H, Simmons J, Wiener B, Crosby L, Wade-Murphy S, Schoettker PJ, Chundi PK, Samaan Z, Mansour M. Association of an Asthma Improvement Collaborative With Health Care Utilization in Medicaid-Insured Pediatric Patients in an Urban Community. JAMA Pediatr. Published online September 18, 2017. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.2600

Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions.

 

 

 

 

 

Maternal Blood Pressure Rise During Pregnancy Linked To Increased Risk Of Childhood Obesity

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Duo Li, PhD Chief professor of Nutrition Institute of Nutrition and Health Qingdao University, China. 

Dr. Duo Li

Duo Li, PhD
Chief professor of Nutrition
Institute of Nutrition and Health
Qingdao University, China. 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Childhood obesity is becoming an emerging public health issue worldwide, owing to its association with a variety of health problems at younger ages in adulthood, including obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Identification of prenatal and early life risk factors is key for curbing the epidemic of the childhood obesity.

Main finding of the present study is that among pregnant women, elevated blood pressure is associated with a greater risk of overweight and obesity for their children.

Continue reading

Chronic Hives In Children Resolve Slowly

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Hives-Urticaria Wikipedia image

Hives-Urticaria
Wikipedia image

Elena Netchiporouk, MD, FRCPC, MSc
Dermatology Resident – PGY5 and
Dr. Moshe Ben-Shoshan, MD, FRCPC, MSc
McGill University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: We have followed a pediatric cohort of 139 patients with chronic urticaria (CU) (hives) between 2013 and 2015 in a single tertiary care center and assessed the comorbidities, the rate of resolution and determined predictors of resolution.

Continue reading

Large Trial Evaluates Inhaled Nitric oxide on Survival Without Pulmonary Dysplasia in Preterm Infants

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Shabih U. Hasan, MD, DCH, FRCPC Professor and Staff Neonatologist, Alberta Health Services Department of Pediatrics, Cumming School of Medicine University of Calgary

Dr. Hasan

Shabih U. Hasan, MD, DCH, FRCPC
Professor and Staff Neonatologist, Alberta Health Services
Department of Pediatrics, Cumming School of Medicine
University of Calgary

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Approximately 8% of all infants are born prematurely (preterm birth <37 weeks postmenstrual age). Preterm infants have many challenges including establishment of adequate pulmonary gas exchange. Due to not yet fully developed lungs, preterm infants require respiratory support consisting of respirators and other forms of non-invasive ventilation modalities and supplemental oxygen.  Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the commonest morbidity among very low birth weight infants as 40% of survivors at postmenstrual age <30 weeks develop BPD. This is a serious condition as it can lead to short- and long-term pulmonary complications, increased hospital visits and neurodevelopmental impairment. BPD is defined where preterm infants require respiratory support and/or supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks postmenstrual age.

A number of therapeutic and non-therapeutic modalities have been used to prevent BPD including inhaled nitric oxide (iNO).  In 2006, the NO CLD trial demonstrated that iNO prevented BPD (Relative benefit 1.81; CI 1.27-2.59, P = 0.006) if used according to the NO CLD Protocol (Ballard et al., New England Journal of Medicine, 355:343-353, 2006). Our study (NEWNO; Newborns treated with Nitric Oxide) was designed to replicate the NO CLD study.
Continue reading

More Teenage Boys Becoming Fathers

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Maureen Pirog PhD Rudy Professor of Policy Analysis School of Public and Environmental Affairs Indiana University

Dr. Pirog

Maureen Pirog PhD
Rudy Professor of Policy Analysis
School of Public and Environmental Affairs
Indiana University 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We analyzed parenthood, education and income statistics over a long time span from two groups of about 10,000 people — those born in 1962-64 and those born in 1980-82.

  • Teen fathers and mothers came increasingly from single-mother families with disadvantaged backgrounds.
  • The proportion of teen mothers or fathers living with their partners didn’t change, but far fewer were married.
  • The birth rates to teenage girls across the two groups didn’t change, but the reported rate of teenage fatherhood increased, a seemingly contradictory conclusion. For example, 1.7 percent of the men in the older group were fathers by the time they were 17, while in the younger group, nearly double that number were dads. About 8 percent of the 17-year-old females in both groups were mothers.

Continue reading

Joint Physical Custody Better For Children’s Psychological Health

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Malin Bergström PhD Center for Health Equity Studies  Karolinska Institutet  

Dr. Bergstrom

Malin Bergström PhD
Center for Health Equity Studies
Karolinska Institutet  

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The increase in children who move between their parent’s homes after a divorce is one of the major changes in children’s life circumstances during the last decade. Spending equal amounts of time in both parents’ homes means that these children move fifty times a year. Child experts have claimed this to be stressful and potentially harmful to children’s attachment relations to their mothers. Especially for children this young the practice of joint physical custody has been questioned.

Continue reading

New Assay Can Distinguish Between Viral and Bacterial Infections in Kids

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Prof. Alain Gervaix
Head of the Emergency Division
Department of Children and Adolescents
University Hospitals of Geneva
Switzerland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Many are familiar with the following ‘seemingly’ simple clinical dilemma that occurs on a daily basis across the world. A patient visits the doctor with a fever. Commonly, assigning a diagnosis comes down to deciding whether the infection is bacterial or viral. Accordingly, the doctor decides if to treat or not to treat with antibiotics. The problem is that bacterial and viral infections often present with very similar symptoms, causing uncertainty that leads to antibiotics being used, in many instances, when they are not needed. This antibiotic misuse contributes to the rise of antimicrobial resistance, one of the biggest health threats of the 21st century.

Host biomarkers hold great promise as routine diagnostic tools that can assist doctors in making correct antibiotic treatment decisions, as they overcome key limitations of currently applied pathogen-based tests. Recently, a novel host-assay (ImmunoXpert™) for differentiating bacterial from viral infections was developed and validated to yield high sensitivity and specificity. The three-protein host-assay comprises tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), Interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10) and C-reactive protein (CRP).

Continue reading

Childhood Tackle Football Linked To Increased Risk of Depression and Cognitive Issues In Adulthood

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Michael Alosco, PhD NRSA Postdoctoral Fellow Boston University Alzheimer’s Disease & CTE Center Boston University School of Medicine 

Dr. Alosco

Michael Alosco, PhD
NRSA Postdoctoral Fellow
Boston University Alzheimer’s Disease & CTE Center
Boston University School of Medicine 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: TThe goal of this study was to investigate whether playing youth tackle football, particularly before the age of 12, is associated with worse emotional, behavioral, and cognitive difficulties later in life. Participants in this study included 214 former amateur and professional American football players who were part of the LEGEND study at Boston University. Participants had an average age of 51. 43 played high school football, 103 played college football, and there were 68 professional American football players. The former players were divided into two groups: those who began playing tackle football before age 12 and those who began at age 12 or older. Participants received telephone-administered cognitive tests and completed online measures of depression, behavioral regulation, apathy, and executive functioning, such as initiating activity, problem-solving, planning, and organization. Results from former players who started playing tackle football before the age of 12 were compared to those of participants who started playing at age 12 or later.

The study showed that participation in tackle football before age 12 increased the odds for having problems with behavioral regulation, apathy and executive functioning by two-fold and increased the odds for clinically elevated depression scores by three-fold. These findings were independent of the total number of years the participants played football or at what level they played, such as high school, college, or professional. Even when a specific age cutoff was not used, younger age of exposure to tackle football corresponded with worse clinical status.

Continue reading

Cheap Cigarettes in Europe Associated With Increased Infant Mortality

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Filippos Filippidis MD MPH PhD Lecturer in Public Health School of Public Health Imperial College London London

Dr. Filippidis

Filippos Filippidis MD MPH PhD
Lecturer in Public Health
School of Public Health
Imperial College London
London

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Smoking kills millions of people every year. It is well established that increasing tobacco prices is the most effective way to reduce tobacco consumption and hence mitigate the devastating effects of tobacco on health. Taxation on tobacco products is high in the European Union, which makes cigarettes less affordable. However, transnational tobacco companies are known to manipulate prices, ensuring that cheap or ‘budget’ cigarettes are still available. This is particularly important for younger smokers and those of low socioeconomic status who are more sensitive in price increases.

Smoking during pregnancy, as well as exposure of pregnant women and babies to cigarette smoke increase infant mortality. There is also evidence that increasing tobacco prices is associated with lower infant mortality. However, researchers typically use average or premium cigarette prices. We analysed 54 million births from 23 European Union countries to see if the differential between average priced and budget cigarettes (i.e. the availability of cigarettes much cheaper than average priced ones) is associated with infant mortality.

We found that increasing average cigarette prices by 1 Euro per pack was associated with 0.23 fewer deaths per 1,000 live births in the same year and an additional 0.16 fewer deaths per 1,000 live births in the following year. A 10% increase in the price differential between budget and average priced cigarettes was associated with 0.07 more deaths per 1,000 live births the following year. This means that 3,195 infant deaths could potentially have been avoided in these 23 countries if there was no price difference between cigarette products over the 10-year study period.

Continue reading

Healthy Behaviors and Academic Success Go ‘Hand in Hand’

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Catherine N. Rasberry, PhD Health Scientist, Division of Adolescent and School Health CDC Atlanta

Dr.Raspberry

Catherine N. Rasberry, PhD
Health Scientist, Division of Adolescent and School Health
CDC Atlanta

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: For many years, researchers have documented links between health-related behaviors and educational outcomes such as letter grades, test scores, and other measures of academic achievement. However, many of those studies are becoming out-of-date or have used samples that were not nationally representative. The aim of this study was to see if previous findings held in a current, national sample of high school students.

Consistent with previous studies, our findings revealed that regardless of sex, race/ethnicity and grade-level, high school students who received mostly A’s, mostly B’s, or mostly C’s had higher levels of most protective health-related behaviors and lower levels of most health-related risk behaviors. For example, we found that:

  • Students who reported receiving mostly Ds and Fs, were nine times more likely than students who received mostly As to report having ever injected any illegal drugs.
  • Also, students who reported receiving mostly Ds and Fs were more than four times more likely than students who received mostly As to report that they had four or more sexual partners.
  • Conversely, students who reported receiving mostly As were twice as likely as students who received mostly Ds and Fs to report eating breakfast every day in the past week.

Continue reading