Abuse and Neglect, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Infections / 10.06.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Edmond A. Hooker, MD, DrPH Professor, Department of Health Services Administration MHSA Associate Director for Accreditation Xavier University Cincinnati, Ohio  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Healthcare acquired infections are still a huge problem in the US. Most hospitals are not following the hospital bed manufacturers guidelines for cleaning these mattresses and bed decks (the metal bed frame). Many use only a single step, when the manufacturers recommend a 5-6 step process (pre-clean any obvious soil, clean, rinse off cleaner, disinfect, rinse off disinfectant, inspect mattress for damage). The problem is that, if done, this takes 45 minutes to 1 hours. Most hospitals turn over a hospital room in less than 30 minutes. The launderable bed cover allows the bed to be cleaned and turned over in minutes, not an hours.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, Pediatrics / 05.06.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tracey Vlahovic  DPM, FFPM, FCPS Clinical Professor, Department of Podiatric Medicine Stanley and Pearl Landau Faculty Fellow Adjunct Professor, Department of Microbiology, Temple University School of Medicine On Behalf of Ortho Dermatologics MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: JUBLIA® was first approved in 2014 for people 18 years of age and older. However, more and more children are being diagnosed with onychomycosis, so the goal of the study was to determine the safety and efficacy of Jublia in this patient population. (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Infections / 04.06.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joseph Roth Graduate Student Dr. Roman Engel-Herbert PhD Assoc. Prof. of Materials Science & Engineering, Chemistry and Physics The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: UV disinfection is currently a hot topic as there have been many studies on its effectiveness against COVID-19. Typically, this disinfection is done with expensive, mercury containing gas discharge lamps that have major downsides including high power requirements, short lifetimes, and bulky form factors. Ideally these disinfection devices would be replaced with high performance UV LEDs that are far more energy efficient, long lasting, and compact. Currently the development of these LEDs is limited by a lack of effective UV transparent electrode materials. The introduction of an effective UV transparent electrode will greatly expedite the process of making UV disinfection devices widely available. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, OBGYNE / 16.05.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: SCYNEXIS IncMarco Taglietti, M.D. President and Chief Executive Officer SCYNEXIS Inc Dr. Taglietti discusses SCYNEXIS’ announcement of positive results from its second Phase 3 study investigating the safety and efficacy of oral ibrexafungerp as a treatment for vaginal yeast infection.  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:  The VANISH-306 study is one of two Phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center studies designed to demonstrate the superiority of oral ibrexafungerp to placebo as a treatment of vaginal yeast infections, also known as vulvovaginal candidiasis. Ibrexafungerp is a novel oral/intraveneous broad-spectrum antifungal in late stage development for multiple indications, from the treatment and prevention of vaginal yeast infections to life-threatening invasive fungal infections in the hospital setting. The VANISH-306 study was conducted in 42 centers in the US and EU and enrolled 449 patients. Patients were randomized to oral ibrexafungerp (two doses of 300mg taken 12 hours apart for one day) or placebo in a 2:1 ratio The primary endpoints included clinical cure rate, defined as the complete resolution of all signs and symptoms at the test-of-cure visit (Day-10) and secondary endpoints included mycological eradication and change in signs and symptoms scores compared to baseline at both day 10 and follow-up visit (Day-25). The VANISH-306 study reported positive topline data which showed that 63.3% of ibrexafungerp-treated patients saw a complete resolution of signs and symptoms 10 days following a single day dose of ibrexafungerp. The first study in the VANISH program was VANISH-303, a US-based study, had an identical design to the VANISH-306 study. The VANISH-303 study reported positive topline data in November 2019 which showed that 50.5% of ibrexafungerp-treated patients saw a complete resolution of signs and symptoms 10 days following a single day dose of ibrexafungerp. Both VANISH studies showed a highly significant statistical difference in the primary and secondary efficacy endpoints. The product was well tolerated. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, OBGYNE, Sexual Health, STD / 13.05.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gregory Kaufman, M.D. Senior Vice President Global Clinical and Medical Affairs Specialty at Lupin MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you briefly explain what is meant by trichomoniasis?  How common is this infection? Response: The Phase 3 trial evaluated the effectiveness and safety of a single oral dose of Solosec® (secnidazole) 2g oral granules for the treatment of trichomoniasis in adult women. Top-line results were positive and showed that Solosec was generally well-tolerated. Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the U.S., and is caused by a protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis.[i] Trichomoniasis affects 3 to 5 million people in the U.S.,[ii] and is four- to five-times more prevalent in in women, compared to men.[iii]. (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Emergency Care, Infections, NEJM, Stroke / 09.05.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Akash Kansagra, MD, MS Assistant Professor of Radiology Neurological Surgery, and Neurology Director, Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiology Co-Director, Stroke and Cerebrovascular Center Washington University and Barnes-Jewish Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Over the past five years, medicine has made enormous strides in stroke treatment. The effectiveness of these therapies has been absolutely astounding, and our ability to get patients to hospitals that can provide this life-saving care has also improved dramatically. (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Infections, Pulmonary Disease / 08.05.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jehan Alladina MD Massachusetts General Hospital Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Boston, Massachusetts MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: During the pandemic, clinicians around the world have shared anecdotal experiences to help inform care of patients with COVID-19. However, these anecdotes and observations, without careful analysis, can bias clinicians; many clinicians have even recommended experimental therapies based on this information alone. To that end, the goal of our study was to rigorously examine the respiratory failure experienced by critically ill patients with COVID-19 and understand their response to the standards of care for respiratory failure. (more…)
Author Interviews, Colon Cancer, Gastrointestinal Disease, Infections / 08.05.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ulrik Stenz Justesen, MD, DMSc Senior consultant at Department of Clinical Microbiology Odense University Hospital Denmark  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not require oxygen for energy production, and live in various environments including the human gut, where they usually do not cause infections directly. Previous studies have reported an association between bacteria from the Bovis group streptococci, Clostridium septicum and colorectal cancer (CRC). Recently associations between different Bacteroides species., Fusobacterium nucleatum and CRC have also been reported. We aimed to investigate this further in a large-scale study.  (more…)
Author Interviews, C. difficile, Gastrointestinal Disease, Imperial College, Infections, Transplantation / 30.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Julian Marchesi PhD Professor of Digestive Health Faculty of Medicine, Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction   Dr. Benjamin Mullish PhD Faculty of Medicine, Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction NIHR Clinical Lecturer Imperial College London       MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Many patients are colonized with bacteria that are resistant to nearly all the antibiotics that we currently have. This antibiotic resistance is a huge public health problem, not least because it may lead to the scenario where a bacterial species moves from the gut and into the bloodstream, causes an infection, and cannot be treated. Such scenarios particularly occur in patients who are particularly prone to getting multiple and frequent courses of antibiotics; this may include patients with particular kidney conditions (who may be vulnerable to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs)), and patients with blood cancers (such as leukaemia, who have weak immune systems and are therefore prone to infections). Furthermore, in both sets of patients, to help treat their disease, they may be offered transplants, either a new kidney or new bone marrow. When this transplant happens, the clinician needs to ‘switch off’ their immune system to allow the transplant to work. When the immune system is dialled down, it can no longer stop any invading bacteria, increasing the chance of antibiotic resistance bacteria causing infections, which frequently leads to patient death.  (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Infections, University of Michigan / 08.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Arnold S. Monto, M.D. Professor, Epidemiology Professor, Global Public Health Thomas Francis, Jr. Collegiate Professor of Public Health University of Michigan  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: This is part of a continuing study in families first designed to examine how influenza vaccine is working in the community  We have expanded it to look broadly at all respiratory viruses There are 4 coronaviruses which are known to cause respiratory illnesses each year and we had these data ready to go when the pandemic started. (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Infections, Pediatrics / 07.04.2020

genentech MedicalResearch.com: What are the applicable pediatric and post-exposure indications? Response: We recently announced that the U.S. FDA has accepted a New Drug Application (NDA) as well as two supplemental New Drug Applications (sNDA) for Xofluza® (baloxavir marboxil). The FDA accepted an NDA for a new formulation of Xofluza as one-dose granules for oral suspension (2 mg/mL), potentially offering a more convenient option for children and those who have difficulty swallowing. In addition, the application seeks approval of Xofluza for the treatment of acute uncomplicated influenza in otherwise healthy children aged one to less than 12 years of age who have been symptomatic for no more than 48 hours. The FDA also accepted an sNDA for post-exposure prophylaxis of influenza in people one year of age and older for both the oral suspension and currently-available tablet formulation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, Infections / 07.03.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Steve Miller MD MBA Chief Clinical Officer Cigna MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: With diagnoses of coronavirus increasing, Cigna is committed to helping contain the virus, removing barriers to testing and treatment, and giving peace of mind to its clients and customers. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, Technology / 06.03.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Arni S.R. Srinivasa Rao, PhD Professor, Division of Health Economics and Modeling, DPHS Director - Laboratory for Theory and Mathematical Modeling Department of Medicine - Division of Infectious Diseases Medical College of Georgia Department of Mathematics, Augusta UniversityArni S.R. Srinivasa Rao, PhD Professor, Division of Health Economics and Modeling, DPHS Director - Laboratory for Theory and Mathematical Modeling Department of Medicine - Division of Infectious Diseases Medical College of Georgia Department of Mathematics, Augusta University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response:  This is a methodological study with a flowchart, algorithm, and theory to enable quicker identification of individuals at risk of coronavirus based on CDC's guidelines on COVID-19.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Global Health, Infections / 30.01.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bin Cao, MD, PhD Professor, China-Japan Friendship Hospital Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Beijing 100029, China MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: In December, 2019, recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of the first 41 patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by Jan 2, 2020. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dermatology, HPV, Infections, JAMA, OBGYNE / 08.01.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Niklas Worm Andersson, MD Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen NV, Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What is Podophyllotoxin used for? Response: Podophyllotoxin is an antimitotic agent primarily used in the local treatment of anogenital warts, which are among the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Most women affected by anogenital warts are of childbearing age and during pregnancy, they may become symptomatic, enlarge, or multiply. While podophyllotoxin is part of first-line treatment of anogenital warts for the non-pregnant population, it is contraindicated during pregnancy. Fetal safety data are limited and to our knowledge, no previous human data exist to help inform on this issue. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections / 20.12.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Konstans Wells, PhD Lecturer in Biosciences Swansea University  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:  Cross‐species transmission of harmful viruses between animals and humans is a major source of infectious diseases and a considerable global public health burden. We assessed patterns of virus sharing among a large diversity of mammals, including humans and domestic species. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, OBGYNE / 04.12.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Giovanni Piedimonte, MD, FAAP, FCCP Vice President for Research Institutional Official Professor of Pediatrics Tulane University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We have been testing the hypothesis that, when a pregnant woman catches a common cold with a virus called respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), viral particles can spread from the mother’s respiratory tract to the unborn child via the placenta. Preliminary data in animal models suggest that this is possible, and might cause changes in lung growth predisposing the offspring to develop asthma after birth. Recently, also human data have supported this theory. However, an essential step to conclusively demonstrate vertical transmission of respiratory viruses was the confirmation that human placentas can be infected and allow the transmission of such germs, which is the main finding of this study. (more…)
Author Interviews, Columbia, Infections / 30.10.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Barun Mathema PhD Assistant Professor,Epidemiology Mailman School of Public Health Columbia University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: In 2005 a major outbreak of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) causing over 90% mortality was reported in rural town of Tugela Ferry, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The strain that caused the outbreak was resistant to all first and most second line antibiotics. This strain has since been recovered throughout the district and accounts for over 79% of all XDR-TB. We were interested in understanding the basic epidemiological and evolutionary forces that enabled this strain to proliferate. More simply, when and where this strain emerged, and how and why it became dominant.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease, Infections / 13.10.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Hean Teik Humphrey Ko PhD candidate School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University Perth, Western Australia, Australia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Bacterial skin infections consume precious healthcare resources because such infections are common and may sometimes be severe. Statins are relatively affordable and extensively prescribed worldwide to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, the safety/adverse effects of statins have been well documented. Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of bacterial skin infections, and statins have been separately reported to exert antibacterial effects against S. aureus, as well as reduce the risk of S. aureus related blood infections. As such, it seemed plausible that statins may prove beneficial in S. aureus related skin infections. However, statins may also induce new-onset diabetes mellitus, a condition which in turn, is a risk factor for skin infections. Therefore, in order to determine if statins could potentially serve as a novel therapeutic agent for skin infections to reduce healthcare costs, this study was conducted to examine the interrelationships between statins, diabetes, and skin infections.  (more…)
Allergies, Author Interviews, C. difficile, Dental Research, Infections / 05.10.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alan E. Gross, PharmD Clinical Assistant Professor University of Illinois Chicago, IL MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Dentists prescribe 10% of all outpatient antibiotics. Most of this prescribing is for infection prophylaxis prior to dental procedures. Our prior research has found that 80% of prescriptions for dental prophylaxis is unnecessary. Although antibiotic prophylaxis prior to dental procedures is often for a short course (e.g. one time amoxicillin dose), there may be patient harm associated with this. (more…)
Author Interviews, HIV, Infections, STD, UCSD / 05.10.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Martin Hoenigl, MD Assistant Professor UCSD MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Technology has changed the way men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) seek sex. Over 60% of MSM in the US use the internet and/or smartphone-based geospatial networking apps to find sex partners. Grindr™, a sophisticated geosocial networking app, is the most frequently used dating app among MSM in the United States. Previous research has shown that MSM who use Grindr™ have a greater frequency risky sexual behavior, and more sexual partners, but little is known about the association between Grindr™ use and prevention behavior such as the use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We evaluated risk behavior, PrEP use, and Grindr™ usage among MSM receiving community-based HIV and bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening in central San Diego. Participants who tested negative for HIV and who were not on PrEP were offered immediate PrEP.  (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Infections, JAMA, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 04.10.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Daniel C. Payne, PhD, MSPH Senior Scientific Advisor Viral Gastroenteritis Branch US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Rotavirus vaccines have been recommended for US infants for more than 10 years.  This study used seven years of active surveillance data from seven hospitals around the US to evaluate the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines in the US.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, JAMA, OBGYNE, USPSTF / 01.10.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Melissa A. Simon, M.D., M.P.H. Member, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force George H. Gardner professor of clinical gynecology, Vice chair of clinical research Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Professor of preventive medicine and medical social sciences Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Asymptomatic bacteriuria, or ASB, is when someone has bacteria in their urine but does not have any signs or symptoms of a urinary tract infection. For pregnant people, this can be a major health concern resulting in severe, even life-threatening, infections that can lead to serious harms for both the mother and the baby. The Task Force’s primary finding in updating its recommendation on this topic was that screening for ASB continues to be beneficial in preventing complications and preserving the health of mothers and their babies during pregnancy.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, Lyme / 18.09.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jorge Benach, PhD Distinguished Toll Professor Molecular Genetics & Microbiology and Pathology Renaissance School of Medicine Stony Brook University  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The increases in the numbers of cases of tick-borne diseases in the nation, and the increases in the number of cases in our area were the catalysts to document the levels of infection with a number of pathogens in the vector ticks. In addition, there were indications that an invasive tick species, the lone star tick, had taken a foothold in our area and had brought new tick-borne pathogens. Identification of the multiple pathogens was made possible by the molecular probes developed by Dr Rafal Tokarz, another corresponding author of our study  (more…)
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, Genetic Research, Infections, JAMA / 17.09.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: QiPing Feng, PhD Division of Clinical Pharmacology Department of Medicine Vanderbilt University Medical Center Nashville, Tennessee MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Sepsis is one of the leading causes of hospital mortality. Yet, there are no specific effective treatments for it. Recent information suggests that drugs that inhibit proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) could have potential as a new treatment for sepsis. We used a genetic approach to test if variation in PCSK9 affected the risk of sepsis. In patients admitted to hospital with infection, neither variants in the PCSK9 gene nor predicted expression of PCSK9 were associated with risk of sepsis or poorer outcomes after sepsis.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Dermatology, Infections, Pediatrics / 16.09.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Carrie C. Coughlin, MD Member of the Society for Pediatric Dermatology Assistant Professor, Dermatology Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics Washington University School of Medicine / St. Louis Children's Hospital   Cristopher C. Briscoe, MD Dermatology Resident, PGY-2 Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis    MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Briscoe: Superinfection of atopic dermatitis (AD) in pediatric patients is a common complication. Our study sought to determine the best empiric antibiotic choice for these patients while a bacterial culture is pending. We retrospectively analyzed 182 skin cultures from pediatric atopic dermatitis patients seen in the outpatient setting over five years and found that 170 (93.4%) grew Staphylococcus aureus. Of these, 130 (76.5%) grew methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), 37 (21.8%) grew methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and 3 (1.8%) grew both MSSA and MRSA. There was no statistically significant relationship between age, sex, race, or dilute bleach bath usage and MRSA infection. Interestingly, as compared to a separate group of pediatric atopic dermatitis patients seen in the emergency room, our patients had lower rates of MSSA susceptibility to doxycycline and MRSA susceptibility to TMP-SMX. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Cancer Research, Infections / 13.09.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Kai-feng Pan Director. Department of Cancer Epidemiology Peking University School of Oncology Beijing Cancer Hospital & Institute Peking University Cancer Hospital  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Based on a high-risk population in China, we have conducted a large randomized factorial-designed intervention trial (Shandong Intervention Trial) to examine the effect of short-term Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment and 7.3-year vitamin and garlic supplementation on gastric cancer. During 14.7-years’ follow-up in the trial, 2-week treatment for H. pylori resulted in statistically significant reduction in gastric cancer incidence. Results for gastric cancer mortality and for the effects of garlic and vitamin supplementation, though promising, were not statistically significant. Longer follow-up was needed to determine whether the reductions in gastric cancer incidence from H. pylori treatment would persist and lead to a demonstrable reduction in gastric cancer mortality. It also remained unknown whether vitamin and garlic supplementation would yield a statistically significant reduction in gastric cancer incidence and mortality with additionally extended follow-up. In addition, the entire spectrum of effects of these interventions needs to be understood.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, Nutrition, PLoS, Red Meat / 05.09.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christopher A. McDevitt B.Sc. (Hons) Ph.D , Associate Professor Group Leader, ARC Future Fellow The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity Melbourne | Victoria | Australia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Zinc-deficiency affects nearly one-third of the world’s population and is associated with an increased susceptibility to respiratory and enteric infections. The foremost global respiratory disease is pneumonia, which kills more than 1 million people per year with young children and the elderly being at greatest risk. This study investigated how zinc-deficiency affected Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, the primary bacterial cause of pneumonia. (more…)