With Aging, Males and Females Express Genes Differently

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr Mandy Peffers BSc MPhil PhD BVetMed FRCVS
Wellcome Trust Clinical Intermediate Fellow
Institute of Ageing & Chronic Disease
Faculty of Health & Life Sciences
University of Liverpool Liverpool UK

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The project was an extension of Louise Pease’s MSc research project in bioinformatics which aimed to re-analyse existing RNA-seq data to determine age related changes in gene expression in musculoskeletal tissues that may lead to the development of degenerative diseases.  From existing literature we identified that degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis and tendinitis were more prevalent in females and became more frequent following menopause.  We looked at the biology of the cohort we were trying to assess and discovered a gender imbalance, we hypothesised that this was why few results had been obtained from the original analysis. So we developed a research proposal that detailed extending the existing data to publicly available data and merging the experiments; to increase the number of replicates available and balance the experimental design.  We conducted multiple analyses and discovered that splitting samples by age and gender obtained the most significant results, and that whilst in a lot of cases the same genes were being differentially expressed, they were changing in opposite directions.  Louise remembered her statistics lecturer Gerard Cowburn (Ged) taught her about the assumptions of statistical tests, in particular covariance analysis (which has previously been used to show that age and gender do not affect gene expression) assumed that under the conditions being tested data points were not opposites.  Realising that this assumption had been violated by the data she began to think about what other assumptions we were working with and how to test their validity.

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Focusing on Physical Activity Can Help Avoid Unnecessary Later Life Social Care Expenses

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Scarlett McNally

Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeo
Eastbourne D.G.H.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: There are vast differences between older people in their abilities and their number of medical conditions. Many people confuse ageing with loss of fitness. Ageing has specific effects (reduction in hearing and skin elasticity for example) but the loss of fitness is not inevitable. Genetics contributes only 20% to diseases. There is abundant evidence that adults who take up physical activity improve their fitness up to the level of someone a decade younger, with improvements in ‘up and go’ times. Physical activity can reduce the severity of most conditions, such as heart disease or the risk of onset or recurrence of many cancers. Inactivity is one of the top four risk factors for most long-term conditions. There is a dose-effect curve. Dementia, disability and frailty can be prevented, reduced or delayed.

The need for social care is based on an individual’s abilities; for example, being unable to get to the toilet in time may increase the need for care from twice daily care givers to needing residential care or live-in care, which increases costs five-fold.

Hospitals contribute to people reducing their mobility, with the ‘deconditioning syndrome’ of bed rest, with 60% of in-patients reducing their mobility.

The total cost of social care in the UK is up to £100 billion, so even modest changes would reduce the cost of social care by several billion pounds a year.

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Gut Microbiome of Health Very Old Similar To Younger Adults

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Greg Gloor, PhD
Principal investigator
Professor at Western’s Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry and
Scientist at Lawson Health Research Institute.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We sampled the bacteria in the gut (stool) in over 1000 members of a super healthy population in China across the age ranges of 3 to over 100. Exclusion criteria included a history of genetic or chronic disease (intergenerational in the case of people younger than 30), no smoking, drinking or drug use (including no prescription drugs).

Our goal was to identify what, if any changes in the makeup of the gut microbiota occurred in this population so that we could define “what is associated with health”.

We found three things.

  • First, that the expected differences between the very young and everyone else were found in this population. This indicates that we could observe the standards signatures of a maturing gut microbiota.
  • Second, that the gut microbiota of very healthy very elderly group (over 95 yo) was very similar to that of any very healthy person over the age of 30.
  • Third, we found that the gut microbiota of 20yo people (in three distinct groups) was different from all other age groups. The reason for the differences observed in the 20 yo groups from all the others is unknown, but is not methodological in origin.

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Playing Sports In Midlife Increases Chance of An Active Old Age

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Daniel Aggio, PhD UCL Department of Primary Care and Population Health UCL Medical School University College London PA Research Group London, UK

Dr. Aggio

Dr. Daniel Aggio, PhD
UCL Department of Primary Care and Population Health
UCL Medical School
University College London PA Research Group
London, UK

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Maintaining a physically active lifestyle into old age is associated with optimal health benefits. While we know that levels of physical activity in youth predict physical activity levels in adulthood, how physical activity in midlife predicts physical activity in old age is not as well understood. It is also unclear how different types of physical activity predict physical activity in later life.

Using data from the British Regional Heart Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study involving men recruited between 1978 and 1980, we assessed how physical activity tracks over 20 years from midlife to old age. The study of over 3400 men showed that being active in midlife more than doubled the odds of being active 20 years later. Interestingly, sport participation in midlife predicted physical activity in old age more strongly than other types of physical activity, such as walking and recreational activity. The odds of being active in old age were even stronger for those men who took up sport from a younger age prior to midlife.

Sport was the most stable activity across the follow up, with just under half of men reporting playing sport at least occasionally at each survey. However, walking was the least stable; the proportion of men who reported high levels of walking rose from just under 27% at the start of the study to 62% at the 20 year survey, possibly because retirement might free up more time.

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Organic Compounds In Bowel Responsible For Longer Healthier Lives in Variety of Species

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Daniel Kalman, Ph.D. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Emory University

Dr. Kalman

Daniel Kalman, Ph.D.
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Emory University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

  1. We think a lot about living longer, but that means we will also have a longer period of frailty and infirmity, which isn’t optimal. Moreover, with geriatric populations projected to expand by 350 fold over the next 40 years, healthcare costs will be unsustainable.
  2. We were interested in understanding how health span of animals is regulated, and whether the microbiota plays a role. The microbiota, which is composed of bacteria inside and on us, when dysregulated (called dysbiosis) contributes to disease; the question we asked was whether it could also contribute to healthy aging, and how.
  3. We showed that animals of widely divergent phyla and separated by hundreds of millions of years of evolutionary time, all utilize indoles to regulate how well they age; in short indoles  make older animals look younger by various metrics, including motility, and fecundity.

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How To Evaluate Cognitive Function in the Aging Physician?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

E. Patchen Dellinger, M.D. Professor, Department of Surgery University of Washington, Box 356410 Seattle, Washington 98195-6410

Dr. Dellinger

E. Patchen Dellinger, M.D.
Professor, Department of Surgery
University of Washington, Box 356410
Seattle, Washington 98195-6410 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: As I passed the age of 70 myself and began considering when to slow down and/or retire I decided to examine the literature about age and physician competence.  I have had a wonderful, rewarding time in surgery but have always wanted to provide the best possible care for my patients.  On my review of an extensive literature on this topic I found examples of physicians who had become dangerous to their patients with age but persisted because of their eminence and also of physicians who continued to deliver high quality care well into old age.

In medicine, unlike most other safety conscious industries, we have not really taken a systematic approach to the issue of policies related to the aging physician.

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Daily Crossword Puzzles May Help Sustain Brain Function As We Age

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Professor Keith A. Wesnes BSc PhD FSS CPsychol FBPsS Head Honcho, Wesnes Cognition Ltd Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience, Medical School, University of Exeter, UK Visiting Professor, Department of Psychology, Northumbria University, Newcastle, UK Adjunct Professor, Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia Visiting Professor, Medicinal Plant Research Group, Newcastle University, UK Wesnes Cognition Ltd, Little Paddock, Streatley Hill, Streatley on Thames UK

Prof. Wesnes

Professor Keith A. Wesnes
BSc PhD FSS CPsychol FBPsS
Head Honcho, Wesnes Cognition Ltd
Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience, Medical School, University of Exeter, UK
Visiting Professor, Department of Psychology
Northumbria University, Newcastle, UK
Adjunct Professor, Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia
Visiting Professor, Medicinal Plant Research Group
Newcastle University, UK
Wesnes Cognition Ltd, Little Paddock, Streatley Hill, Streatley on Thames UK 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This data we reported were taken from the PROTECT study, a 10-year research programme being conducted jointly by Kings College London and the University of Exeter Medical School. It started in November 2015 and over 20,000 individuals aged 50 to 96 years have enrolled.

A highly novel feature of the study is that it is run entirely remotely, the participants logging on via the internet at home and providing demographic and life style information, and also performing online cognitive tasks of key aspects of cognitive function. The tasks are from two well-validated systems, CogTrack and the PROTECT test system, and assess major aspects of cognitive function including focused and sustained attention, information processing, reasoning and a range of aspects of memory.

One of the lifestyle questions was ‘How frequently do you engage in word puzzles, e.g. crosswords?’ and the 6 possible answers were: never; occasionally; monthly; weekly; daily; more than once per day. We analysed the cognitive data from 17,677 individuals who had answered the question, and found that the more often the participants reported engaging in such puzzles, the better their cognitive function on each of the 9 cognitive tasks they performed. The group who never performed such puzzles were poorest on all measures, and the improvements were mostly incremental as the frequency of use increased. The findings were highly statistically reliable, and we controlled for factors including age, gender and education. To evaluate the magnitudes of these benefits, we calculated the average decline over the age-range on the various tasks in the study population. The average difference between those who ‘never’ did puzzles to those who did so ‘more than once a day’ was equivalent to 11 years of ageing; and between those who never did puzzles and all those who did was 8 years.

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Midlife Weight Gain Raises Risks of Chronic Disease and Premature Death

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Yan Zheng Research Fellow, Department of Nutrition Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public HealthYan Zheng
Research Fellow, Department of Nutrition
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Most people gain weight cumulatively during young and middle adulthood. Because the amount of weight gain per year may be relatively small, it may go unnoticed by individuals and their doctors—but the cumulative weight gain during adulthood may eventually lead to obesity over time. Compared to studies of attained body weight or BMI, the investigation of weight change may better capture the effect of excess body fat because it factors in individual differences in frame size and lean mass.

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Is Human Lifespan Really Limited to 100 Years?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Pr. Siegfried Hekimi PhD McGill University

Prof. Hekimi

Pr. Siegfried Hekimi PhD
McGill University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We analyzed data about the longest living individuals over the period of time during which the record can be trusted.

We found that there was no detectable plateauing of the maximum possible lifespan. This is consistent with not clearly observed plateau in the currently increasing average lifespan as well.

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Frequent Sex In Older Adults Linked To Better Cognitive Function

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Hayley Wright BSc(Hons) MSc PhD C.Psychol Research Associate Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Coventry University Centre for Research in Psychology, Behaviour and Achievement, Coventry University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Last year, we published a study that showed a significant association between sexual activity and cognitive function (Wright & Jenks, 2016). This study showed that sex is linked to cognition, even after we account for other factors such as age, education, and physical and mental wellbeing. One important question that emerged from this study was centred around the role of frequency with which we engage in sexual activity. In the current study (Wright, Jenks & Demeyere, 2017), we found that engaging in sexual activity on a weekly basis is associated with better scores on specific cognitive tasks. MedicalResearch.com: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? Response: We have demonstrated that sexual activity in later life may have measurable benefits that stretch beyond pleasure-seeking. We - society at large, and individual researchers - should challenge notions of embarrassment around sexuality that may prevent older people from accessing help and support for sexual or relationship issues. MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? Response: It may be advisable to take relationship factors into account when conducting studies around cognitive ageing. Researchers often make statistical adjustments for factors that are known to influence cognition and health (such as age, education and health problems), but actually, more personal factors may also have an effect on how our brain works. MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add? Response: The research so far has been cross-sectional (or correlational), and so we cannot say at this time whether sexual activity is causing better scores on cognitive tests. This issue of causality is something that we will address in future research as more data becomes available. We are currently researching whether all types of sexual activities are associated with cognitive function to the same extent. We are also working with support services to address barriers to relationship and sex therapy for older people and marginalised groups. MedicalResearch.com: Thank you for your contribution to the MedicalResearch.com community. Citation: Hayley Wright, Rebecca A. Jenks, Nele Demeyere. Frequent Sexual Activity Predicts Specific Cognitive Abilities in Older Adults. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 2017; DOI: 10.1093/geronb/gbx065 Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions.

Dr. Wright

Dr Hayley Wright BSc(Hons) MSc PhD C.Psychol
Research Associate
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Coventry University
Centre for Research in Psychology, Behaviour and Achievement,
Coventry University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Last year, we published a study that showed a significant association between sexual activity and cognitive function (Wright & Jenks, 2016). This study showed that sex is linked to cognition, even after we account for other factors such as age, education, and physical and mental wellbeing. One important question that emerged from this study was centred around the role of frequency with which we engage in sexual activity. In the current study (Wright, Jenks & Demeyere, 2017), we found that engaging in sexual activity on a weekly basis is associated with better scores on specific cognitive tasks.

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People Who Live To 100 Do So With Fewer Chronic Illnesses

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Raya Elfadel Kheirbek, MD, MPH Geriatrician and Palliative Care Physician  Washington DC VA Medical Center  Associate Professor of Medicine  George Washington University  School of Medicine and Health Sciences

Dr. Raya Elfadel Kheirbek

Raya Elfadel Kheirbek, MD, MPH
Geriatrician and Palliative Care Physician
Washington DC VA Medical Center
Associate Professor of Medicine
George Washington University
School of Medicine and Health Sciences

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In the past decade, there has been a shift in the concept of successful aging from a focus on life span to health span. We all want to age gracefully “expecting” optimal health, quality of life and independence.

Centenarians are living examples to the progress we have made in health care. They are the best example of successful aging since they have escaped, delayed or survived the major age-related diseases and have reached the extreme limit of human life. However, little is known about Veterans Centenarians’ incidence of chronic illness and its impact on survival.

Utilizing the VA Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW), I worked with my colleagues’ researchers and identified 3,351 centenarians who were born between 1910 and 1915. The majority were white men who served in World War II and had no service related disability. The study found that 85 % of all the centenarians had no incidence of major chronic conditions between the ages of 80 and 99 years of age. The data demonstrate that Veteran centenarians tend to have a better health profile and their incidence of having one or more chronic illness is lower than in the general population.

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Microvascular Disease Linked To Late-Life Depression

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Miranda T. Schram PhD Associate professor Department of Medicine Maastrich

Dr. Schram

Miranda T. Schram PhD
Associate professor
Department of Medicine
Maastrich

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Late-life depression, also called vascular depression, is highly prevalent, recurrent and difficult to treat. Anti-depressants only relieve symptoms in about 50% of the patients. So we urgently need new treatment targets for this disease.

In this study we found that microvascular dysfunction, irrespective if you measure this by biomarkers in the blood or in the brain, is associated with an increased risk for depression. Moreover, we found evidence from longitudinal studies that microvascular dysfunction, at least of the brain, may actually be a cause of depression. To investigate this, we undertook a meta-analyses of data from over 40,000 individuals of whom over 9,000 had a depression.

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Methylene Blue Has Potential As Anti-Aging Agent in Skin Care Products

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Kan Cao PhD Associate professor of cell biology and molecular genetics University of Maryland

Dr. Kan Cao

Kan Cao PhD
Associate professor of cell biology and molecular genetics
University of Maryland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In 2015, our group demonstrated a surprising positive effect of methylene blue in treating fibroblast cells from progeria patients, a severe premature aging disease. Interestingly, we also noticed a beneficial effect of methylene blue in protecting normal skin cells.

In this study, we followed the initial observation, compared methylene blue with other popular antioxidants, and conducted further analysis of the effects of methylene blue in 3d reconstructed skin.

The take home message is that we believe methylene blue has a great anti-aging potential. As it is also super safe, we suggest it a potent ingredient for skin care products.

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Cervical Cancer Is Not Just a Young Woman’s Disease: Older Women Should Have PAP Smears Too

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Mary C. White, ScD Epidemiology and Applied Research Branch Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, CDC Atlanta GA 30341

Dr. Mary White

Mary C. White, ScD
Epidemiology and Applied Research Branch
Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, CDC
Atlanta GA 30341

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: For women between the ages of 21 to 65, Pap testing every three years, or Pap testing with HPV co-testing every five years, can prevent cervical cancers and deaths.

Current recommendations state that women 65 and older and not otherwise at special risk can skip Pap tests, but only if they have had three consecutive negative Pap screening tests or two consecutive negative co-tests over the past 10 years, with the most recent done within the past five years.

We used data from two federal cancer registry programs to examine how cervical cancer risk changes with age, after excluding women who have had a hysterectomy. We also examined data from a federal national health survey to examine the proportion of women who either had never been tested or had not been tested in the last 5 years.

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Blood Pressure Medications In Elderly Require Personalized Approach

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Rathi Ravindrarajah PhD Division of Health and Social Care Research Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine  Guy’s Campus King’s College London

Dr. Ravindrarajah

Dr. Rathi Ravindrarajah PhD
Division of Health and Social Care Research
Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine
Guy’s Campus
King’s College London

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Clinical trials show that it is beneficial to lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) in adults aged 80 and over, but non-randomized epidemiological studies suggest that lower systolic blood pressure may be associated with a higher risk of mortality.

Our main findings were that there was a terminal decline in systolic blood pressure in the final 2 years of life suggesting that the higher mortality in those with a low SBP shown in non-randomized epidemiological studies might be due to reverse causation.

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Over 50? Exercise Linked To Improved Cognitive Function

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Joseph Michael Northey
UC Research Institute for Sport and Exercise (UCRISE),
Discipline of Sport and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health
University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Physical exercise has an important role to play in maintaining cognitive function across the lifecycle. However, the benefits of implementing a physical exercise intervention were not clear. To address these issues which prevented evidence-based prescription of exercise for cognitive function, a systematic review of all the available literature up to November of 2016 in adults older than 50 was conducted.

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No Magic Age To Stop Performing Screening Mammograms

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Cindy S. Lee, MD

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging
University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco
Now with Department of Radiology
NYU Langone Medical Center, Garden City, New York

MedicalResearch.com: What led you and colleagues to conduct this study?

Response: I am a breast imager. I see patients who come in for their screening mammograms and I get asked, a lot, if patients aged 75 years and older should continue screening, because of their age. There is not enough evidence out there to determine how breast cancer screening benefits women older than 75. In fact, all previously randomized trials of screening mammography excluded people older than 75 years.

Unfortunately, age is the biggest risk factor for breast cancer, so as patients get older, they have higher risks of developing breast cancer. It is therefore important to know how well screening mammography works in these patients.

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Spermidine in Foods Such As Aged Cheese Prevents Liver Damage and Extends Life — in Mice

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Leyuan Liu, Ph.D., Assistant Professor Center for Translational Cancer Research Institute of Biosciences and Technology Texas A&M University Houston, Texas 77030

Dr. Liu

Leyuan Liu, Ph.D., Assistant Professor
Center for Translational Cancer Research
Institute of Biosciences and Technology
Texas A&M University
Houston, Texas 77030

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Our research team has been working on the question why people develop cancers and how we can prevent or cure them. In contrast to public views, we concluded from our studies that cancers, similar to our age-related diseases, originate from inefficiencies of our body to clean up cellular wastes accumulated during our lifespan. The most important pathway to clean up those wastes is called autophagy, or cellular self-eating behavior. We study how autophagy is regulated, how autophagy causes cancers, and whether we can control autophagy to prevent or cure cancers.

Previously we found autophagy is regulated by a protein called MAP1S and mice without MAP1S are more likely to develop liver cancer. We have been seeking ways to improve MAP1S-mediated autophagy to prevent liver cancer. Our current study show that spermidine, a natural component existing in many foods, can increase the stability of MAP1S proteins and activate MAP1S-mediated autophagy. Concurrent with the benefits of expand mouse lifespans ours also reported, spermidine can suppress the development of liver fibrosis and liver cancer specifically through MAP1S if we add spermidine into the daily drinking water of mice.

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Human Behavioral Complexity Peaks At Age 25

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Hector Zenil

Co-director
Information Dynamics Lab
Unit of Computational Medicine, SciLifeLab
Center for Molecular Medicine
Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The generation of randomness is known to be related to cognitive abilities. It has also recently been shown that animals can recur to random behaviour to outsmart other animals or overcome certain situations. Our results that humans can best outsmart computers in generating randomness at a certain age (25). The results correspond to what it was suspected, that cognitive abilities peak at an early age before declining and that no other factor was important.

We quantified a type of mathematical randomness that is known to be the true type of randomness as opposed to e.g. ‘statistical randomness’. Something that is random is difficult to describe in a succinct way. Unlike ‘statistical randomness’, ‘algorithmic randomness’ does not only produce something that appears random but also that is very difficult to generate or produce. Conversely, something that may look random for the standard of statistical randomness may not turn out to be truly random.

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Neither Vitamin E or Selenium Found To Prevent Dementia

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Richard J. Kryscio, Ph.D. Statistics and Chair, Biostatistics and Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Sanders-Brown Center on Aging University of Kentucky

Dr. Richard Kryscio

Richard J. Kryscio, Ph.D.
Statistics and Chair, Biostatistics and Sanders-Brown Center on Aging
Sanders-Brown Center on Aging
University of Kentucky 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: At the time the trial was initiated (2002), there was ample evidence that oxidative stress is an important mechanism in brain aging. Research showed that protein oxidation is linked to the brain’s response to the abnormal proteins seen in Alzheimer disease (amyloid beta plaques in particular) leading to inflammation, DNA repair problems, reduced energy production, and other cellular changes that are identified mechanisms in the Alzheimer brain.

Both vitamin E and selenium are antioxidants. Antioxidants, either through food or supplements, are believed to reduce oxidative stress throughout the body. In the brain, they may reduce the formation of amyloid beta plaques, reduce brain inflammation, and improve other brain processes. Studies in humans support these hypotheses. The Rotterdam study in the Netherlands, as an example, showed that initial blood levels of vitamin E could predict dementia risk. Those people with higher vitamin E levels were 25% less likely to develop dementia. Also, selenium deficiency results in cognitive difficulties and several population-based studies have shown an association between selenium level and cognitive decline (lower selenium levels are linked to thinking changes in the elderly).
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Parents Live Longer Than Those Without Children

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Karin Modig, PhD Institute of Environmental Medicine,Epidemiology Karolinska Institute

Dr. Modig

Dr. Karin Modig, PhD
Institute of Environmental Medicine,Epidemiology
Karolinska Institute

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The background to the study was that even though it is established that parents live longer than non-parents the underlying mechanisms are not clear. And it was not known how the association changed with the age of the parents. We hypothesize that if social support is one mechanism – the association between having children and the death risk of parents-non-parents would increase with age of the parents, when health starts to deteriorate and the need of support increases.

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Why Cells Fall Apart: Protein Regulates Cell Aging

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ana O'Loghlen Group Leader Epigenetics & Cellular Senescence Blizard Institute Queen Mary University of London London

Ana O’Loghlen

Ana O’Loghlen
Group Leader Epigenetics & Cellular Senescence
Blizard Institute
Queen Mary University of London
London

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The activation of senescence is an important cellular response to a stress signal. The senescent cell stops proliferating and this avoid that damaged cells propagate in our body, creating tissue damage.

Our study has found a particular protein, integrin beta 3 subunit, regulating this cellular phenotype, senescence. We have further provided details of the mechanism of how this integrin does this. We have found that the activation of the TGF beta pathway is important for integrin beta 3 to induce senescence and that this integrin is regulated by epigenetically by the polycomb protein CBX7. Interestingly, although we have not provided functional studies, we find that integrin beta 3 is highly expressed during aging in human and mouse.

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Number of Adults With Hearing Loss Expected To Rise Dramatically

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Adele Gorman PhD
Johns Hopkins Center on Aging & Health
The Johns Hopkins University
Baltimore, Maryland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Hearing loss affects many people, especially older adults. We have previously estimated how common hearing loss is across different age groups and how many adults have hearing loss today. However, we did not know the number of people that are expected to have hearing loss in the coming decades. This is important to know in order to appropriately plan for future hearing health care needs. Recently the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine highlighted the crucial need to address hearing loss and made recommendations to improve hearing health care services. However, these recommendations should be considered by policy makers in the context of the number of adults with hearing loss in the coming years.

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No Decrease In Incidence of Dementia Over Past Decades

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Emma van Bussel MD, MSc Academic Medical Center | University of Amsterdam Amsterdam | The Netherlands

Dr. Emma van Bussel

Emma van Bussel MD, MSc
Academic Medical Center | University of Amsterdam
Amsterdam | The Netherlands 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Dementia forms a high social and economic burden on society. Since there is a growing number of older people, the occurrence of dementia is expected to increase over the years to come. For future planning of care, it is important to have reliable predictions on new dementia cases for the population at large. Studies in Western countries suggested that the incidence per 1000 person years is declining.

We studied the incidence trend of dementia in the Netherlands in primary care registry data, in a population of over 800,000 older people (60 years and over) for the years 1992 to 2014. Our results indicate a small increase of 2.1% (95% CI 0.5% to 3.8%) per year in dementia incidence over the past decades. The trend did not change in the years after 2003, when a national program was developed to support dementia care and research, compared to the years prior to 2003.

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Calorie Restriction Extends Life Through Protein Regulation

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

John C. Price, Ph.D Asst. Professor Chemistry and Biochemistry Brigham Young University Provo, Utah

Dr. John Price

John C. Price, Ph.D
Asst. Professor Chemistry and Biochemistry
Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Since 1930 it has been known that the rate of biological aging could be modified by the diet.  In mice for example if you let them eat as much as they want they will live almost 3 years.  Providing essentially the same diet but controlling the number of total calories, there is an almost linear increase in lifespan as you restrict calories.  The studies in mice and rats have been repeated hundreds of times since that time.  There have been a lot of somewhat conflictive observations, like increased formation of new mitochondria, and increased autophagy which targets organelles for degradation, during stable reduced calorie intake. This expectation, that a restricted diet with fewer calories available to the animal could support increased protein synthesis and degradation and result in increased lifespan, is what got us interested in studying Calorie Restriction.  So we measured the relative synthesis rates for several hundred proteins in 18 month old calorie restricted mice which were experiencing the benefits of improved health and lifespan.  We found overwhelmingly that the calorie restricted mice had reduced synthesis rates down to as low as 25% of the age matched control group.  This observation has now been independently confirmed by multiple groups.

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More Hip Fractures in Elderly on Antidepressants

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Sanna Torvinen-Kiiskinen MSc (Pharm.), PhD student, Kuopio Research Centre of Geriatric Care and School of Pharmacy University of Eastern Finland

Sanna Torvinen-Kiiskinen

Sanna Torvinen-Kiiskinen
MSc (Pharm.), PhD student,
Kuopio Research Centre of Geriatric Care and School of Pharmacy
University of Eastern Finland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Antidepressants are widely used among elderly persons, especially persons with Alzheimer’s disease. They are used not only for treatment for major depression, but for treatment of anxiety, insomnia and chronic pain as well as behavioral symptoms caused by dementia.

However, antidepressants, as well as other psychotropic drugs, may cause sedation, confusion, orthostatic hypotension and hyponatremia, which increase the risk of falling and fractures. Because of changes in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics due to aging, older persons are at the higher risk of those adverse events.

The aim of our study was to investigate whether antidepressant use is associated with an increased risk of hip fracture among community-dwelling persons with and without Alzheimer’s disease.

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Our Biomarker Signature Can Predict How Well We Are Aging

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Paola Sebastiani PhD Department of Biostatistics Boston University School of Public Health Boston, MA 02118

Dr. Paola Sebastiani

Paola Sebastiani PhD
Department of Biostatistics
Boston University School of Public Health
Boston, MA 02118

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Human life expectancy has increased steadily in the last century and has led to a growth of the elderly population and a need for prevention strategies and interventions that promote healthy aging.

A challenge in assessing the effect of such interventions is ‘what to measure’ because people can age very differently from one another. Our study used 19 blood biomarkers that include for example cholesterol level and hemoglobin A1C to discover 26 biological signatures of aging in approximately 4,700 participants of the Long Life Family Study. These signatures are essentially patterns of values of the 19 biomarkers and we showed that one of these signatures is associated with better physical and cognitive functions, and reduced risk for disease and mortality compared to the most common signature in the study. Additional signatures predict varying risk for diabetes, cardiovascular and other aging-related diseases. We replicated these results in an independent data set. The associations of these biomarker signatures with physical and cognitive functions, and risk for morbidity and mortality support the conclusion that they capture different form of biological aging.

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Caring for Others Linked to Increased Longevity

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Sonja Hilbrand MSc
Department of Psychology
University of Basel
Basel, Switzerland.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Grandparenting is a topic of both great practical and theoretical interest. For instance, grandparents in industrialized societies invest substantial amounts of time and money in their grandchildren and there are many studies examining the potential benefits for these grandchildren. Other studies have focused on potentially negative effects on grandparental mortality associated with providing custudial care for grandchildren.
In addition to previous research we wanted to ask whether there are tangible benefits to the donors (grandparents) of the resources. In other words, is caring a one-way street or not.

In our study we examined whether moderate amounts of caregiving were associated with the longevity of older adults. For our analysis we used longitudinal data of over 500 German individuals aged between 70 and 103 years.

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Neuroanatomy Accounts for Age-Related Changes in Risk Preferences.

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Ifat Levy, PhD

Associate Professor
Comparative Med and Neuroscience
Yale School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The proportion of older adults in the population is rapidly rising. These older adults need to make many important decisions, including medical and financial ones, and therefore understanding age-related changes in decision making is of high importance. Prior research has shown that older adults tend to be more risk averse than their younger counterparts when making choices between sure gains and lotteries. For example, asked to choose between receiving $5 for sure and playing a lottery with 50% of gaining $12 (but also 50% of gaining nothing), older adults are more likely than young adults to prefer the safe $5. We were interested in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms that are involved in these age-related shifts in preferences.

An earlier study that we have conducted in young adults provided a clue. In that study, we measured the risk preference of each participant (based on a series of choices they made between safe and risky options), and also used MRI to obtain a 3D image of their brain. Comparing the behavioral and anatomical measures, we found an association between individual risk preferences and the gray-matter volume of a particular brain area, known as “right posterior parietal cortex” (rPPC), which is located at the back of the right side of the brain. Participants with more gray matter in that brain area were, on average, more tolerant of risk (or less risk averse).

This suggested a very interesting possibility – that perhaps the increase in risk aversion observed in older adults is linked to the thinning of gray matter which is also observed in elders. In the current study we set out to test this hypothesis, by measuring risk preference and gray matter density in a group of 52 participants between the ages of 18 and 88. We found that, as expected, older participants were more risk averse than younger ones, and also had less gray matter in their rPPC. We also replicated our previous finding – that less gray matter was associated with higher risk aversion. The critical finding, however, was that the gray matter volume was a better predictor of increased risk aversion than age itself.  Essentially, if both age and the gray matter volume of rPPC were used in the same statistical model, rPPC volume predicted risk preferences, while age did not. Moreover, the predictive power was specific to the rPPC – when we added the total gray matter volume to the model, it did not show such predictive power.

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Cellular Reprogramming May Slow or Reverse Aging

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte PhD Professor, Roger Guillemin Chair Salk Institute of Biological Science's Gene Expression Laborator

Dr. Belmonte

Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte PhD
Professor, Roger Guillemin Chair
Salk Institute of Biological Science’s Gene Expression Laboratory

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Previous studies from different laboratories including ours demonstrated that cellular reprogramming to pluripotency has the capacity to rejuvenate old cells in culture (in a dish) to a younger state. In 2011, we published a study in Nature demonstrating that cellular reprogramming could rejuvenate cells from patients suffering from Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a premature aging syndrome. The current study started after this publication back in 2012 and the two major questions that we had were:

-Could partial, but not complete, cellular reprogramming rejuvenate cells?

-Could partial reprogramming rejuvenated cells in a living organism improving its health and lifespan?
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Preventing Telomere Shortening May Delay Some Chronic Diseases and Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jerry W. Shay PhD Professor Department of Cell Biology, UT Southwestern Medical Center

Dr. Jerry Shay

Jerry W. Shay PhD
Professor
Department of Cell Biology,
UT Southwestern Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What did you find?

Response: Telomeres are the ends of chromosomes and they gradually shortened with every cell division. There have been multiple studies proposing that shortened telomeres correlate with human aging. Most cancers overcome the shortening of telomeres and aging by activating the enzyme, telomerase. Surprisingly, the human telomerase gene (hTERT) is very close to the telomere on chromosome 5p. During human development telomerase is active until about 18 weeks of gestation. It has been a mystery until this present work of what actually causes telomerase to become silenced. We found in this current work that when telomeres are long during development the telomere loops over and helps to silence the telomerase gene. However, as we age and telomeres get progressively shorter, then telomerase becomes permissive for activation and possibly initiation of cancer. This study in part explain why most cancers are in the 65 and older segment of the population.
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Complement Genes Play Role in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

dr-anneke-i-den-hollanderAnneke I. den Hollander, PhD
Department of Ophthalmology and Department of Human Genetics
Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour
Radboud University Medical Center
Nijmegen, the Netherland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Age-related macular degeneration is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Rare genetic variants in the complement system have been described in AMD, but their effect remains largely unexplored. In this study we aimed to determine the effect of rare genetic variants in the complement system on complement levels and activity in serum.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: Carriers of CFI variants showed decreased FI levels, carriers of C9 Pro167Ser had increased C9 levels, while C3 and FH levels were not altered. Carriers of CFH and CFI variants had a reduced ability to degrade C3b, which for CFI was linked to reduced serum FI levels.

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Cancer Rises Globally As World Population Ages

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Christina Fitzmaurice, MD, MPH Assistant Professor Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation University of Washington Seattle, WA

Dr. Christina Fitzmaurice

Christina Fitzmaurice, MD, MPH
Assistant Professor
Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
University of Washington
Seattle, WA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide behind cardiovascular diseases. We found that cancer cases increased by 33% from 13.1 million cases in 2005 to 17.5 million in 2015. The largest driver behind this increase was an aging population, followed by a growing population worldwide. The smallest factor contributing to this increase was a rise in cancer incidence rates. Because of increasing life expectancy and better control of communicable diseases cancer will remain a major burden in the foreseeable future. Adjusting and building health systems that can appropriately deal with this challenge is only possible with good data on the burden of cancer. In our study we estimate the number of cancer cases, and cancer deaths over time for 32 cancers in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. We also estimate how many years of life were lost due to cancer as well as disability adjusted life years and a summary measure that combines these two into disability adjusted life years.

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Acne Linked To Longer Telomeres and Better Aging

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Simone Ribero, M.D., Ph.D. University of Turin Department of Medical Sciences Italy &King’s College London Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology St Thomas’ campus London, UK

Dr. Simon Ribero

Simone Ribero, M.D., Ph.D.
University of Turin
Department of Medical Sciences
Turin. Italy &
King’s College London
Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology
St Thomas’ campus
London

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: For many years dermatologists have identified that the skin of acne sufferers appears to age more slowly than in those who have not experienced any acne in their lifetime.

We have demonstrated in our paper that there is an association between acne and longer telomere length that means that acne patients , with the same anagraphic age , have a younger chronological age.

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Distinct Methylation May Explain Why Some People’s DNA Ages More Slowly

Dr-Bastiaan-Heijmans.jpg

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Bastiaan Heijmans
Leiden University Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Epigenetic change is a hallmark of ageing but its link to ageing mechanisms in humans remains poorly understood. While DNA methylation at many CpG sites closely tracks chronological age, DNA methylation changes relevant to biological age are expected to gradually dissociate from chronological age, mirroring the increased heterogeneity in health status at older ages.

In a large-scale analysis of the methylome of over 3000 individuals, we discovered and validated 6000 sites in the genome that became more variable in their DNA methylation level with age. These sites frequently co-localized with repressed regions that are characterized by polycomb repression. While sites accumulating variability with age were commonly associated with the expression of (neuro)developmental genes in cis, they were linked to transcriptional activity of genes in trans that have a key role in well-established ageing pathways such as intracellular metabolism, apoptosis, and DNA damage response.

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U.S. Hispanics Age More Slowly Than Caucasians and African-Americans

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Michael Gurven, Professor Department of Anthropology University of California Santa Barbara, CA 93106

Dr. Michael Gurven

Michael Gurven, Professor
Department of Anthropology
University of California
Santa Barbara, CA 93106

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Understanding the sources of ethnic and sex disparities in health and longevity is critical in order to insure the health and well-being of everyone. We often hear about disparities due to differences in health care access, education, income, and sometimes genetic differences. But what we’ve done here is to employ a new biomarker developed by Steve Horvath, called the “epigenetic clock”, which measures the cumulative changes to the epigenome, i.e. alterations to DNA that affects gene activity and
expression but do not alter the DNA itself. This new measure is arguably
one of the best biomarkers of aging out there today – so it’s indeed a
biological measure, but tells a different story than conventional genetic
differences. Instead epigenetic age is influenced by the lived experience,
physical and social environment, and genetic make-up of individuals.

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Long-Lived Parents Linked To Longer Life For Middle Aged Adults

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Janice Atkins Research Fellow Epidemiology and Public Health University of Exeter Medical School RD&E Hospital Wonford Barrack Road, Exeter

Dr. Janice Atkins

Dr Janice Atkins
Research Fellow
Epidemiology and Public Health
University of Exeter Medical School
RD&E Hospital Wonford
Barrack Road, Exeter

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We have previously shown that having longer-lived parents increases your likelihood of living longer, and family history of heart attacks is already used by physicians to identify patients at increased risk of disease. However, it has been unclear how the health advantages of having longer lived parents is transferred to their middle-aged offspring.

Our study of nearly 200,000 UK volunteers aged 55-73 at baseline, and followed for 8 years using health records data, found that having longer-lived parents reduced the risk of morbidity and mortality in the participants. We found that for each parent that lived beyond 70 years of age the participants had 20% less chance of dying from heart disease. To illustrate this, in a group of 1,000 people whose father’s died at 70 and followed for 10 years, on average 50 would die from heart disease. When compared to a group whose father’s died at 80, on average only 40 would die from heart disease over the same 10-year period. Similar trends were seen in the mother’s.

The relationship between parental age at death and survival and health in their offspring is complex, with many factors playing a role. Shared environment and lifestyle choices play a large role, including smoking habits, high alcohol consumption, low physical activity and obesity; but even accounting for these factors parents lifespan was still predictive in their offspring. The biggest genetics effects on lifespan in our studies affected the participant’s blood pressure, their cholesterol levels, their Body Mass Index, and their likelihood to be addicted to tobacco. These are all factors that affect risk of heart disease, so is consistent with the lower rates of heart disease in the offspring.

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Volunteering in Mid and Old Age Linked To Better Mental Health

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Faiza Tabassum, PhD University of Southampton, Southampton

Dr. Faiza Tabassum

Dr. Faiza Tabassum, PhD
Southampton Statistical Sciences Research Institute 
University of Southampton
Southampton, UK

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Previous research has shown that volunteering in older age is associated with better mental and physical health, but it’s unclear whether this extends to other age groups. We aimed to examine the association of volunteering with mental health or well-being among the British population across all ages.

The British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) was used which has collected information from 1991 to 2008 from over 5000 households. The published study has analysed over 66,000 responses representing the whole of the UK. The BHPS included a wide range of questions on leisure time activities, which covered the frequency of formal volunteering—from at least once a week through to once a year or less, or never. The BHPS also included a validated proxy for mental health/emotional wellbeing known as the GHQ-12.

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Obesity Linked To Prematurely Aged Brains

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Lisa Ronan, PhD Department of Psychiatry University of Cambridge Neuroscience

Dr. Lisa Ronan

Dr. Lisa Ronan, PhD
Department of Psychiatry
University of Cambridge Neuroscience

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: A growing body of literature relates common markers of aging to those observed in obesity and supports the hypothesis that obesity may accelerate or advance the onset of brain aging. To investigate this relationship at a population level we analysed the white matter volume of the brain in 473 adult subjects ages 20 – 87 years and contrasted these volumes between subjects who were lean (BMI between 18.5 – 25) and those who were overweight / obese (BMI > 25).

Our results suggest that the latter group had significantly smaller white matter volumes when compared to their lean age-matched counterparts. We found that this difference in volume equated to a brain-age increase of 10 years in the overweight / obese group. We found no evidence that obesity impacted on cognitive ability.

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Increased Number of People With Diabetes Primarily Due To Type 2 Diabetics Living Longer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Stephanie Read, PhD
University of Edinburgh, UK

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The number of people living with type 2 diabetes in Scotland is increasing. We wanted to identify to what extent this trend was due to people living longer with type 2 diabetes or due to increasing numbers of new cases each year.

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Menopause Speeds Up the Aging Process in Women

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Morgan Elyse Levine, PhD Postdoctoral Fellow Department of Human Genetics University of California, Los Angeles

Dr. Levine

Morgan Elyse Levine, PhD
Postdoctoral Fellow
Department of Human Genetics
University of California, Los Angeles

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: From an evolutionary perspective, aging and reproduction are two processes that are linked. For instance, in order to maximize fitness, an individual has to survive and remain healthy enough to:

1) reproduce and

2) insure offspring survive to reproductive age.

Thus, the rate of aging is tied to a species’ timing of reproductive senescence and necessary length of parental involvement. There is also evidence that among humans, women with longer reproductive stages (later age at menopause, ability to conceive at older ages) are more likely to live to age 100, which we hypothesize is because they age slower.

Using an epigenetic biomarker believed to capture biological aging (previously developed by the Principle Investigator of this study, Steve Horvath), we tested whether age at menopause, surgical menopause, and use of menopausal hormone therapies were associated with a woman’s aging rate.

We found that the blood of women who experienced menopause at earlier ages (especially those who underwent surgical menopause) was “older” than expected, suggesting they were aging faster on a biological level than women who experienced menopause at later ages. We also found that buccal epithelium samples (cells that line the inside of the cheek) were epigenetically younger than expected (signifying slower aging) for post-menopausal women who had taken menopausal hormone therapy, compared to post-menopausal women who had never taken any form of menopausal hormone therapy.

Finally, we had a number of results that suggested that the previously mentioned findings were a result of the process of menopause directly speeding up the aging process—rather than the alternative explanation, which would have been that women who aged faster experience menopause earlier.

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Some Immune Cells Avoid Aging Until 60

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Martin Piskacek
Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics
Department of Pathological Physiology,
Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University Brno, Czech Republic

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: From genome-wide expression analyses, the B lymphocytes avoid the aging until 60 years of age. We did not found any gene expression differences between young (30-45 years) and early aged healthy donors (50-60 years).

Our results demonstrate the potential of hematopoietic stem cells to generate uncompromised B lymphocytes in early elderly.

These are very encouraging findings for general health, because the immunity maintenance does not seem to need artificial intervention to keep B lymphocytes uncompromised in the early elderly.

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Dr. Shamban Discusses Versatile Line of Restylane® Products To Reverse Facial Aging

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr-Ava-Shamban.jpg

Dr. Ava Shamban

Dr. Ava Shamban MD
Assistant Clinical Professor of Dermatology
UCLA-Geffen School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com Editor’s note: Dr. Ava Shamban, a dermatologist frequently featured on CBS’ The Doctors as the skin maven on ABC’s Extreme Makeover discusses the recent announcement of the 20th Global Anniversary of Restylane.

MedicalResearch.com: Would you briefly explain what Restylane® is? What are the main indications for the Restylane® portfolio of products?

Response: Restylane is a non-animal, stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA), a unique patented HA stabilization technology which contains pure hyaluronic. The Restylane family of products can be used to design individualized treatments with natural-looking results and long-lasting effects. With 190 scientific publications and 150 clinical studies, and more than 3,000 patients in clinical studies, the Restylane family of products are safe and effective products that have been FDA approved based on extensive clinical data. Restylane® is one of the world’s most studied wrinkle fillers and has been used in more than 65 countries worldwide in over 28 million treatments.

The main indications for the Restylane portfolio products is to improve the overall appearance of the aging face. Whether you’re young or old, whether you have a fine line or wrinkle or a deeper fold there is a product in this portfolio that can improve the appearance of your face and reverse signs of aging.

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Therapeutic Target To Reverse Muscle Wasting in Aging Identified

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. David Sebastián IRB Barcelona and CIBERDEM researcher

Dr. David Sebastián

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. David Sebastián
IRB Barcelona and CIBERDEM researcher

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: One of the alterations that most affects the quality of life of the elderly is muscle wastage and the resulting loss of strength, a condition known as sarcopenia. At about 55 years old, people begin to lose muscle mass, this loss continues into old age, at which point it becomes critical. However, the underlying causes of sarcopenia are unknown and thus no treatment is available for this condition.

Importantly, we have found that the mitochondrial protein Mitofusin 2 is required to preserve healthy muscles in mice. Mitofusin 2 is a mitochondrial protein involved in ensuring the correct function of mitochondria, and it has several activities related to autophagy, a crucial process for the removal of damaged mitochondria. The loss of Mitofusin 2 impedes the correct function of mitochondrial recycling and consequently damaged mitochondria accumulate in muscle cells.

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Morbidity-Mortality Paradox: Women Live Longer But With More Chronic Illness in Late Life

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Kathleen Fischer, PhD Department of Biology UAB | University of Alabama Birmingham Birmingham, AL

Dr. Kathleen Fischer

Kathleen Fischer, PhD
Department of Biology
UAB | University of Alabama Birmingham
Birmingham, AL

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Fischer: Aging is by far the greatest risk factor for most of the chronic, non-communicable diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes). By discovering the basic mechanisms responsible for aging we can find ways to extend healthy and productive life and reduce the burdens of chronic disease and disability experienced by individuals and society. Sex differences in longevity can provide novel insights into the basic biology of aging; however this aspect of aging has been largely ignored.

Demographic data show that women outlive men in every society during every historical period and in every geographic area. In spite of this robust survival advantage, women suffer far greater morbidity late in life—a phenomenon described as the morbidity-mortality paradox. It is not clear whether this is a general mammalian pattern or something unique to humans. Research on sex differences in aging and age-related diseases in humans and a range of species will be crucial if we are going to identify the basic mechanisms responsible for the patterns we observe.

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Complex Dietary Supplement Abolishes Brain Cell Loss in Mice

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jennifer Lemon, PhD Research Associate Medical Radiation Sciences McMaster University

Dr. Jennifer Lemon

Jennifer Lemon, PhD
Research Associate
Medical Radiation Sciences
McMaster University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Lemon: Research with the supplement began in 2000, as part of my doctoral degree; we developed the supplement to try to offset the severe cognitive deterioration and accelerated aging in a mouse model we were working with in the lab. Based on aging research, five mechanisms appeared to be key contributors to the process of aging; those include oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondrial deterioration, membrane dysfunction and impaired glucose metabolism. The criteria we used for including components in the supplement were as follows: each one of the 30 components had scientific evidence to show they acted on one or more of the above mechanisms were able to be taken orally, and were available to humans over-the-counter. Even then the hope was that if the formulation was successful, this would make it more available to the general public.

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Many Caregivers Report High Levels of Depression and Loss of Control Over Their Lives

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jill Cameron, PhD Canadian Institutes of Health Research New Investigator Associate Professor, Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy Rehabilitation Sciences Institute Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto     MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Dr. Cameron: In the world of critical illness, a lot of research has focused on helping people to survive – and now that more people are surviving, we need to ask ourselves, what does quality of life and wellbeing look like afterwards for both patients and caregivers? The aim of our research was to identify factors associated with family caregiver health and wellbeing during the first year after patients were discharged from the Intensive Care Unit. We examined factors related to the patient and their functional wellbeing, the caregiving situation including the impact it has on caregivers everyday lives, and caregiver including their sense of control over their lives and available social support. We used Pearlin’s Caregiving Stress Process model to guide this research.   From 2007-2014, caregivers of patients who received seven or more days of mechanical ventilation in an ICU across 10 Canadian university-affiliated hospitals were given self-administered questionnaires to assess caregiver and patient characteristics, caregiver depression symptoms, psychological wellbeing, and health-related quality of life. Assessments occurred seven days and three, six and 12-months after ICU discharge.  The study found that most caregivers reported high levels of depression symptoms, which commonly persisted up to one year and did not improve in some. Caregiver sense of control, impact on caregivers’ everyday lives, and social support had the largest relationships with the outcomes. Caregivers’ experienced better health outcomes when they were older, caring for a spouse, had higher income, better social support, sense of control, and caregiving had less of a negative impact on their everyday lives. No patient characteristics or indicators of illness severity were associated with caregiver outcomes.   Poor caregiver outcomes may compromise patients’ rehabilitation potential and sustainability of home care. Identifying risk factors for caregiver distress is an important first step to prevent more suffering and allow ICU survivors and caregivers to regain active and fulfilling lives.  MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?  Dr. Cameron: Our findings suggest that family caregiver health and wellbeing outcomes are more closely related to characteristics of the caregiver and caregiving situation than patient characteristics including functional abilities and neuropsychological wellbeing. This suggests that when determining which caregivers are in need of support, we can't base this decision on the level of sickness of the patient. We need to screen the caregivers themselves to identify those in need of care and support. Our findings suggest caregivers with low levels of social support, poor sense of control over their situation, and whose caregiving is more likely to impact their everyday lives are more likely to experience poor outcomes and are in need of support from the health care system.  MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study?  Dr. Cameron: Future research should continue to be theoretically driven and follow caregivers longitudinally. Qualitative research involving in depth interviews will enhance our understanding of ways to assist, support, and care for family caregivers across the illness trajectory. Interventions and models of care that target those caregivers in need of support should be developed and tested and ultimately implemented into the health care system.   MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add?  Dr. Cameron: Ultimately, adopting a family centered model of care has the potential to improve the health and wellbeing of family caregivers and their care recipients. One example of adopting this approach concerns the transition of the patient back home. Patients and their caregivers should be assessed for their readiness to go home and provided with education and training to optimize this transition. Once home, families should continue to be monitored and provided with additional supports as needed as they adjust to life in the community. A family centered approach can be incorporated across the care continuum to optimize caregiver and patient outcomes.   Citation:  One-Year Outcomes in Caregivers of Critically Ill Patients Jill I. Cameron, Ph.D., Leslie M. Chu, B.Sc., Andrea Matte, B.Sc., George Tomlinson, Ph.D., Linda Chan, B.A.Sc., Claire Thomas, R.N., Jan O. Friedrich, M.D., D.Phil., Sangeeta Mehta, M.D., Francois Lamontagne, M.D., Melanie Levasseur, M.D., Niall D. Ferguson, M.D., Neill K.J. Adhikari, M.D., Jill C. Rudkowski, M.D., Hilary Meggison, M.D., Yoanna Skrobik, M.D., John Flannery, M.D., Mark Bayley, M.D., Jane Batt, M.D., Claudia dos Santos, M.D., Susan E. Abbey, M.D., Adrienne Tan, M.D., Vincent Lo, P.T., B.Sc., Sunita Mathur, P.T., Ph.D., Matteo Parotto, M.D., Denise Morris, R.N., Linda Flockhart, R.N., Eddy Fan, M.D., Ph.D., Christie M. Lee, M.D., M. Elizabeth Wilcox, M.D., Najib Ayas, M.D., Karen Choong, M.D., Robert Fowler, M.D., Damon C. Scales, M.D., Tasnim Sinuff, M.D., Brian H. Cuthbertson, M.D., Louise Rose, R.N., Ph.D., Priscila Robles, P.T., Ph.D., Stacey Burns, R.N., Marcelo Cypel, M.D., Lianne Singer, M.D., Cecilia Chaparro, M.D., Chung-Wai Chow, M.D., Shaf Keshavjee, M.D., Laurent Brochard, M.D., Paul Hébert, M.D., Arthur S. Slutsky, M.D., John C. Marshall, M.D., Deborah Cook, M.D., and Margaret S. Herridge, M.D., M.P.H., for the RECOVER Program Investigators (Phase 1: towards RECOVER) and the Canadian Critical Care Trials Group N Engl J Med 2016; 374:1831-1841May 12, 2016DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1511160   Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions. More Medical Research Interviews on MedicalResearch.com

Dr. Jill Cameron

Jill Cameron, PhD
Canadian Institutes of Health Research New Investigator
Associate Professor,
Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy
Rehabilitation Sciences Institute
Faculty of Medicine,
University of Toronto

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Cameron: In the world of critical illness, a lot of research has focused on helping people to survive – and now that more people are surviving, we need to ask ourselves, what does quality of life and wellbeing look like afterwards for both patients and caregivers? The aim of our research was to identify factors associated with family caregiver health and wellbeing during the first year after patients were discharged from the Intensive Care Unit. We examined factors related to the patient and their functional wellbeing, the caregiving situation including the impact it has on caregivers everyday lives, and caregiver including their sense of control over their lives and available social support. We used Pearlin’s Caregiving Stress Process model to guide this research.

From 2007-2014, caregivers of patients who received seven or more days of mechanical ventilation in an ICU across 10 Canadian university-affiliated hospitals were given self-administered questionnaires to assess caregiver and patient characteristics, caregiver depression symptoms, psychological wellbeing, and health-related quality of life. Assessments occurred seven days and three, six and 12-months after ICU discharge.

The study found that most caregivers reported high levels of depression symptoms, which commonly persisted up to one year and did not improve in some. Caregiver sense of control, impact on caregivers’ everyday lives, and social support had the largest relationships with the outcomes. Caregivers’ experienced better health outcomes when they were older, caring for a spouse, had higher income, better social support, sense of control, and caregiving had less of a negative impact on their everyday lives. No patient characteristics or indicators of illness severity were associated with caregiver outcomes.

Poor caregiver outcomes may compromise patients’ rehabilitation potential and sustainability of home care. Identifying risk factors for caregiver distress is an important first step to prevent more suffering and allow ICU survivors and caregivers to regain active and fulfilling lives.

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Melatonin May Improve Blood Pressure Control Through Circadian Rhythm Regulation

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Denis Gubin
The Tyumen Medical University
Tyumen, Russia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Dr. Gubin: The older we get, the more likely our circadian rhythms are disrupted. For example, blood pressure, BP, not only tends to increase but as well become more irregular.

One of the possible causes is an age-dependent deficit of endogenous melatonin production. We have shown that exogenous melatonin helps to ameliorate both trends – lowers  blood pressure and also stabilizes and synchronizes blood pressure and heart rate variability.
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Cancer Diagnosis Linked To Aging Symptoms of Physical Decline and Depression

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Corinne Leach, MPH, MS, PHD Strategic Director, Cancer and Aging Research American Cancer Society, Inc. Atlanta, GA 30303

Dr. Corrine Leach

Corinne Leach, MPH, MS, PHD
Strategic Director, Cancer and Aging Research
American Cancer Society, Inc.
Atlanta, GA 30303

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Leach: Using linked data from cancer registries and the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey, we prospectively examined the short-term impact of cancer on the functioning, development of and worsening of age-related health conditions among 921 older adults who developed cancer compared to 4,605 propensity score matched controls. We found that cancer groups demonstrated greater declines in activities of daily living and physical functioning compared to controls with the greatest change for lung cancer patients. Having a cancer diagnosis increased risk for depression but did not increase the odds of developing arthritis in the hand/hip, incontinence (except for prostate cancer), or vision/hearing problems. Having a cancer diagnosis also did not exacerbate the severity of arthritis or foot neuropathy.

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Why Does Motivation Decline With Age?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Jesus Bertran-Gonzalez,
Clem Jones Centre for Ageing Dementia Research, Queensland Brain Institute
University of Queensland
Brisbane Australia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: It has long been recognized that elderly people often show behavioural inflexibility, for example they may have difficulties in finding alternative routes to reach a previously known place in neighbourhoods that have changed, or they may find it difficult to remember new episodes in their life, as opposed to very old ones. The question that we wanted to address in this study is how this memory rigidity in old individuals affects their goal-directed performance, as this can directly impair their capacity to adjust their behaviour to new demands in the environment. Specifically, we wanted to investigate the changes in the brain that occur with normal ageing that have these negative effects on adaptation, and that can potentially keep old people from achieving their needs.

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