Access to Treatment for Head/Neck Cancer Patients Improved with Medicaid Expansion

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Richard B. Cannon, MD Division of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery School of Medicine University of Utah, Salt Lake City 

Dr. Cannon

Richard B. Cannon, MD
Division of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery
School of Medicine
University of Utah, Salt Lake City 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

 Response: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is a nationwide effort to reduce the number of uninsured individuals in the United States and increase access to health care. This legislation is commonly debated and objective data is needed to evaluate its impact.  As a head and neck cancer surgeon, I sought to evaluate how the ACA had specifically influenced my patients.  Main findings below:    

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: This population-based study found an increase in the percentage of patients enrolled in Medicaid and private insurance and a large decrease in the rates of uninsured patients after implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA).  This change was only seen in states that adopted the Medicaid expansion in 2014. The decrease in the rate of uninsured patients was significant, 6.2% before versus 3.0% after. Patients who were uninsured prior to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act had poorer survival outcomes.

Continue reading

An Atypical Parvovirus Linked to Chronic Kidney Disease

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ben Roediger PhD Head of the Skin Inflammation Group within Professor Wolfgang Weninger’s Immune Imaging Laboratory Centenary Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney,  Camperdown,, Australia

Dr. Roediger

Ben Roediger PhD
Head of the Skin Inflammation Group within
Professor Wolfgang Weninger’s Immune Imaging Laboratory
Centenary Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Health,
The University of Sydney,
Camperdown,, Australia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: We use several strains of mice for our research, including animals with immunodeficiencies. One of our lines started succumbing to kidney disease and we decided to investigate.

Continue reading

Inhaled Steroids Associated With Increased Risk of Atypical Mycobacterial Infections

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Stephen J Ruoss MD Professor, Stanford University, Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Cfritical Care Medicine Stanford, California

Dr. Ruoss

Stephen J Ruoss MD
Professor, Stanford University, Medicine,
Division of Pulmonary and Cfritical Care Medicine
Stanford, California

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you briefly explain what is meant by an atypical mycobacterial infection? 

Response: Our interest in undertaking this study stems from three important clinical observations and issues.

First, the use of inhaled steroid medications for a broad variety of respiratory complaints and diseases is increasing, including in clinical circumstances where there isn’t much strong supportive evidence for benefit to patients from using inhaled steroids.

The second observation is that steroids can and do alter immune system responses, and can increase the risk for some infections. There are already data from studying patients on inhaled steroids where the incidence of bacterial respiratory infections has increased, supporting the concerns for infection risk from inhaled steroids.

And the third issue is that steroids can more specifically alter immune system function that helps combat mycobacterial infections, and this means that the risk for, and incidence of mycobacterial infections could be increased in patients treated with inhaled steroids. The best known mycobacterial infection is of course tuberculosis, but there are other mycobacteria, called nontuberculous mycobacterial (or atypical mycobacterial) that are broadly found in the environment, and some of those nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can cause lung infections.

So our hypothesis was that the use of inhaled steroids might be associated with an increased frequency of NTM infections, and we designed the study to explore that hypothesis. Continue reading

H. pylori Link to Stomach Cancer Strengthened

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Nina R. Salama. PhD Member Human Biology Division Member Public Health Sciences Division Affiliate Member Basic Sciences Division Dr. Penny E. Petersen Memorial Chair for Lymphoma Research  Director of Molecular and Cellular Biology (MCB) Graduate Program Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center

Dr. Salama

Nina R. Salama. PhD
Member Human Biology Division
Member Public Health Sciences Division
Affiliate Member Basic Sciences Division
Dr. Penny E. Petersen Memorial Chair for Lymphoma Research
Director of Molecular and Cellular Biology (MCB) Graduate Program
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We wanted to better understand why certain patients infected with H. pylori developed stomach cancer and how we could better identify them. H. pylori is one of the strongest risk factors for stomach cancer, but how much it predisposes individuals to gastric cancer varies around the world.

Working closely with colleagues from Zhengzhou University, we ran tests on 49 samples from China and found that 91 percent of patients infected with the EPIYA D gene variant of H. pylori also had stomach cancer. Continue reading

Increase In Measles in Italy Linked to Austerity Measures

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Measles

Veronica Toffolutti PhD
Research Fellow in Health Economics
Bocconi University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Austerity has been linked to several health damaging effects such as suicides, increase in unmet needs, disease outbreaks that affect vulnerable peoples such as malaria in Greece, HIV in Greece and Romania during the current economic crises or in the earlier economic crisis cuts in public health expenditure have been linked with diphtheria and TB.

Europe is experiencing declining vaccination rates and resurgences in measles incidence rates. Italy appears to be particularly affected reporting the second largest number, second to Romania, of infection in Europe in 2017. Starting from the point that the primary reason for the outbreak in the decline in the measles vaccination we test the hypothesis that large budget reductions in public health spending were also a contributing factor.

Using data on 20 Italian regions for the period 2000-2014 we found that each 1% reduction in the real per capita public health expenditure was associated with a decrease of 0.5 percentage points (95% CI: 0.36-0.65 percentage points) in MMR coverage, after adjusting for time and regional-specific time-trends.  Continue reading

First Trial Compares Treatment Options For Serious Infections Caused by ESBL-Producers

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Patrick Harris FRACP Staff Specialist Microbiology | Pathology Queensland | Health Support Queensland Postdoctoral Research Fellow University of Queensland, UQ Centre for Clinical Research (Paterson Group)

Dr. Harris

Patrick Harris FRACP
Staff Specialist
Microbiology | Pathology Queensland | Health Support Queensland
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
University of Queensland, UQ Centre for Clinical Research (Paterson Group

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Increasingly, common bacterial pathogens such as E. coli or Klebsiella have acquired genes known as extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), which mediate resistance to many of our most important antibiotics. Despite their clinical importance, we have limited information derived from randomised clinical trials on the best antibiotic treatments for life-threatening infections caused by these ESBL-producers.

We aimed to compare two readily available antibiotics, meropenem (a carbapenem drug, as the “standard of care”) and piperacillin-tazobactam (which may be an alternative to meropenem). Many ESBL-producing bacteria test susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam in the laboratory, yet clinical efficacy has been uncertain.  Some observational studies have suggested that piperacillin-tazobactam may be effective against ESBL-producers, but the data have been contradictory.  The theory has been that piperacillin-tazobactam may be less likely to select for resistance to carbapenems – which, when it occurs, can result in infection with bacteria that are almost untreatable.

Continue reading

USPSTF: All Pregnant Women Should Be Screened For Syphilis

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Melissa A. Simon, M.D., M.P.H. Member, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force George H. Gardner professor of clinical gynecology, Vice chair of clinical research Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Professor of preventive medicine and medical social sciences Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Dr. Simon

Melissa A. Simon, M.D., M.P.H.
Member, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
George H. Gardner professor of clinical gynecology, Vice chair of clinical research
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Professor of preventive medicine and medical social sciences
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The number of babies born with syphilis is increasing, mirroring the recent increase of syphilis among women. Syphilis infection passed from a pregnant woman to her baby, also known as congenital syphilis, can lead to serious health complications for the baby including premature birth, low birthweight, birth defects, and even death. The Task Force recommends that all pregnant women be screened for syphilis as early in pregnancy as possible to prevent congenital syphilis.  Continue reading

Vaccines Against Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Decreased Infections Even in Unvaccinated Kids

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Chuanxi Fu, MD.PhD. Professor of Epidemiology, School of Public Health Zhejiang Chinese Medical University Associate editor, Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

Dr. Chuanxi Fu

Chuanxi Fu, MD.PhD.
Professor of Epidemiology, School of Public Health
Zhejiang Chinese Medical University
Associate editor, Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Since 2000, the Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine has been exclusively licensed in China for voluntary rotavirus gastroenteritis prevention, however, the effects of the vaccination on population health, including any indirect impact to unvaccinated individuals have not been evaluated.

In the study enrolled 33 407 patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis from 2007 to 2015 seasons in southern China shows vaccination effects in which the median age at onset increased by 4 months, and onset, peak, and cessation of incidence were delayed. The incidence rate ratio among children younger than 4 years and among children ineligible for vaccination decreased as citywide vaccination coverage increased, and the adjusted odds ratio for rotavirus gastroenteritis among unvaccinated infants decreased in areas with higher vaccination coverage.  Continue reading

Q Fever Patients Must Be Followed To Avoid Cardiac Complications

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Sheep tick - vector for Coxiella burnetii, the cause of the disease known as Q fever CDC image

Sheep tick – vector for Coxiella burnetii, the cause of the disease known as Q fever CDC image

Pr. Didier Raoult
Directeur de l’IHU Méditerranée-Infection
Marseille 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This work represents the sum of data accumulated over several decades of studies on Q fever.

Our reference center contacts each of the physicians in charge and ensures patient follow-up, which allows obtaining data, that is not comparable to those used automatically in databanks. Four people exclusively dedicated their time to manage these specific data on Q fever.

The main data confirm the need to perform a cardiac ultrasound for all patients with Q fever and acute endocarditis (to detect valvulopathy) and to give a prophylactic treatment to avoid fixation on the heart in patients with valvulopathy.

This work helps clarify the evolution of Q fever by eliminating the term of chronic Q fever, which is based on non-clinical elements, and defining persistent Q fever for which there is an identifiable focus of infection.

Furthermore, this work makes it possible to recommend systematic detection of antiphospholipid antibodies in order to limit the risk of thrombosis and the risk of cardiac fixation.

Continue reading

Antibiotics Leading Cause of Pediatric Adverse Drug Events in ER

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Maribeth C. Lovegrove, MPH
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta, GA 30333).

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: There has been a lot of recent attention on reducing unnecessary antibiotic prescribing in order to reduce antibiotic resistance (a longer-term harm).  However, antibiotic use also can lead to shorter-term harms like allergic reactions and other side effects.  With this analysis, we wanted to focus on the acute harms to individual pediatric patients from antibiotic use in order to help target prevention efforts.  Specifically, we used data from two national data sources to identify the antibiotics with the highest numbers of emergency department visits for adverse drug events and the highest rates of emergency department visits for adverse drug events (accounting for amount of antibiotic prescriptions dispensed) and to identify the pediatric patients with the highest risks.

Continue reading

HPV Testing or PAP Smear To Screen for Cervical Cancer?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Joy Melnikow, MD, MPH Professor, Department of Family and Community Medicine Director, Center for Healthcare Policy and Research University of California, Davis Sacramento, CA 95817

Dr. Melnikow

Joy Melnikow, MD, MPH
Professor, Department of Family and Community Medicine
Director, Center for Healthcare Policy and Research
University of California, Davis
Sacramento, CA 95817

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This systematic review of the medical literature was conducted to support the update of the US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation.  Because the effectiveness of cytology (Pap smear) screening is so well established, the review focused on the evidence on use of high risk Human Papillomavirus (hrHPV) screening, alone (primary screening) or combined with cytology (co-testing)

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Current evidence supports the use of cytology, hrHPV testing alone, or co-testing as effective approaches to screening for cervical cancer.  hrHPV testing, alone or as co-testing, can be done at five year intervals, longer than the recommended 3 year interval for cytology. 

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work? 

Response: Additional research is needed to identify effective strategies for outreach and screening women who are not regularly screened.  Because most women in the US are not part of an organized screening program, effective outreach is especially important in the US. 

MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add?

Response: Since the prior review, more evidence has emerged to support the use of hrHPV testing as primary screening.

I have no financial conflicts of interest. 

Citation:

US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Cervical CancerUS Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA. 2018;320(7):674–686. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.10897

Aug 22, 2018 @ 12:01 pm 

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Single Dose of Ibalizumab Boosts Immunity in Resistant HIV

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Brinda Emu, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) Yale School of Medicine

Dr. Emu

Brinda Emu, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases)
Yale School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: This was a Phase 3 study of a new antiretroviral agent, ibalizumab, for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.  Ibalizumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets the CD4 receptor on host cells.  CD4 is the receptor that HIV uses to infect CD4+ T cells.  By binding to the CD4 receptor, ibalizumab prevents viral entry.  This study recruited patients that harbor multi-drug resistant HIV and were failing their current regimen of antiretroviral agents, and thus had limited options for treatment of their HIV-1 infection using approved medications.

Continue reading

For Resistant HIV: Phase III Trial of Trogarzo Demonstrates Safety and Efficacy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
TaiMed BiologicsStanley Lewis, M.D.

TaiMed Biologics
Irvine, CA 92614


MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The phase III clinical trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of Trogarzo™ (ibalizumab-uiyk) injection in patients with multidrug resistant HIV-1. The study design was approved by the FDA. Results obtained were included in the New Drug Application submitted to the FDA which approved Trogarzo™ on March 6, 2018.

The phase III, open-label study, enrolled 40 patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV-1 in whom multiple antiretroviral therapies had failed. All patients at baseline were experiencing viral failure. After a seven-day control period, patients received an intravenous 2000 mg loading dose of Trogarzo™ which was the only change made to their antiretroviral regimen. Through the 24-week treatment period of the study, patients were given a maintenance dose of 800 mg of Trogarzo™ every two weeks along with an optimized background regimen that included at least one additional fully active agent.

Continue reading

HPV Status Influences Survival in Esophageal Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Barrett's Esophagus -wikipedia

Barrett’s Esophagus -wikipedia

Shan Rajendra MBBCh, MSc , MD, FRCP, FRACP
Professor of Medicine
University of New South Wales
Director of Medicine & Clinical Executive Director
Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital
Director Gastro-Intestinal Viral Oncology Group
Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research
Sydney 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  

Response: High-risk human papillomavirus(HPV)  infection has been strongly associated with a subset of Barrett’s dysplasia and oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

The research question was; Does HPV status of Barrett’s high-grade dysplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma influence survival as in viral positive head and neck cancers?

We therefore sought to determine the prognostic significance of esophageal tumor HPV status and associated viral transcriptional markers (E6/E7 mRNA and p16INK4A) and TP53.

Continue reading

HIV: Hopeful Results of Doravirine vs Ritonavir-Boosted Darunavir at 96 Weeks

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
merck

Kathleen Squires MD
Director, Division of Infectious Diseases
Jefferson University Hospitals and
Ming-Tai Lai, PhD
Senior Principal Scientist, Biology Discover
Merck

 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Dr. Squires: The DRIVE-FORWARD study is a pivotal, randomized, double-blind, Phase 3 study that evaluated the safety and efficacy of doravirine (DOR), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) in treatment-naïve adults with HIV-1 infection. Data from week 48 of this trial have previously been presented demonstrating that doravirine met its primary endpoint of non-inferior efficacy compared to ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DRV+r). In addition, at 48 weeks, a secondary endpoint showed that the doravirine-treated group had statistically significant lower levels of fasting LDL-C and non-HDL-C versus the DRV+r group.

The data presented at AIDS 2018 are week 96 data from the DRIVE-FORWARD trial.
At week 96, the doravirine group demonstrated efficacy of 73.1% compared with 66.0% in the DRV+r group, a treatment difference of 7.1% (95% CI: 0.5, 13.7)  Two participants in the DOR treatment group developed genotypic and phenotypic resistance to DOR through 96 weeks of treatment. The rate of discontinuation of therapy due to adverse events was 1.6 percent in the DOR group and 3.4 percent in the DRV+r group.

Doravirine is a late-stage investigational NNRTI for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in treatment-naïve adults and is being evaluated both as a once-daily single-entity tablet in combination with other antiretroviral agents, and as a once-daily fixed-dose combination regimen with lamivudine (3TC) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Earlier this year, Merck announced that the FDA accepted for review two New Drug Applications (NDAs) for doravirine for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in treatment-naïve adults. The NDAs are based upon the findings at week 48 of two ongoing Phase 3 trials, DRIVE-FORWARD and DRIVE-AHEAD, evaluating the efficacy and safety of doravirine and the fixed-dose combination regimen of DOR/3TC/TDF, respectively. The FDA has set a target action date of October 23, 2018 for both applications.

Dr. Lai: This study aimed to characterize the mutant viruses selected in treatment-naïve participants through week 48 from DRIVE-FORWARD and DRIVE-AHEAD, and to assess the impact of selected mutations on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) susceptibility and viral fitness. All of the seven doravirine (DOR)-resistant mutants are either partially susceptible or susceptible to etravirine. Mutants containing the F227C substitution were shown to be hypersusceptible to some nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) such as azidothymidine (AZT), tenofovir (TFV), lamivudine (3TC), and MK-8591. Among the 12 participants who developed efavirenz (EFV) resistance, 9 of the EFV-resistant clinical mutants were susceptible to DOR with fold-change <2.5.

The majority of DOR-selected viruses identified in the treatment-naïve participants in clinical trials to date retain susceptibility to etravirine and hypersensitivity to some NRTIs, with low replication capacity. In addition, the majority of EFV-selected viruses retain susceptibility to DOR.  Continue reading

CDC: Multiple States Report Salmonella Infections From Backyard Poultry

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

https://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/backyard-flocks-06-18/index.html

Dr. Megin Nichols

Dr. Megin Nichols DVM, MPH, DACVPM
Lead , Enteric Zoonoses Activity
Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
CDC Veterinarian

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this announcement?

Response: Each year, CDC and multiple states investigate several multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections linked to contact with live poultry in backyard flocks. Seventy outbreaks of Salmonella infections have been linked to contact with poultry in backyard flocks since 2000.

Continue reading

Flu: Novel Oral Single Dose Antiviral Baloxavir Marboxil Reduced Symptoms in High Risk Patients

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Mark Eisner MD MPH Vice President and Global Head of Respiratory Actemra, ID, and Metabolism Clinical Development at Genentech Professor of Clinical Medicine University of California, San Francisco

Dr. Mark Eisner


Mark Eisner MD MPH

Mark D. Eisner, MD, MPH
Vice President, Product Development Immunology, Infectious Disease, and Ophthalmology
Genentech

 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?
Would you briefly explain how 
baloxavir marboxil differs from other flu treatments? 

Response: CAPSTONE-2 is a Phase III multicenter, randomized, double-blind study that evaluated a single dose of baloxavir marboxil compared with placebo and oseltamivir in people 12 years and older who are at a high risk of complications from the flu. The high risk inclusion criteria in CAPSTONE-2 were aligned with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which defines people at high risk for serious flu complications to include adults 65 years of age or older, or those who have conditions such as asthma, chronic lung disease, diabetes or heart disease. For these people, flu can lead to hospitalization or even death. Participants enrolled in the study were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of 40 mg or 80 mg of baloxavir marboxil (according to body weight), placebo or 75 mg of oseltamivir twice a day for five days.

The FDA recently accepted a New Drug Application (NDA) and granted Priority Review to baloxavir marboxil as a single-dose, oral treatment for acute, uncomplicated influenza in people 12 years and older. The NDA was based on results from the Phase III CAPSTONE-1 study of a single dose of baloxavir marboxil compared with placebo or oseltamivir 75 mg, twice daily for five days, in otherwise healthy people with the flu. Results from a placebo-controlled Phase II study in otherwise healthy people with the flu were included as supporting data in the NDA. The FDA is expected to make a decision on approval by December 24, 2018.

Baloxavir marboxil is a first-in-class, single-dose investigational oral medicine with a novel proposed mechanism of action designed to target the influenza A and B viruses, including oseltamivir-resistant strains and avian strains (H7N9, H5N1). Unlike other currently available antiviral treatments, baloxavir marboxil is the first in a new class of antivirals designed to inhibit the cap-dependent endonuclease protein within the flu virus, which is essential for viral replication. By inhibiting this protein, baloxavir marboxil prevents viral replication earlier in the flu virus life cycle. Continue reading

Treatment and Prevention of HIV Infection Recommendations Updated

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Michael S. Saag, MD Professor,Division of Infectious Diseases UAB

Dr. Saag

Michael S. Saag, MD
Professor,Division of Infectious Diseases
UAB

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

  • An update of prior recommendations made by the IAS-USA, which have been updated every 2 years since 1996
  • Cover ARVs for prevention and treatment of HIV infection
  • Developed by an international panel of 16 volunteer experts in HIV research and patient care appointed by the IAS–USA
    • Members receive no compensation and do not participate in industry promotional activities while on the panel
  • Primarily for clinicians in highly resourced settings; however, principles are universally applicable
  • Reviewed data published or presented from September 2016 through June 2018
  • Rated on strength of recommendation and quality of evidence

Continue reading

Did Billions in US AIDS Prevention Money Save Babies’ Lives in Kenya?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Professor Donna Spiegelman ScD Susan Dwight Bliss Professor of Biostatistics Director, Center for Methods in Implementation and Prevention Science (CMIPS)­­­­­­, Yale School of Public Health Professor, Department of Statistics and Data Science, Yale University Director, Interdisciplinary Methods Core, Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS Yale School of Medicine

Dr. Spiegelman

Professor Donna Spiegelman ScD
Susan Dwight Bliss Professor of Biostatistics
Director, Center for Methods in Implementation and Prevention Science (CMIPS)­­­­­­,
Yale School of Public Health
Professor, Department of Statistics and Data Science, Yale University
Director, Interdisciplinary Methods Core, Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS
Yale School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: HIV infections can be transmitted from mothers to their infants during pregnancy, childbirth, and  breastfeeding.  Without access to a package of health services that includes antiretroviral medicines and counseling on best breastfeeding practices, it is estimated that 25% of children born to HIV-positive mothers become infected with HIV.In low-resource settings, 50% of these children die before their second birthday.

A 32% increase in under-five mortality between 1988 and 2003 prompted the Kenyan government to establish Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs
in over 10,000 health facilities.
This achievement was supported by U.S.President’s Emergency Fund for AIDS Relief
(PEPFAR), the which contributed over $248 million to PMTCT programs in Kenya between 2004 and 2014.

Although this investments in PMTCT coincided with a remarkable halving of Kenya’s under-five mortality rate, it is unknown whether this improvement can be causally attributed to PEPFAR funding for PMTCT. During the 2000s, child mortality decreased across most of sub-Saharan African countries.  These regional trends, rather than PEPFAR funding, may explain all or part of Kenya’s reduction in over 10,000 in child mortality. To help identify whether PEPFAR’s investments in PMTCT made a causal contribution to this reduction in child mortality, we used statistical methods to assess whether the amount or “dose” of PEPFAR funding provided to different provinces in Kenya was associated with increased HIV testing among pregnant women, which is a critical first step in identifying which women need PMTCT, and reduced infant mortality in Kenya.

Continue reading

“Rory’s Regulations” Improves Pediatric Sepsis Care

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Idris V.R. Evans, M.D.,MA Assistant Professor Department of Critical Care Medicine University of Pittsburgh

Dr. Evans

Idris V.R. Evans, M.D.,MA
Assistant Professor
Department of Critical Care Medicine
University of Pittsburgh

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: New York State issued a state-wide mandate in 2013 for all hospitals to develop protocols for sepsis recognition and treatment. This mandate was called “Rory’s Regulations” in honor of Rory Staunton, a boy who died from sepsis in 2012.

Pediatric protocols involved a bundle of care that included blood cultures, antibiotics, and an intravenous fluid bolus within 1–hour. We analyzed data collected by the NYS Department of Health on 1,179 patients from 54 hospitals and found that the completion of the pediatric bundle within 1 hour was associated with a 40% decrease in the odds of mortality.  Continue reading

Head and Neck Cancer Survivors at Risk of Secondary Cancers, esp if They Smoke

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Eric Adjei Boakye, PhD, MA Saint Louis University Center for Health Outcomes Research (SLUCOR) St. Louis, Missouri

Dr. Boakye

Eric Adjei PhD, MA
Saint Louis University Center for Health Outcomes Research (SLUCOR)
St. Louis, Missouri 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Survivors of head and neck cancer (HNC) develop second primary cancers (SPCs) at a higher rate than most common cancers. This is concerning because the number of HNC survivors are increasing due to advancements in treatment and technology. Patients whose head and neck cancer was caused by smoking and alcohol are different than those whose HNC were caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). We therefore used data from 2000-2014 National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 database to examine if the incidence and the type of SPC that patients with smoking-related HNC develop were different from those from HPV-related head and neck cancer.

First, independent of group of HNC (HPV-related or not), we found that SPCs among survivors of head and neck cancer were high, with about 1-in-8 patients developing an SPC. Additionally, irrespective of whether the index . head and neck cancer was from smoking-related or HPV-related, the majority of SPCs were second malignancies in head and neck region (e.g. tongue, gum, mouth floor etc), lung and esophagus. However, we observed different incidence rates between the two groups. Patients with smoking-related head and neck cancer developed SPCs at a higher rate (14%) than those with HPV-related HNC (10%).

Continue reading

Girls with PID Underscreened For Syphilis and HIV in ERs

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Monika K. Goyal, M.D., M.S.C.E., senior study author Assistant professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine Children’s National Health System Washington, DC

Dr. Goyal

Monika K. Goyal, M.D., M.S.C.E., senior study author
Assistant professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine
Children’s National Health System
Washington, DC 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) are at an increased risk for syphilis and HIV. We know that adolescents account for 20 percent of the 1 million cases of PID that are diagnosed each year. We also know that an estimated one in four sexually active adolescent females has a sexually transmitted infection (STI). While screening for syphilis and HIV is recommended when diagnosing PID, actual screening rates among adolescents have been understudied.

This multi-center study aimed to quantify rates of HIV and syphilis screening in young women diagnosed with . pelvic inflammatory disease in pediatric emergency departments and to explore patient- and hospital-specific characteristics associated with screening for these two sexually transmitted infections.

Continue reading

Non-Invasive Liquid Biopsy Can Detect Deep Seated Infections

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

David K. Hong, M.D. VP Medical Affairs and Clinical Development at Karius

Dr. Hong


David K. Hong, M.D.

VP Medical Affairs and Clinical Development at Karius

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are a cause of significant mortality and morbidity in immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis of IFIs is challenging, and often requires an invasive biopsy in order to identify the causal pathogen. There is a need for non-invasive methods of fungal identification to help guide targeted anti-fungal therapy.

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CDC Reports Salmonella Reading Outbreak: Urges Food Preparation Precautions

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
wash-hands-well . CDC wellAaron E. Glatt, MD, FACP, FIDSA, FSHEA

Chairman, Department of Medicine & Hospital Epidemiologist
South Nassau Communities Hospital
Clinical Professor of Medicine
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Oceanside, NY 11572 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for the CDC alert regarding a multistate outbreak of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Reading infections linked to raw turkey products?   Is this Salmonella strain different or more dangerous than other Salmonella food poisoning outbreaks? 

Response: The CDC has reported that as of yesterday, there have been 90 people infected with Salmonella Reading from 26 states. No deaths have been reported, but 40 patients to date required hospitalization. There was a previous outbreak of S. Reading in 2016 related to contaminated alfalfa sprouts, but this organism is not that much different nor is it more virulent than many other salmonella strains.  Continue reading

Antibiotics Still Overprescribed in Many Outpatient Settings

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Katherine Fleming-Dutra, MD, senior author Deputy Director Office of Antibiotic Stewardship CDC

Dr. Fleming-Dutra

Dr. Katherine Fleming-Dutra MD
Deputy Director
Office of Antibiotic Stewardship
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Antibiotics are life-saving medications that treat bacterial infections. Any time antibiotics are used, they can lead to antibiotic resistance and could cause side effects such as rashes and adverse events, such as Clostridium difficile infection, which is a very serious and sometimes even fatal diarrheal disease. This is why it is so important to only use antibiotics when they are needed. When antibiotics aren’t needed, they won’t help you and the side effects could still hurt you.

A previous study* reported at least 30% of antibiotic prescriptions written in doctor’s offices and emergency departments were unnecessary. However, the data from that study did not include urgent care centers or retail health clinics. We conducted the current analysis to examine antibiotic prescribing patterns in urgent care centers, retail health clinics, emergency departments, and medical offices.

*Fleming-Dutra, K., et al. (2016). “Prevalence of Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescriptions Among US Ambulatory Care Visits, 2010-2011.” JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association 315(17): 1864-1873. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2518263

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