Parasitic Infection With Toxoplasmosis May Be Linked To Parkinson’s & Alzheimer’s Disease

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Under a magnification of 900X, this hematoxylin and eosin-stained (H&E) photomicrograph of a brain tissue specimen revealed a case of neurotoxoplasmosis in a patient who had also been diagnosed with multiple myeloma. Note the Toxoplasma gondii tissue cyst, within which bradyzoites could be seen developing. CDC Image

Rima McLeod, M.D., F.A.C.P, F.I.D.S.A
Professor of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences,Pediatrics (Infectious Diseases), and The College,
Director, Toxoplasmosis Center,
Senior Fellow,Institute of Genomics, Genetics and Systems Biology, Member, Commitees on Immunology, and Molecular Medicine and Pathogenesis,
Member Global Health Center, Affiliate CHeSS;
Attending Physician, Chicago Medicine,
The University of Chicago

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

* One third of humans are infected lifelong with the brain-dwelling, protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii.
* Approximately fifteen million of these have congenital toxoplasmosis.
* The parasite interconverts between slow-growing, encysted bradyzoites and rapid-growing tachyzoites.
* In mice, T. gondii creates a chronic intra-neuronal infection and an inflammatory process.
* Mice with acute and chronic infection have alterations in neurotransmitters, memory, seizures, and neurobehavior.
* Some epidemiologic-serologic studies show associations between seropositivity for T. gondii and human neurologic diseases, for example, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.
* Although neurobehavioral disease is associated with seropositivity, causality is unproven.
* Serologic studies of humans with diverse genetics are not optimal to detect strong associations or directionality.
* Epidemiologic associations also do not reveal parasite-modulated gene networks in human brain that could provide insights into how to cure and prevent resultant diseases.
* We need integrative approaches to examine relationships between brain parasitism and other brain diseases, to provide a foundation to identify key pathways and molecules for drug and vaccine design
* To address these problems, we considered two central questions: (i) If chronic brain parasitism associates with other neurologic diseases, what are they? And (ii) Which macromolecular networks are modulated by the parasite in human brain that lead to neuropathology which could underpin and facilitate design of treatments?
* We hypothesized that a systems approach integrating multiple levels of host parasite interactions might resolve these questions.
* To better understand what this parasite does to human brains, we performed a comprehensive systems analysis of the infected brain.  Continue reading

48-Hours of Antibiotics Reduced Infection Rate After C-Section in Obese Women

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Carri R. Warshak, MD Associate Professor of Obstetrics & Gynecology University of  Cincinnati

Dr. Warshak

Dr. Carri R. Warshak, MD
Associate Professor of Obstetrics & Gynecology
University of  Cincinnati

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Cesarean deliveries are the most common major surgical procedure performed in the United States.  A common complication of cesarean section is wound infections that can include infections in the skin and incision site, or infections in the uterus itself after delivery.  These complications can lead to prolonged hospitalization after delivery for antibiotics and even further surgery in severe infections.  Often these wound complications lead to delayed healing, wound opening which can sometimes take several weeks to heal. Studies have demonstrated as many as 12% of women experience a surgical site infection after delivery.

Obesity is a strong risk factor for increased surgical site infections.  Increasing maternal weight increases the risk of wound complications, with a two to five fold increase in risk, making surgical site infections and common and concerning complication of cesarean delivery in obese women.

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New Assay Can Distinguish Between Viral and Bacterial Infections in Kids

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Prof. Alain Gervaix
Head of the Emergency Division
Department of Children and Adolescents
University Hospitals of Geneva
Switzerland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Many are familiar with the following ‘seemingly’ simple clinical dilemma that occurs on a daily basis across the world. A patient visits the doctor with a fever. Commonly, assigning a diagnosis comes down to deciding whether the infection is bacterial or viral. Accordingly, the doctor decides if to treat or not to treat with antibiotics. The problem is that bacterial and viral infections often present with very similar symptoms, causing uncertainty that leads to antibiotics being used, in many instances, when they are not needed. This antibiotic misuse contributes to the rise of antimicrobial resistance, one of the biggest health threats of the 21st century.

Host biomarkers hold great promise as routine diagnostic tools that can assist doctors in making correct antibiotic treatment decisions, as they overcome key limitations of currently applied pathogen-based tests. Recently, a novel host-assay (ImmunoXpert™) for differentiating bacterial from viral infections was developed and validated to yield high sensitivity and specificity. The three-protein host-assay comprises tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), Interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10) and C-reactive protein (CRP).

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Pandemic Flu May Increase Risk of Type 1 Diabetes In Genetically Predisposed Patients

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Paz Lopez-Doriga Ruiz MD, PhD candidate Norwegian Institute of Public Health Department of Non Communicable Diseases OsloPaz Lopez-Doriga Ruiz MD, PhD candidate

Norwegian Institute of Public Health
Department of Non Communicable Diseases
Oslo 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Some case reports have linked pandemic influenza to the development of type 1 diabetes. Other studies have suggested that also respiratory infections may contribute to type 1 diabetes risk.

 Our findings supports a suggested role of respiratory infections in the etiology of type 1 diabetes and influenza virus could be a contributing factor to the development of clinical diabetes, due to stress and inflammation in predisposed individuals.

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Incidence of Sepsis Stable, But Mortality Remains High

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Chanu Rhee MD, Assistant Professor Therapeutics Research and Infectious Disease Epidemiology Group Department of Population Medicine at Harvard Medical School / Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute Critical Care and Infectious Disease Physician Transplant/Oncology Infectious Disease service and Medical Intensive Care Unit at Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Dr. Rhee

Dr. Chanu Rhee MD, Assistant Professor
Therapeutics Research and Infectious Disease Epidemiology Group
Department of Population Medicine at Harvard Medical School / Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute
Critical Care and Infectious Disease Physician
Transplant/Oncology Infectious Disease service and
Medical Intensive Care Unit at Brigham and Women’s Hospital 


MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Multiple studies suggest that the incidence of sepsis, the syndrome of life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by infection, is increasing over time, while mortality rates are decreasing.  However, reliably measuring sepsis incidence and trends is challenging because clinical diagnoses of sepsis are subjective and insurance claims data, the traditional method of surveillance, can be affected by changing diagnosis and coding practices over time.

In this study, my colleagues and I estimated the current U.S. burden of sepsis and trends using clinical data from the electronic health record systems of a large number of diverse hospitals. The findings, published in JAMA, challenge the use of claims data for sepsis surveillance and suggest that clinical surveillance using electronic health record data provides more objective estimates of sepsis incidence and outcomes.

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New Test for TB Can Detect Antibiotic Resistant Strains

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Susan E. Dorman, M.D Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore

Dr. Dorman

Susan E. Dorman, M.D
Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Tuberculosis, also called “TB” is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide, according to the World Health Organization.  TB is caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  In 2015, over 10 million people became sick from TB and 1.8 million people died from TB.  This is a lot of people – diagnosing and treating TB to improve their health is important.  Because TB usually involves the lungs, it can be passed from person to person through the air, and thus, diagnosing and treating TB is critical to  reduce the spread of TB.   Drug-resistant TB — TB caused by bacteria that are resistant to commonly used TB antibiotics — is a serious problem.  In 2015 an estimated 480,000 people had multidrug-resistant TB.

We have been working to develop better, faster ways to diagnose TB and drug-resistant TB.  A new test was developed as a partnership between Rutgers University and Cepheid (Sunnyvale, CA), and development was supported by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH).  The new test was designed to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria in sputum, and to simultaneously detect whether the bacteria are resistant to several of the main antibiotics (isoniazid, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides) used to treat TB.  The test takes about two hours from sample to result.

The NEJM article describes the results of a study that was undertaken in China and South Korea to understand how well the new test works, compared against gold standard tests.

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New Rapid Flu Tests Are Simple, Fast and Accurate

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jesse Papenburg, MD MSc FRCPC FRQS Clinical Research Scholar Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, McGill University Div. of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Dept. of Microbiology Montreal Children’s Hospital Montreal, QC

Dr. Papenburg

Jesse Papenburg, MD MSc FRCPC
FRQS Clinical Research Scholar
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, McGill University
Div. of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Dept. of Microbiology
Montreal Children’s Hospital
Montreal, QC 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Influenza viruses cause yearly epidemics of acute respiratory illness affecting 5 to 30 percent of the population. Diagnosing influenza on the basis of only clinical symptoms is difficult because its manifestations vary and are nonspecific. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the gold standard for flu diagnosis, but these tests must be sent to a laboratory and have turnaround times that extend beyond the clinical encounter. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of influenza has the potential to improve patient outcomes and decrease health care costs.

Since 2011, two novel classes of rapid influenza diagnostic assays i.e., with results available in <30 minutes, have been commercialized with claims of improved sensitivities based on technological improvements: 1) automated immunochromatographic antigen detection tests (digital immunoassays, DIAs) and 2) rapid nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs).

Our systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized the available evidence and compared the diagnostic accuracy of commercially available rapid tests for the detection of influenza A and B infection:

  • Overall, the rapid tests displayed very high specificities (≥98%). Physicians can therefore diagnose influenza with confidence on the basis of a positive RIDT, DIA, or rapid NAAT result.
  • The pooled sensitivities for DIAs (80.0% for influenza A and 76.8% for influenza B) and rapid NAATs (91.6% for influenza A and 95.4% for influenza B) are markedly higher than those for RIDTs (54.4% for influenza A and 53.2% for influenza B).

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Third Dose of MMR Vaccine Reduced Risk of Mumps in University Students

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Cristina V. Cardemil, M.D., M.P.H. Pediatrics, Primary Care, Public Health Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, GA 30333

Dr. Cardemil

Cristina V. Cardemil, M.D., M.P.H.
Pediatrics, Primary Care, Public Health
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta, GA 30333 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The effect of a third dose of the measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) vaccine in stemming a mumps outbreak is unknown. During an outbreak among vaccinated students at the University of Iowa, health officials implemented a widespread MMR vaccine campaign. We evaluated the effectiveness of a third dose of MMR vaccine in preventing mumps cases during the outbreak, and assessed for waning immunity.

Of 20,496 university students enrolled in the 2015-16 academic year, 259 developed mumps. Prior to the outbreak, 98.1% of students had received two or more doses of MMR vaccine. During the outbreak, 4,783 students received a third dose.

The attack rate was lower among students who received a third dose of MMR vs. 2-dose recipients (6.7 vs. 14.5 per 1,000, respectively). Students had at least nine times greater risk of getting mumps if they received their second dose of MMR 13 years or more prior to the outbreak. Individuals who received a third MMR vaccine dose had a 78% lower risk for mumps than individuals who had received only two doses. This study demonstrates a lower risk of mumps in 3-dose MMR vaccine recipients, suggesting the MMR vaccine dose campaign prevented cases and may have helped stop the spread of the outbreak. Waning immunity likely contributed to the spread of the outbreak.

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Can Zika Be Used To Fight Glioblastoma Brain Tumors?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Milan G. Chheda, MD Assistant Professor  Department of Medicine  Oncology Division  Molecular Oncology  Department of Neurology Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis

Dr. Chheda

Milan G. Chheda, MD
Assistant Professor
Department of Medicine
Oncology Division
Molecular Oncology
Department of Neurology
Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Glioblastoma is an extremely aggressive brain tumor. Most patients die in less than two years. A longstanding challenge has been killing tumor cells that are inherently resistant to our current therapies (radiation and chemotherapy). These cells, called cancer stem cells, are extremely hardy. A longstanding dream of oncologists has been to devise a way to find them and kill them. The public health epidemic in 2015 made Zhe Zhu, post-doctoral fellow in Jeremy Rich’s lab, wonder whether Zika virus could work on cancer stem cells, that share properties with stem cells in fetal brain. Zika virus doesn’t cause significant problems in adults.

We took a lesson from nature and tested Zika virus.

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Public Has Negative View Of Genetically Modified Mosquitoes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Cinnamon S. Bloss, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, Division of Health Policy University of California, San Diego

Dr. Bloss

Cinnamon S. Bloss, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry
Department of Family Medicine and Public Health
Division of Health Policy
University of California, San Diego

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: In 2016, the FDA invited public comments on a draft environmental assessment for a proposed field trial of a genetically modified (GM) mosquito designed to suppress wild-type Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The preliminary finding from the environmental assessment indicated the trial would be unlikely to adversely affect the environment in Key Haven, Florida, the proposed trial site. We assessed public response to this trial based on the content of public comments submitted to the FDA by requesting comment transcripts through the Freedom of Information Act.

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