Childhood Adversities Linked To Increased Suicide Risk in Adolescents and Young Adults

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Charlotte Björkenstam PhD

Dept of Clinical Neuroscience
Karolinska Institutet
Division of Insurance Medicine
Stockholm

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In a prior study we revealed that exposure to childhood adversities were associated with a substantial risk increase for self-harm. The risk was even higher for those exposed to accumulated childhood adversities. This finding together with the fact that the suicide rate among young adults is increasing (as opposed to decreasing in the general population) lead us to want to examine the relationship between childhood adversities and death by suicide.

We investigated 7 different childhood adversities, including familial death (suicide analyzed separately), parental substance abuse, parental psychiatric disorder, substantial parental criminality, parental separation/single-parent household, public assistance recipiency, and residential instability occurring between birth and age 14. We then followed the individuals up until age 24 at most. All adversities were entailed with an increased suicide risk from IRR: 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1 to 2.4) for residential instability to IRR: 2.9 (95% CI; 1.4 to 5.9) for familial suicide. We also found a dose-response relationship between accumulating CA and suicide risk where IRR ranged between 1.1 (95% CI: 0.9 to 1.4) for those exposed to 1 CA, to 2.6 (95% CI: 1.9 to 3.4) for those exposed to 3 or more adversities.

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Study Finds No Link To Autism, ADHD In Offspring From Antidepressant Use In Pregnancy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Simone Vigod, MD, MSc, FRCPC Psychiatrist and Lead, Reproductive Life Stages Program Women’s Mental Health Program Women’s College Hospital Toronto, ON

Dr. Vigod

Simone Vigod, MD, MSc, FRCPC
Psychiatrist and Lead, Reproductive Life Stages Program
Women’s Mental Health Program
Women’s College Hospital
Toronto, ON

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Depression is one of the most common problems that can complicate a pregnancy. Untreated, or incompletely treated, it can be associated with significant harm to mother and child. While psychotherapies alone may be effective for women with mild (or even moderate) severity symptoms, sometimes antidepressant medication is required. In these cases, the benefits of treatment must be weighed against potential risks. Previous research suggested that there may be an increased risk for autism in children exposed to antidepressant medication during pregnancy. However, previous studies were limited in their ability to account for other potential causes of autism in their analyses. In our study, we used several different strategies to try to compare children whose pregnancy exposures were very similar, except for exposure to an antidepressant.

The main finding was that after using these strategies, there was no longer a statistically significant association between in-utero antidepressant exposure and autism.

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Exposure To Furry Pets During Pregnancy and Babyhood May Help Keep Your Child Lean

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Anita Kozyrskyj, PhD Department of Pediatrics Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry University of Alberta

Dr. Anita Kozyrskyj

Anita Kozyrskyj, PhD
Department of Pediatrics
Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry
University of Alberta

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We have known for a while that early-life exposure to household pets can reduce risk for allergic disease; new studies also suggest a benefit in preventing overweight. Our pilot study in 2013 showed that postnatal pet exposure increases the number of different beneficial microbes in the infant gut. My team of 12, including first author and Albert Innovates-Health Solutions (AIHS) postdoctoral fellow Hein Min Tun, took the science one step closer to understanding this connection in our recently published work in the Microbiome journal. In a study of 746 infants from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development Study (CHILD) birth cohort, we investigated the impact of pet exposure during pregnancy or afterwards on infant gut microbes, and whether this depended on how infants were born.

In infants born vaginally or by cesarean section, pet exposure during pregnancy or pre and postnatally up to 3 months after birth increased the amounts of 2 bacteria found on dogs and cats. One is Ruminococcus, linked to lower rates of allergies in children. The other is a relatively unknown microbe, Oscillospira, reported to promote leanness. Another important finding suggested that contact with pets during pregnancy could reduce transmission of vaginal GBS (group B Streptococcus) during birth.

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Radiation Exposure in the Pediatric Patient: What Every Orthopaedist Should Know

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Ayesha Rahman, MD

Chief Orthopaedic Surgery Resident
NYU Langone Medical Center.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Children are more vulnerable and susceptible to lifetime adverse events from radiation exposure, caused by imaging . We reviewed literature and found certain pediatric orthopaedic patients are at greater risk for radiation exposure, namely those who have surgery for hip dysplasia, scoliosis, and leg length discrepancy, as they are among those most likely to undergo CT imaging. After reviewing all types of imaging studies performed in orthopedics and how much radiation is involved in each test, we developed several recommendations that pediatric orthopaedic surgeons should follow.

Among those recommendations are: utilize low-dose CT protocols or technology that uses less imaging (like EOS), limit CT scans of the spine and pelvis, know that female patients are more susceptible to adverse risk and plan accordingly, and follow the the “as low as reasonably achievable,”principle to limit exposure to parts of the body that are necessary for diagnosis.

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Vitamin D Deficiency Highly Prevalent in Pediatric Irritable Bowel Syndrome

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Benjamin Udoka Nwosu, MD, FAAP Associate Professor of Pediatrics Division of Endocrinology University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester, Massachusetts

Dr. Nwosu

Benjamin Udoka Nwosu, MD, FAAP
Associate Professor of Pediatrics
Division of Endocrinology
University of Massachusetts Medical School
Worcester, Massachusetts

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?
Response: Vitamin D deficiency has been reported in various gastrointestinal disorders but the vitamin D status of children and adolescents with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has not been previously characterized.

Secondly, the vitamin D status in IBS has not been compared to those of other malabsorption syndromes such as irritable bowel syndrome, lactose intolerance, and celiac disease.

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Pediatric Death Fall Worldwide, But Still Disproportionately Affect Poorer Countries

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Nicholas Kassebaum, MD Assistant Professor

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
University of Washington

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Reducing deaths of young children has been an international priority over the past few decades, and much progress has been made in this regard. Comprehensive and timely measurement of death and disease burden among children and adolescents is essential for improving the health of young people. Analyzing the latest estimates from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD), the current study quantifies and describes levels and trends of mortality and disease burden among children and adolescents under the age of 19 from 1990 to 2015.

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Maternal Obesity Linked To Increased Risk of Epilepsy in Offspring

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Neda Razaz-Vandyke, PhD, MPH
Postdoctoral Fellow
Reproductive Epidemiology Unit
Karolinska Institutet  

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response:   There is a growing concern about long-term neurological effects of prenatal exposure to maternal overweight and obesity.

The etiology of epilepsy is poorly understood and in more than 60% of cases no definitive cause can be determined. We found that maternal overweight and obesity increased the risks of childhood epilepsy in a dose-response pattern.

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Early Low-Dose Hydrocortisone Therapy in Extremely Preterm Neonates Not Linked To Poor Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Prof. Olivier Baud MD Chef de Service, Réanimation et Pédiatrie Néonatales Team leader, INSERM U1141 Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité Département Hospitalo-Universitaire "PROTECT" Hôpital Robert Debré, Paris, France

Prof. Baud

Prof. Olivier Baud MD
Chef de Service, Réanimation et Pédiatrie Néonatales
Team leader, INSERM U1141
Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité
Département Hospitalo-Universitaire “PROTECT”
Hôpital Robert Debré, Paris, France

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Preterm birth is frequently associated with perinatal inflammation, a major risk factor for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Because glucocorticoids alleviate systemic inflammation, they have been proposed as a therapeutic option in very preterm infants. Early dexamethasone therapy led to short-term benefits but was associated with cerebral palsy and other adverse neurodevelopmental events. Early treatment with low-dose hydrocortisone has been reported to improve short-term outcomes in extremely preterm infants. However, its safety remains to be assessed with regard to the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes.

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White Matter Trajectories Diverge In Children After Traumatic Brain Injury

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Emily Dennis Postdoctoral Scholar Imaging Genetics Center Mark and Mary Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute USC

Emily Dennis

Emily Dennis PhD
Postdoctoral Scholar
Imaging Genetics Center
Mark and Mary Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute
USC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We know that there is heterogeneity in outcome post-traumatic brain injury (TBI), but we generally think of this as a continuous variable – with most patients falling in the middle and only a few at the extremes in terms of recovery process and outcome.

Our main finding was that interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT – the time it takes for information to move from one hemisphere of the brain to the other) identified 2 subgroups of TBI patients – those with slow IHTT and those with normal IHTT. These two groups show differences in cognitive function and brain structure, with the IHTT slow group showing structural disruptions that become progressively worse while the IHTT normal group seems to be recovering from the injury.

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Antibiotics in Pregnancy Increase Children’s Risk of Otitis Media and Ventilation Tubes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Hans Bisgaard, MD, DMSc

Professor of Pediatrics
The Faculty of Health Sciences
University of Copenhagen
Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte
Copenhagen, Denmark

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The consumption of antibiotics is increasing worldwide. Antibiotics alter the maternal bacterial colonization and by vertical transmission this can affect the offspring. An unfavorable microbiome may increase the disease propensity of the offspring.
Otitis media is one of the most common infections in early childhood. We hypothesized that antibiotic consumption in pregnancy can increase the children’s risk of otitis media.
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Pyrethroid Pesticides Linked To Earlier Puberty in Boys

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jing Liu, Ph.D. Associate Professor College of Environmental & Resource Sciences Zhejiang University Hangzhou, China

Dr. Jing Liu

Jing Liu, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
College of Environmental & Resource Sciences
Zhejiang University
Hangzhou, China

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In addition to consistent observations of earlier pubertal onset in female since late 19th century, acceleration in male pubertal development also has been reported in more recent studies. Improved nutrition, health and living conditions may contribute to the secular trend towards an earlier pubertal onset. However, the potential role of environmental agents, specifically endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), also has been emphasized.

Pyrethroids are among the currently used pesticide classes placed on the list of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as potential EDCs. Pyrethroids are one of the top 10 classes of pesticides and account for greater than 30% of global insecticide usage. Increased human exposure to pyrethroids is thought to occur mainly via residues in diets and indoor residential use. The metabolites of pyrethroids have been widely identified in urine samples of adults, children and adolescents worldwide and the detection rate is usually more than 60% in human populations.

Here, we recognize pyrethroids as a new environmental contributor to the observed secular trend toward earlier male sexual maturity. For the first time to our knowledge, this work reveal a significant and positive association between pyrethroids exposure and gonadotropins levels in 463 Chinese boys, in which a 10% increase in 3-PBA (a common urinary metabolite of pyrethroids) is associated with more than 2% increase in both LH and FSH. Boys with increased urinary levels of 3-PBA have a significantly increased risk of earlier pubertal development, in which the odds of being in an advanced testicular volume and genitalia stage are increase by 113% and 268%, respectively.

Because it is difficult to test the direct causality of environmental risk factors in humans, we further sought to identify in animals how pyrethroids alter the timing of puberty. Postnatal exposure to a widely used pyrethroid pesticide, cypermethrin, can accelerate pubertal timing and induce circulating levels of gonadotropins and testosterone in male mice. Our findings reveal the activation of voltage-gated calcium channels pathway in pituitary gonadotropes and testicular Leydig cells as a newly discovered mechanism of pyrethroid-induced early pubertal development in the male.

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Regular Marijuana Use is Costly Healthwise, Especially When Started As Teenager

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

James McIntosh PhD Economics Department Concordia University Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Dr. McIntosh

James McIntosh PhD
Economics Department
Concordia University
Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study

Response: Marijuana is about to become legal in Canada. Consequently, an analysis of its effects on users is a high priority. This issue has been explored by Canadian researchers to some extent but there are gaps in what is known about the effects of using marijuana. Most of the Canadian studies focus on youth or adolescent use. This is clearly important but adult use is as well. Establishing the link between early usage and the effects of use over an individual’s lifetime was a major objective of the study.
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