Dermatologist Discusses Personalized Approach to Skin Cancer Treatment

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Kristine A. Romine MD CEO and Founder of Camelback Dermatology & Skin Surgery Phoenix, AZ

Dr. Romine

Dr. Kristine A. Romine MD
CEO and Founder of Camelback Dermatology & Skin Surgery
Phoenix, AZ

MedicalResearch.com: Would you give a brief overview of the different types of skin cancer?

Response: There are multiple types of skin cancer, including: melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and actinic keratosis. Known as the deadliest form of skin cancer, melanoma develops when irreparable DNA damage results in malignant transformation of melanocytes. This type of skin cancer is most commonly caused by intense UV exposure from the sun or tanning beds, which activate mutations that lead skin cells to rapidly multiply and form malignant tumors. Melanoma can range in color from dark brown to black and are rarely red or even skin colored. They are usually irregular and asymmetrical. In 2018, there were an estimated 91,270 new cases of melanoma (American Cancer Society, 2018).

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of skin cancer and cancer diagnosed. BCCs arise in the skins’ outermost layers. BCCs resemble open sores, red or pink plaques, pearly nodules with telangiectasia, or scars. It is estimated that 4.3 million BCCs are diagnosed in the U.S. every year (Skin Cancer Foundation, 2018).

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), the second most common type of skin cancer, arises from the squamous cells in the skin that have been exposed to UV over long periods of time. SCCs appear as scaly red or pink macules, papules, or plaques. They can be crusted and appear eroded and can commonly arise within a solar keratosis. More than 1 million cases of SCC are diagnosed in the U.S. every year (Skin Cancer Foundation, 2018).

Lastly, actinic keratoses (AKs) are the most common pre-cancerous skin growth that can develop into a SCC if left untreated. Similar to all other types, AKs are caused by exposure to UV light and, in rare cases, high exposures to x-rays. AKs can appear on sun-exposed areas, including the face, scalp, ears, shoulders, and legs. They resemble pink, scaly rough patches on the skin.

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Psoriasis: Experimental Use of Lipid Molecule to Supress Inflammation

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Wendy Bollag, PhD, FAHA Professor of Physiology VA Research Career Scientist Augusta University, Georgia

Dr. Bollag

Wendy Bollag, PhD, FAHA
Professor of Physiology
VA Research Career Scientist
Augusta University, Georgia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: We have previously shown that the lipid (fat) phosphatidylglycerol (PG) is able to inhibit rapidly growing keratinocytes (skin cells) and promote their maturation. We also found that PG can suppress skin inflammation.

Since the common skin disease psoriasis is characterized by inflammation and excessive growth and abnormal maturation of skin cells, we believed that PG might be useful as a treatment. However, the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effect was unknown. PG in the lung has been found to inhibit inflammation induced by microbes or their components, which work by activating the innate immune system via binding to proteins called toll-like receptors (TLRs); however, psoriasis is not considered to be an infectious disease.

We hypothesized that PG would also inhibit inflammation induced by anti-microbial peptides that activate TLRs. Anti-microbial peptides, produced normally by the skin to protect against infection, are known to be excessively up-regulated in psoriatic skin.  Continue reading

Machine Learning Program Superior to Humans in Non-Pigmented Skin Lesions

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Philipp Tschandl, MD PhD, Priv.Doz. Department of Dermatology Medical University of ViennaPhilipp Tschandl, MD PhD, Priv.Doz.
Assistant Professor
Department of Dermatology
Medical University of Vienna

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Dermatoscopy is a non-invasive imaging technique, where the surface of the skin is rendered translucent and additional important morphologic features become visible from deeper layers. This is achieved through use of immersion fluid or cross-polarised light – equivalent to the effect when using a pair of goggles to look underwater, or polarised sunglasses to reduce glare on glass surfaces. After the first description of “Dermatoskopie” almost 100 years ago by a German dermatologist (Johann Saphier), this technique has evolved to a successful, low-cost, state-of-the-art technique for clinical skin cancer detection in the last decades.

Convolutional neural networks (“CNN”) are powerful machine learning methods, and frequently applied to medical image data in the recent scientific literature. They are highly accurate for basic image classification tasks in experimental settings, and found to be as good as dermatologists in melanoma recognition on clinical or dermatoscopic images. In this study we trained a CNN to diagnose non-pigmented skin lesions (where melanomas are only a minority) through analysis of digital images, and compared the accuracy to >90 human readers including 62 board-certified dermatologists. This study expands knowledge in the following ways compared to previous work:

– We applied the network for the detection of non-pigmented skin cancer, which is far more common in the (caucasian) population than melanoma.

– We created a prediction model that combines analysis of a dermatoscopic and clinical image (“cCNN”) which is able to further increase diagnostic accuracy.

– We compared accuracy not only to experts, but users with different level of experience Continue reading

Novel Use of Tazarotene Gel To Treat Acne Scarring

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Tarun Narang MD MNAMS Department of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research Chandigarh, India

Dr. Narang

Dr Tarun Narang MD MNAMS
Department of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology
Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research
Chandigarh, India

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Acne is one of the most common dermatological problem for which the patients seek medical care. Post acne scarring is a complication of acne, resulting in long lasting physical disfigurement and low self esteem in the affected individuals. Even though there are various methods like microneedling, chemical peeling, cryorolling and ablative lasers to address the post acne atrophic scarring, these procedures are office based hence physician dependent. A home based treatment modality that can treat post acne atrophic scarring with a comparable efficacy to the procedural modalities of treatment will be beneficial to the patient.

Our study was done to assess the efficacy of a topical modality of treatment, tazarotene gel, 0.1% in the management of post acne atrophic scarring in comparison to an established method, the microneedling. Continue reading

Omalizumab (XOLAIR) For Chronic Hives (Urticaria)

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Hives - Wikipedia image James Heilman, MD - Own work

Hives – Wikipedia image

Christopher S. Lee, PhD, RN, FAHA, FAAN, FHFSA
Professor and Associate Dean for Research
Boston College William F. Connell School of Nursing
Chestnut Hill, MA 02467

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Although the efficacy of omalizumab (i.e. can it work?) in the treatment of chronic idiopathic (spontaneous) urticaria has been established in clinical trials, the effectiveness of omalziumab (i.e. does it work?) in the real-world management is less well established.

The purpose of this study was to synthesize what is known about the benefits and harms of omalizumab as used in real-world treatment of Chronic Idiopathic (Spontaneous) Urticaria.

Continue reading

Hot Sun Increases Absorption of Sunscreen Ingredients

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Audra Stinchcomb, PhD

Principal Investigator
Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences
University of Maryland School of Pharmacy

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  

Response: We have been studying the heat effects and repeated dose effects on the absorption of drugs across the skin for more than 5 years.  We were curious to see if the effects we saw on gel, cream, and ointment pharmaceuticals also occurred with sunscreen.

Sunscreens are typically used in the hot sun and with reapplication every 80 minutes or so, depending on the product and user.

Continue reading

Eczema Determined by Genetics or Environment?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Eczema” by NIAID is licensed under CC BY 2.0Hans Bisgaard, MD, DMSc

Professor of Pediatrics
C‌openhagen U‌niversity H‌ospital, H‌erlev-G‌entofte
Copenhagen

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

 Response: The uniqueness of this study, is that we for the first time have day-to-day recordings of symptoms and use og local treatment during the first 3 years of life showing the disease peaks at 2 years of age and children start outgrowing thereafter.Previous studies including our own have analyzed eczema at a certain age.Since eczema is highly variable over time, our disease description is novel.This has allowed us a more reliable analyses of factors determining eczema in young children 

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: What we see it that eczema is determined by genetics and with no know external factors causing or deteriorating the severity.

 MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: We are currently aiming to analyze the interaction between genetics and the environment. In other words though eczema is highly genetically determined, we have reason to believe that external factors triggers such genes.
 No conflicts of interest   

Citation:  

Thorsteinsdottir S, Stokholm J, Thyssen JP, et al. Genetic, Clinical, and Environmental Factors Associated With Persistent Atopic Dermatitis in Childhood. JAMA Dermatol. Published online November 14, 2018. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2018.4061

 

Nov 15, 2018 @ 12:52 pm

  The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website. 

Psoriasis Patients More Likely To Have Inflammatory Bowel Disease

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Psoriasis

Psoriasis

Prof Ching-Chi Chi, MD, MMS, DPhil 
Department of Dermatology
Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou
Guishan Dist, Taoyuan

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Previous studies have shown common genotypes, clinical course, and immunological features shared by psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease.

However, the relationship between psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease was largely unclear.

In this study, we found when compared to the general population, psoriatic patients are more likely to have concomitant inflammatory bowel disease.  Continue reading

What Can Be Done About Sundamaged Skin?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Janet Prystowsky, MD Dr. Prystowsky is a leading board-certified dermatologist in New York City.  In addition to her private practice, Dr. Prystowsky is a senior attending physician at Mount Sinai Roosevelt/St. Luke’s Medical Center.

Dr. Prystowsky

Dr. Janet Prystowsky, MD
Dr. Prystowsky is a leading board-certified dermatologist in
New York City.  

In addition to her private practice, Dr. Prystowsky is a senior attending physician at Mount Sinai Roosevelt/St. Luke’s Medical Center.
http://www.janetprystowskymd.com/

MedicalResearch.com: When does sun damage to the skin start?  Is there such a thing as a ‘safe tan’?  Who is most susceptible to photoaging?  What parts of the body are more likely to show signs of sun damage? 

Response: Sun damage will increase a person’s risk of premature aging and skin cancer.  Although tanning does function to help protect your skin from excessive ultraviolet radiation tanning is still a form of sun damage.  Also, people with very fair skin may not tan at all; only burn.  They are the most susceptible to sun damage. Certain medical conditions (e.g., Lupus), medications, cosmetics, and food can make your more reactive (photosensitive) to sunlight.

"Sunburn" by Kelly Sue DeConnick is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0Sunburns are caused by UV damage from sun rays, almost entirely due to UVB rays. UVA rays are weaker for burning but can contribute to blistering sunburns as well. For example, If you get lime peel rubbed on your skin while you are in the sun, you could get a bad burn.  UVA can also cause significant skin damage that can result in premature wrinkling, brown spots, and skin cancer. That’s why you’ll see dermatologists pushing for broad-spectrum sunscreens as opposed to sunscreens that just protect against UVB rays.  Continue reading

Psoriasis Patients Have Higher Risk of Sexual and Erectile Dysfunction

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Severe Psoriasis; penn medicine

Severe Psoriasis

Alejandro Molina-Leyva, MD PhD
Dermatología, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Psoriasis is a frequent  chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by the presence of erythematous papulosquamous lesions that can affect any part of the body. The modification of body image and the subjective symptoms associated like itch or even pain can produce an important impairment of quality of life.

Sexuality is a major aspect of life that can be impaired by chronic disease but it is usually an overlooked topic during medical consultations maybe because of lack of knowledge or embarrassment. There is a increasing scientific evidence supporting the relationship between psoriasis and sexual dysfunction.

The aim of our study is to synthesize this scientific evidence in order to help dermatologists to understand the burden of the problem, to identify patients at higher risk and the available therapeutic options.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Patients with psoriasis present a higher risk of sexual and erectile dysfunction compared to general population. Approximately 50% of patients with psoriasis experience some degree of sexual dysfunction. Anxiety or depression, genital psoriasis or psoriasis arthritis increase the risk of sexual dysfunction among patients with psoriasis, special attention should be given to these patients. The improvement of psoriasis associated with biologic drugs have demonstrated to improve sexual dysfunction.

Psoriasis patients should be inquired about sexual problems during routine consultation, especially those that present risk factors. The presence of sexual or erectile dysfunction could be considered as an additional severity factor  for treatment decision.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: Future research should point towards to investigate the role of systemic inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokines and psoriasis. We recommend researchers the use specific validated tool to assess sexual dysfunction. Upcoming clinical trials of new drugs for psoriasis should include specific analyses regarding sexual and erectile dysfunction. 

Citation:

Molina-Leyva A, Salvador-Rodriguez L, Martinez-Lopez A, Ruiz-Carrascosa JC, Arias-Santiago S. Association Between Psoriasis and Sexual and Erectile Dysfunction in Epidemiologic StudiesA Systematic ReviewJAMA Dermatol. Published online October 10, 2018. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2018.3442

Oct 11, 2018 @ 1:29 pm

The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

 

Topical Minocycline Foam for Moderate-to-Severe Acne Meets Phase 3 Study Endpoints

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
foamixDavid Domzalski
CEO

Foamix Pharmaceuticals

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  How does FMX101 differ from other treatment for acne, ie benzoyl peroxide, topical clindamycin etc? 

Response: This study measures the safety and efficacy of a topical foam formulation of the antibiotic minocycline, for the treatment of moderate-to-severe acne.

Minocycline is one of the most commonly used products for the treatment of acne, but is currently only available in an oral dosage form.

Significant side effects are associated with oral minocycline, including GI upset, photosensitivity, headaches, dizziness, and other potential effects on the CNS.  In addition to the side effects associated with oral minocycline, many currently available topical acne medications contain ingredients which can be drying and irritating to the skin.  These side effects can be frustrating to patients and potentially impact overall compliance to their treatment regimen.  The study addresses important unmet needs in dermatology to determine whether providing patients with a topical dosage form of minocycline may have potential advantages over existing products.

In our first two Phase 3 clinical studies, >95% of facial local tolerability signs and symptoms were classified as “none” or “mild,” including dryness, erythema and itching.  Also, our topical minocycline foam, FMX101, is a natural triglyceride-based vehicle that does not contain ingredients that serve as  primary irritants or surfactants.  We believe that FMX101, if approved, would be the first topical minocycline available for the treatment of acne and provide a novel and much needed treatment option for patients who suffer from the physical and psycho-social effects of acne. Continue reading

Dermatology Care Varies Widely by Gender, Socioeconomic Factors and Race

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Raghav Tripathi, MPH Case Western Reserve University MD Candidate, Class of 2021

Raghav Tripathi

Raghav Tripathi, MPH
Case Western Reserve University
MD Candidate, Class of 2021

MedicalResearch.com: Why did you decide to perform this study?

Response: Differences in the impact of dermatologic conditions on different groups have been of interest to our research group for a long time. Previously, our group had found differences in time to treatment for patients with different skin cancers. Beyond this, we had found differences in mortality and incidence of various skin conditions (controlling for other factors) in different racial groups/ethnicities, socioeconomic groups, demographic groups, and across the rural-urban continuum.

The goal of this study was to investigate socioeconomic and demographic differences in utilization of outpatient dermatologic care across the United States. As demographics throughout the country become more diverse, understanding differences in utilization of dermatologic care is integral to developing policy approaches to increasing access to care across the country.  Continue reading

IXORA-S Study Suggest Taltz May Provide Significantly Greater Clearance of Nail Psoriasis

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Lotus Mallbris, M.D., Ph.D., Vice president, Immunology Development Lilly Bio-Medicines 

Dr. Mallbris

Lotus Mallbris, M.D., Ph.D.,
Vice president, Immunology Development
Lilly Bio-Medicines 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: By exploring creative clinical approaches and patient-centric pathways to more thoroughly address the key aspects of treating these complex conditions, Lilly is bringing innovation forward in hopes of reducing the burden of dermatologic disease for people around the world.

The results of the IXORA-S study suggest that Taltz may provide significantly greater clearance of nail psoriasis than ustekinumab. This is significant because nail lesions are a common feature of psoriasis. It’s often associated with discomfort, which can lead to functional impairment and distress, further supporting the importance of complete clearance.   Continue reading

Medicare Spends Hundreds of Millions Annually to Treat Precancerous Skin Lesions

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Actinic Keratosis” by Ed Uthman is licensed under CC BY 2.0Howa Yeung, MD
Assistant Professor of Dermatology
Emory University School of Medicine
Atlanta, GA 30322 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you briefly explain what is meant by actinic keratoses?

Response: Actinic keratoses are common precancerous skin lesions caused by sun exposure. Because actinic keratoses may develop into skin cancers such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, they are often treated by various destructive methods. We used Medicare Part B billing claims to estimate the number and cost of treated actinic keratoses from 2007 to 2015.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? 

Response: While the number of Medicare Part B beneficiaries increased only moderately, the number of actinic keratoses treated by destruction rose from 29.7 million in 2007 to 35.6 million in 2015. Medicare paid an average annual amount of $413.1 million for actinic keratosis destruction from 2007 to 2015. Independently billing non-physician clinicians, including advanced practice registered nurses and physician assistants, are treating an increasing proportion of actinic keratosis, peaking at 13.5% in 2015.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Readers should understand that the burden of actinic keratosis treatment is increasing in the Medicare population. There is also an increasing proportion of actinic keratoses being treated by advanced practice registered nurses and physician assistants.  Continue reading

Experimental Cap Regrows Hair Using Photostimulation

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
photostimulation of hair growthHan Eol Lee Ph.D.
Flexible and Nanobio Device Lab.
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
KAIST

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Numerous people around the world have suffered from alopecia, which leads to aesthetic issues, low self-esteem, and social anxiety. With the population expansion alopecia patients from middle-age down even to the twenties, a depilation treatment is expected to have social and medical impacts on billions of patients. The causes of alopecia are generally known to be heredity, mental stress, aging, and elevated male hormone. Therapeutic techniques such as thermal, electrical, pharmacological, and optical stimulation have been proposed to treat hair problems. Among them, laser stimulation to hair-lost regions is a promising technique, activating the anagen phase and the proliferation of hair follicles without side effects. However, this laser stimulation technique has drawbacks, such as high power consumption, large size, and restrictive use in daily life (e.g., the difficulty of microscale spatial control and the long time exposure of high-energy laser).  Continue reading

Clothing Patterns of Boys Compared to Girls May Explain Differences in Patterns of Mole Development

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Lori A. Crane, PhD Department of Community and Behavioral Health Colorado School of Public Health University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora CO

Dr. Crane

Lori A. Crane, PhD
Department of Community and Behavioral Health
Colorado School of Public Health
University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus,
Aurora CO 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Nevi, which are commonly called “moles”, are brown or black spots on the skin that are usually raised.  Moles are the number one risk factor for malignant melanoma, the most dangerous kind of skin cancer.  About 9,000 people die of melanoma each year in the U.S. The more moles a person has, the higher their risk for melanoma.  Sun exposure is a major factor in the development of moles, and in order to prevent melanoma, it is important to better understand how moles are formed on the skin.

Most moles are formed during childhood and adolescence.  We studied non-Hispanic and Hispanic white children age 3-16 and found that non-Hispanic children developed many more moles than Hispanic children.  Overall, boys developed more moles than girls, but there were some important differences.  For parts of the skin that are often covered by clothing but sometimes exposed to the sun, such as the chest and back, upper arms and upper legs, girls developed more moles than boys, especially among Hispanic children.  In contrast, for parts of the skin that are usually exposed to the sun, such as the face, boys developed many more moles than girls.  The development of moles leveled off by age 16 for parts of the skin usually exposed to the sun, while for the less often exposed skin, children continued to develop moles to age 16.

Continue reading

Can the HPV Vaccine Be Used To Treat Some Skin Cancers?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jeffrey Rapaport

Dr. Rapaport

Dr. Jeffrey Rapaport MD, PA
Emeritus head of Dermatology
Teaneck’s Holy Name Hospital.

Dr. Rapaport discusess a case recently reported in JAMA: In 2016:

A 97-year-old female patient was suffering from multiple squamous cell carcinomas varying from small to incredibly large in size on both of her legs. She was injected with the HPV vaccine commonly known as Gardasil, which is also used to treat warts and oral papilloma. She was first injected in her arm, and then after a period of six weeks, the vaccine was directly injected into her tumors. It was observed that this treatment eventually killed off almost all the tumors on her legs. According to recent press coverage, she is now looking forward to celebrating her 100th birthday in fall 2018.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?Is HPV thought be a trigger for some cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas?

Response: The link between skin cancers and HPV vaccinations has normally been investigated in patients who have received organ transplants. Due to the immune-suppressant drugs these patients must take, it is incredibly common to find cases of skin cancer in patients who have undergone transplants. The relaxed immune system, which would normally eliminate cancers caused by the HPV virus, would open the floodgates for multiple skin tumors to emerge. In this case of the 97 year old, I would assume her immune system was healthy. There is, however, growing evidence that receiving multiple vaccines for the HPV virus is necessary even in patients with healthy immune systems. So, regardless of immune health, I believe we need to expand the frequency of the HPV vaccine, even beyond the current three-tiered system for women below 26 and men below 21.

Continue reading

Medical Residents and Program Directors Have Different Perceptions of New Parent Leave and Breastfeeding Policies

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Prof-Lia E. Gracey

Prof. Gracey

Lia E. Gracey, MD, PhD
Department of Dermatology
Baylor Scott & White Health
Austin, Texas 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: The co-authors and I were interested in this issue as new parent leave (or the lack thereof) is increasingly being examined in many professions.  As a mother who had children during dermatology residency, I felt the pressure to take a short new parent leave to avoid having to make up time at the end of my training.

I came back to work only 3 ½ weeks after having my first baby. Anecdotally, other new parent residents (both men and women) reported similar concerns and we noticed a lack of data about new parent leave policies in dermatology residency training programs.

We distributed surveys to dermatology residency program directors and residents and were struck by a basic lack of awareness by residents for whether their institution even offered new parent leave.  Less than 50% of surveyed residents were aware of a written new parent leave policy for their residency program, yet over 80% of program directors stated they had a policy in place. We also found discrepancies between resident and program director perceptions of sufficiency of new parent leave and the availability of pumping facilities for breastfeeding mothers.  Continue reading

Genetics of Aggressive Skin Cancers in Patients with ‘Butterfly’ Skin Identified

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Andrew South, PhD, Associate Professor in the department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology at Jefferson (Philadelphia University + Thomas Jefferson University) 

Dr. South

Dr Andrew South, PhD,
Associate Professor in the department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology at Jefferson (Philadelphia University + Thomas Jefferson University) 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you briefly explain what is meant by Butterfly Syndrome or recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa?

Response: Epidermolysis Bullosa, or EB, is a group of genetic diseases caused by mutations in genes which play a role in maintaining skin integrity. An EB patients’ skin can be very fragile which has been likened to butterfly wings, which are also very fragile. Skin blisters are common in EB patients and in some cases large wounds can result from the slightest mechanical trauma, hence the term Butterfly Syndrome.

Skin cancer is a major complication of patients with the recessive dystrophic subtype of EB, known as recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa or RDEB, and these cancers, called squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), are very aggressive. SCC is the leading cause of death in patients with RDEB. SCC also arise very early, affecting RDEB patients in their 20’s and 30’s. Our study used genetic analysis of cancers collected from patients to try and determine what causes the cancer at such an early age and what causes these cancers to be so fatal. Skin SCC arising in the general population as a result of sun exposure are generally benign and occur much later in life, regular skin SCC patients are predominantly over the age of 60, therefore something must be different about RDEB SCC.  Continue reading

Kids May One Day Be Vaccinated Against Acne Toxins

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Eric Huang, PhD Professor, Department of Dermatology University of California, San Diego

Dr. Huang

Eric Huang, PhD
Professor, Department of Dermatology
University of California, San Diego

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? To whom would the vaccine be targeted?  Affected individuals?  Patients with strong family history? Resistant acne cases?

Response: The background for this study is to develop vaccines to replace the antibiotics which may induce resistant bacteria.

Preventive acne vaccines will be used for injection into elementary students to prevent the acne development when they become teenagers. Therapeutic acne vaccines using monoclonal antibodies will be used for those patients who already have acne vulgaris.

Both patients with strong family history and resistant acne cases are highly recommended to use when the acne vaccines are available.  

Continue reading

Patients with CLL Should Be Monitored for Skin Cancer, Including Melanoma

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Clive S. Zent MD Professor of Medicine Director of Lymphoma/CLL Program Wilmot Cancer Institute University of Rochester Medical Center Rochester NY

Dr. Zent


Clive S. Zent MD

Professor of Medicine
Director of Lymphoma/CLL Program
Wilmot Cancer Institute
University of Rochester Medical Center
Rochester NY

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) have an increased risk of all skin cancers including malignant melanoma.

This study in a stable population of CLL patients managed by a regional referral center confirmed that melanoma was over 6 times more common in than in an age and sexed matched general population. Because of the proactive skin screening program at the University of Rochester Medical Center’s Wilmot Cancer Center, most melanomas (77%) were detected at earlier stages and were treated surgically with curative intent. One patient with CLL and metastatic melanoma had a sustained remission of both diseases on treatment with ibrutinib and pembrolizumab. Continue reading

More Evidence UV Filters in Sunscreens Affect Marine Life

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
sunscreen creative commonsAdela J. Li, PhD

Research Affiliate
Wadsworth Center, Rm. D597
New York State Dept. of Health
Empire State Plaza
Albany, NY, 12201-0509
On the behalf of Dr. Kelvin Leung 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Most people love the beach. In order to block the sun’s damaging UV radiation, people generally slather on a thick layer of sunscreen against sunburn and skin cancer. Sunscreen is suggested to be re-applied every few hours regarding its effectiveness as well as being washed off into the water. These UV filters have been detected in the environment but most studies concluded that individual sunscreen chemicals pose no/low risk to animals or human. However, UV filters constitute a heterogeneous group of chemicals in sunscreens. We are wondering if combination of UV filters would induce higher toxicity than individual compounds, and whether these chemical interactions would develop over time, becoming increasingly dangerous to the living systems.

Our study found seven of the nine UV filters in Shenzhen waters, China — a rapidly urbanized city with over 20 popular recreational beaches, surprisingly, a reservoir and tap water. After exposing artemia to three dominant UV filters and then feeding these artemia to zebrafish adults, concentrations in both were up to 4 times higher when exposed to the mixtures than when exposed to only a single UV filter. A short-term of 25-day dietary exposure to the zebrafish adults did not appear to significantly influence early life stage development of the second generation; however, relatively long exposure over 47 days had significant adverse effects on embryo development. Continue reading

Waiting Room App Uses Selfies To Show Patients Effects of Sun Damage

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Startup Screen Dermatology APPDr. med. Titus Brinker
Head of App-Development // Clinician Scientist
Department of Translational Oncology
National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT)
Department of Dermatology
University Hospital Heidelberg
Heidelberg

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: ​While everyone in the dermatologic community appears to agree on the importance of UV-protection for skin cancer prevention, busy clinicians often lack time to address it with their patients.

Thus, the aim of this study was to make use of waiting rooms that almost every patient visiting a clinic spends time in and address this topic in this setting by the means of modern technology rather than clinicians time.

We used our free photoaging app “Sunface” which shows the consequences of bad UV protection vs. good UV protection on the users’ own 3D-animated selfie 5 to 25 years in the future and installed it on an iPad. The iPad was then centrally placed into the waiting room of our outpatient clinic on a table and had the Sunface App running permanently. The mirroring of the screen lead to a setting where every patient in the waiting room would see and eventually react to the selfie taken by one individual patient which was altered by the Sunface App.

Thus, the intervention was able to reach a large proportion of patients visiting our clinic: 165 (60.7%) of the 272 patients visiting our waiting room in the seven days the intervention was implemented either tried it themselves (119/72,12%) or watched another patient try the app (46/27,9%) even though our outpatient clinic is well organized and patients have to wait less than 20 minutes on average. Longer waiting times should yield more exposure to the intervention. Of the 119 patients who tried the app, 105 (88.2%) indicated that the intervention motivated them to increase their sun protection (74 of 83 men [89.2%]; 31 of 34 women [91.2%]) and to avoid indoor tanning beds (73 men [87.9%]; 31 women [91.2%]) and that the intervention was perceived as fun (83 men [98.8%]; 34 women [97.1%]).

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Restoring Mitochondrial Function Reverses Wrinkles and Hair Loss – in Mice

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

This transmission electron microscopic (TEM) image revealed some of the ultrastructural morphology displayed by a Candida sp. fungal organism. CW = cell wall, PM = plasma membrane, M = mitochondria, V = vacuole, and N = nucleus.

This transmission electron microscopic (TEM) image revealed some of the ultrastructural morphology displayed by a Candida sp. fungal organism. CW = cell wall, PM = plasma membrane, M = mitochondria, V = vacuole, and N = nucleus
CDC image

Keshav K. Singh, Ph.D.
Joy and Bill Harbert Endowed Chair in Cancer Genetics
Professor of Genetics, Pathology and Environmental Health
Founding Editor-in-Chief, Mitochondrion Journal
Director, Cancer Genetics Program
The University of Alabama at Birmingham
Birmingham, AL 35294

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Decline in mitochondrial DNA content and mitochondrial function has been observed in aging humans. We created mouse to mimic those condition to show that decline in mitochondrial function leads to development of wrinkles and loss of hair.

The main finding is that by restoring mitochondrial function we can reverse skin wrinkles to normal healthy skin and also regain hair growth.  Continue reading

Sunscreen Use During Childhood Reduces Melanoma Risk

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Sunscreen” by Tom Newby is licensed under CC BY 2.0Dr Caroline Watts  PhD

Post-doctoral Researcher
The University of Sydney.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: The study analysed data collected from nearly 1700 young Australians who participated in the Australian Melanoma Family Study, a population-based case-control-family study that focused on people who had a melanoma under 40 years of age and compared them with people the same age who did not have a melanoma.

We examined sunscreen use during childhood and adulthood and its association with melanoma risk and found that compared to people who did not use sunscreen, regular sunscreen use during childhood reduced melanoma risk by 30-40 per cent.  Continue reading