Walking Pace Addresses Fit versus Fat Debate

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
sneakers-walkingFrancesco Zaccardi, MD, PhD

Clinical Epidemiologist
Assistant Director Leicester Real World Evidence Unit
Leicester Diabetes Centre
UK

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The role of excess body weight on mortality has been extensively investigated during the last decades. Studies from several countries have also shown, however, that the risk of death in persons who are overweight or obese is lower if their fitness, a parameter indicating cardio-pulmonary health, is higher.

Most of these studies reported the beneficial effect of fitness in terms of relative risk reduction, for example 20% reduction of risk of death. Relative estimates, though, are difficult to interpret. Continue reading

Which Matters More? Pre-Pregnancy Obesity vs Pregnancy Weight Gain?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr-Romy GaillardRomy Gaillard MD PhD
LifeCycle Project-Maternal Obesity and Childhood Outcomes Study Group
Erasmus MC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  

Response: Obesity among women of reproductive age is a major problem for society. Scientists have long known that maternal weight before and during pregnancy are associated with pregnancy outcomes. Gestational weight gain is necessary to ensure healthy development of the fetus, but too much weight gain is associated with a higher risk of pregnancy complications.

The magnitude of the associations of maternal weight before and during pregnancy with the risks of pregnancy complications, as well as the optimal amount of weight that especially obese women should gain during pregnancy were not well-known. Continue reading

Are Overweight or Obese Adolescents More or Less Prone to Acne?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Igor Snast, MD

Department of Dermatology
Rabin Medical Center–Beilinson Hospita
Israel. 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Acne is the most common skin disorder among adolescents. Obesity has been suggested to promote acne, however various studies evaluating the relationship between obesity and acne have yielded contradictory outcomes.

Our population-based study demonstrates that overweight, obese and severely obese youths have decreased odds of having acne (20%, 35% and 50% respectively) compared to normal-weight subjects. Continue reading

Your Body Can Adapt To An Occasional Dietary Splurge

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dale Morrison, PhD
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: The study was conducted using a model of overfeeding that is likely to be representative of a typical Western overeating diet, high in both carbohydrates and fats; as opposed to a predominantly high-fat diet model that is commonly used in the literature.

Our purpose was to examine which tissues are impaired first in response to overeating with a normal dietary composition. We initially hypothesized, based on earlier studies, that the liver would be impaired first by short-term overeating and then skeletal muscle (which soaks up much of the glucose following a meal) would be impaired much later with chronic overeating. However, we didn’t find this. The study found that the body copes with short periods of overeating with additional carbohydrates and makes adjustments by shifting metabolism towards utilizing these excess carbohydrates.  Continue reading

Fetal and Early Infant Growth Linked to Persistent Body Fat Patterns

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, MD, PhDAdjunct Professor of EpidemiologyDepartment of Epidemiology

Dr. Jaddoe

Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, MD, PhD
Adjunct Professor of Epidemiology
Department of Epidemiology

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Childhood body fat may be affected by patterns of fetal and infant weight change. Children born small for gestational age (SGA) tend to have infant growth acceleration, whereas those born large for gestational age (LGA) tend to have infant growth deceleration. Little is known about fetal and infant growth patterns affecting visceral, liver, and pericardial fat, which are strongly associated with cardiometabolic disease in later life.

We assessed in a large population cohort study whether fetal and infant weight change was associated with not only general, but also organ fat at school age. We observed that fetal and infant weight change patterns were both associated with childhood body fat, but weight change patterns in infancy tended to have larger effects. Fetal growth restriction followed by infant growth acceleration was associated with increased visceral and liver fat.  Continue reading

Does Marijuana Really Cause the Munchies?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
"Chocolate Brownies" by Kurtis Garbutt is licensed under CC BY 2.0. To view a copy of this license, visit: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0Jessica S. Kruger PhD
Clinical Assistant Professor
Department of Community Health and Health Behavior
School of Public Health and Health Professions
University of Buffalo
Daniel J. Kruger PhD
Adjunct Faculty Associate, Population Studies Center.
Michigan’s Population Studies Center 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The legal environment for cannabis is changing rapidly and an increasing proportion of people are using cannabis for medical and recreational purposes. All policy and practice should be informed by science, yet there is a large gap between evidence and existing practices, and the current scope of research on cannabis users is limited.

Public Health has the responsibility of protecting the public, maximizing benefits and minimizing harm in any area. However, the Public Health approach to cannabis has largely been limited to a focus on abstinence, and Federal regulations have restricted the scope of cannabis-related research.

Continue reading

Changes in WIC Program Linked to Decreased Obesity in Children

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

M. Pia Chaparro, MS, PhDAssistant ProfessorDepartment of Global Community Health and Behavioral SciencesSchool of Public Health and Tropical MedicineTulane UniversityNew Orleans, LA 70112

Dr. Chaparro

M. Pia Chaparro, MS, PhD
Assistant Professor
Department of Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences
School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine
Tulane University
New Orleans, LA 70112

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In 2009, the WIC program changed the food packages participants receive to better align them with federal dietary guidelines. These changes included the addition of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains; a reduction in the amount of dairy and juice; and a calibration in formula amounts to match infants’ age and needs.

We found that this change in the food package was associated with a 10-12% lower obesity risk at age 4 years among children who participated in WIC in Los Angeles County continuously from birth until age 4. Continue reading

Metformin More Effective For Weight Loss Maintenance Than Lifestyle Alone

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Kishore M. Gadde, MD, Professor
Fairfax Foster Bailey Endowed Chair in Heart Disease Prevention
Medical Director, Clinical Services
Pennington Biomedical Research Centre
Baton Rouge, LA 70808 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Around 20 years ago, the Diabetes Prevention Program, DPP, enrolled 3,234 adults with excess body weight and impaired glucose tolerance. The idea was to compare the efficacy of either an intensive lifestyle intervention or metformin relative to placebo in preventing diabetes. Over approximately 3 years, both lifestyle and metformin were effective, but lifestyle intervention was better for weight loss as well as in reducing the risk of diabetes. After the blinded treatment phase ended, the researchers continued to follow this cohort in their originally randomised groups.  Continue reading

Overweight and Obese Young Adults at Decreased Risk of Acne

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Igor Snast, MD
Department of Dermatology
Rabin Medical Center–Beilinson Hospital
Israel

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Acne is the most common skin disorder among adolescents. Obesity has been suggested to promote acne, however various studies evaluating the relationship between obesity and acne have yielded contradictory outcomes.

Our population-based study demonstrates that overweight, obese and severely obese youths have decreased odds of having acne (20%, 35% and 50% respectively) compared to normal-weight subjects. Continue reading

Metformin in Pregnancy Associated With Increased Obesity in Children

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Liv Guro Engen Hanem, PhD CandidateDepartment of Clinical and Molecular MedicineNorwegian University of Science and Technology

Liv Guro Engen Hanem

Liv Guro Engen Hanem, PhD Candidate
Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine
Norwegian University of Science and Technology

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  

Response: The antidiabetic drug metformin is increasingly used in pregnancy: to treat gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes, and to prevent pregnancy complications related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity. Metformin passes the placenta, and the fetus is thus exposed to the drug. Although no teratogenicity has been reported, metformin might have long-term effects on offspring health.

This study is a follow-up of cardiometabolic risk factors of 141 5- to 10-year-old children born in the PregMet study. This study was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to test the hypothesis that metformin given throughout pregnancy reduces the prevalence of pregnancy complications that are associated with the common endocrine disorder PCOS. Pregnant women with PCOS were randomized to receive metformin or placebo throughout pregnancy.  Continue reading

Oxytocin Reduces Activation of Brain Areas Linked to Stimulation by High Calorie Food Images

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Liya Kerem, MDFellow, Pediatric Endocrine UnitMassachusetts General Hospital for ChildrenHarvard Medical School

Dr. Kerem

Liya Kerem, MD
Fellow, Pediatric Endocrine Unit
Massachusetts General Hospital for Children
Harvard Medical School

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  

Response: The hypothalamic neurohormone Oxytocin (OXT), shown to decrease food intake in animals and humans, is a promising novel treatment for obesity. We previously showed that in men with overweight/obesity, intranasal (IN)OXT reduced the fMRI activation in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the origin of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system, in response to high-calorie food vs non-food visual stimuli.

Here, we employed fMRI functional connectivity analysis, which better characterizes the exchange in information between neural systems in a context-dependent manner. We hypothesized that Oxytocin would reduce the functional connectivity of the VTA with food motivation brain areas in response to high-calorie foods.  Continue reading

Chemicals in Household Dust May Promote Fat-Cell Development

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Christopher D. Kassotis, Ph.D.NRSA Postdoctoral Research ScholarStapleton LabDuke UniversityNicholas School of the EnvironmentDurham, NC 27708 

Dr. Kassotis

Christopher D. Kassotis, Ph.D.
NRSA Postdoctoral Research Scholar
Stapleton Lab
Duke University
Nicholas School of the Environment
Durham, NC 27708 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

  • So this was something that Heather Stapleton had been curious about for years, as she’s been one of several researchers characterizing the hundreds of chemicals that have been measured in indoor house dust. Before I came to Duke, one of her PhD students had measured the ability of many common indoor contaminants to activate the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARg). The majority of these chemicals did, often quite well, which led to them testing indoor house dust extracts, also finding that the majority of dust extracts were also able to do so at very low levels. As PPARg is often considered the master regulator of fat cell development, the next obvious question was whether these common contaminants (and house dust) could promote fat cell development in cell models. My first work at Duke evaluated a suite of common indoor contaminants, finding that many of these chemicals could promote fat cell development, and that low levels of house dust extracts did as well.
  • We next explored this more systematically in a group of adults involved in a thyroid cancer cohort (this was just recently published in Science of the Total Environment:
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969719307715?dgcid=author
  • In this study we evaluated the extent to which house dust extracts could promote fat cell development in a common cell model, and associated this with the metabolic health of adults living in these homes. We found that the greater extent of fat cell development was associated with significantly greater thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations (control residents only, with no evidence of thyroid dysfunction) and lower free triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). We further found a significant and positive association between extent of fat cell development and the body mass index (BMI) of all adults in the study. So this suggested that the indoor environment might play a role in the BMI and metabolic health of residents, and we next wondered if this would be more pronounced in children, who may be exposed to these contaminants during a critical window of development.
  • The next step, for our current work, was to substantiate these effects in a larger group of households, each with children.
  • Our major conclusions thus far have been that ~80% of house dust extracts promote significant fat cell development in a cell model – either via development from precursor cells into mature fat cells, measured via accumulation of lipids into the cells, or via the proliferation of those precursor fat cells. We also reported positive correlations of fat cell development with the concentrations of 70 different contaminants in the dust from these homes, suggesting that mixtures of contaminants are likely all acting weakly to produce these effects in combination. We’ve also begun to assess the other chemicals present in dust – chemistry can be either targeted (measuring concentrations of specific known chemicals in a sample), or non-targeted, where you try and determine the identity of the other chemicals in a sample. This has greater utility for identifying many more chemicals, though you will often not get chemical concentrations from this, nor absolute confirmed identification – just varying degrees of certainty based on evidence.

    Thus far we report approximately 35,000 chemicals in house dust samples across this study, and differential analyses have begun to pick out the few (less than 10 in each case) chemicals most differentially expressed between samples that exhibit high degrees of fat cell development in the lab vs inactive samples, for example, or which are differentially present in the homes of children categorized as obese or overweight. We are now working to confirm identity of these select contaminants that are more likely to be causative factors in the results we have observed.

Continue reading

Combination of Alcohol and High BMI Linked to Liver Injury Biomarkers

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Alice R Carter MSc
Doctor of Philosophy Student
MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit
Population Health Science, Bristol Medical School
University of Bristol

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  

Response: Higher body mass index and alcohol intake have been shown to increase the risk of liver disease. Some studies have looked at their combined effect by comparing the risk of liver disease between individuals with both high BMI and high alcohol intake and individuals with low BMI and low alcohol intake. However, these studies have produced mixed results. Some possible reasons for that are errors in self-reported BMI and alcohol intake, other factors confounding the association of BMI & alcohol intake with liver disease risk and changes in lifestyle that individuals with ill health may have been advised to adopt.

One way to overcome these limitations is to use a technique called Mendelian randomisation. This method uses genetic differences between individuals that influence their characteristics (e.g. their body mass and how much alcohol they drink) to help understand whether these characteristics are causally related to diseases.

Our study used this method to explore the joint effects of BMI and alcohol consumption on liver disease and biomarkers of liver injury.  Continue reading

BELVIQ®: FDA accepts sNDA To Include Long Term Safety/Efficacy Data

WeightControl.com Interview with:

Dr. Lynn Kramer, MD FAANVP and Chief Clinical Officer & Chief Medical OfficeEisai Co., Ltd

Dr. Kramer

Dr. Lynn Kramer, MD FAAN
VP and Chief Clinical Officer & Chief Medical Office
Eisai Co., Ltd

WeightControl.com: What is the background for this announcement?

Response: On February 25th, Eisai announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accepted its supplemental New Drug Application to potentially update the label for BELVIQ® (lorcaserin HCI) CIV 10 mg twice-daily/BELVIQ XR (lorcaserin HCI) CIV once daily to include long-term efficacy and safety data from CAMELLIA-TIMI 61, a clinical trial of BELVIQ in 12,000 overweight and obese patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease and/or multiple CV risk factors such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Continue reading

Fast Food Servings Have Gotten Bigger and Saltier

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Megan A McCrory, PhD, FTOSResearch Associate ProfessorDept of Health SciencesSargent College of Health and Rehabilitation SciencesBoston University 02215

Dr. McCrory

Megan A McCrory, PhD, FTOS
Research Associate Professor
Dept of Health Sciences
Sargent College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences
Boston University 02215

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased in the US, along with documented increases in portion size in the food supply. Fast food is popular, making up about 11% of adult daily calorie intake in the US, and over 1/3 of U.S. adults eat at fast food establishments on any given day. We therefore sought to examine changes in portion size, calories, and selected nutrients in fast-food entree, side, and dessert menu items across the years 1986, 1991, and 2016.

Continue reading

Supplements Did Not Prevent Depression in Study of Obese Adults

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Prof. Marjolein Visser PhDProfessor of Healthy AgingHead section Nutrition and HealthDepartment of Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit AmsterdamAmsterdam Public Health research institute

Dr. Visser

Prof. Marjolein Visser PhD
Professor of Healthy Aging
Head section Nutrition and Health
Department of Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Amsterdam Public Health research institute

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: More than 40 million Europeans experience a major depressive disorder. One in ten men, and one in five women suffer from clinical depression at least once during their lifetime. Depression is one of the most prevalent and disabling disorders in the EU.

Given the increasing prevalence of depression, more people are actively searching for ways to decrease their risk through lifestyle modification, but are often overwhelmed by confusing and contradictory information.

The MooDFOOD prevention trial is the largest randomized clinical trial to study the effects of nutritional strategies on the prevention of major depressive disorder. Over 1000 overweight or obese participants identified as being at elevated risk for depression but who were not currently depressed, from four European countries -the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Germany and Spain, took part in the study. Participants were randomized to either take nutritional supplements containing folic acid, vitamin D, zinc, selenium or to a pill placebo, and half of participants also received a behavioral lifestyle intervention intended to change dietary behaviors and patterns.

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Obesity and Depression Can Be Treated With Collaborative Care

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jun Ma, MD, PhD, FAHA, FABMRProfessor and Associate Head of Research, Department of MedicineDirector, Center for Health Behavior ResearchThe University of Illinois at Chicago

Dr. Jun Ma

Jun Ma, MD, PhD, FAHA, FABMR
Professor and Associate Head of Research
Department of Medicine
Director, Center for Health Behavior Research
The University of Illinois at Chicago

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Obesity and depression are major public health problems. Obesity affects 40% of United States (US) adults. About 20% in US women and 13% in men experience major depressive disorder at some point in their lifetime and, additionally, many adults have elevated depressive symptoms that do not meet clinical diagnostic criteria but can nevertheless negatively affect their health and quality of life. Obesity and depression share common risk factors, such as poor diet and lack of exercise, and cause other health problems, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. People with obesity are at increased risk of being depressed and, likewise, people with depression are at increased risk of being obese. Consequently, obesity and depression often co-occur. To date, there has been no integrated therapy to effectively treat patients affected by both conditions at the same time.

The RAINBOW randomized clinical trial addressed this gap.

The main finding from the trial is that, among adult patients with obesity and depression, a collaborative care intervention integrating behavioral weight loss treatment, problem-solving therapy, and as-needed antidepressant medications significantly improve weight loss and depressive symptoms over one year compared with usual care, which patients received through their primary care physicians. 

Continue reading

Is Behavioral Change Among Overweight Diabetics Feasible and Sustainable?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Giuseppe Pugliese, MD, PhD
for the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study 2 (IDES_2) Investigators
Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine
‘‘La Sapienza’’ University
Diabetes Unit, Sant’Andrea University Hospital
Rome, Italy

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: There is a growing epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes worldwide,
which are causally related to the increasing prevalence of “physical
inactivity”, i.e., an insufficient amount of moderate-to-vigorous
physical activity according to current guidelines, and
“sedentariness”, i.e., too many hours, especially if uninterrupted,
spent in a sitting or reclined position.  These two unhealthy
behaviors exert their detrimental effects independently of each other
and are very common among people suffering from type 2 diabetes, who
would therefore benefit from increasing physical activity and reducing
sedentary time, as recommended by current guidelines.

However, such a behavior change is generally difficult for a number of
internal and external barriers and requires behavioral interventions
targeting both physical activity and sedentary habits.  Unfortunately,
there is no definitive evidence that this is indeed feasible and,
particularly, that, if adopted, change in behavior can be maintained
in the long term.  Continue reading

Interval Training: Time-Efficient Body Fat Management

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

"Colnago M10 Campagnolo Record Custom Bike 067" by Glory Cycles is licensed under CC BY 2.0. To view a copy of this license, visit: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0

Dr Paul Gentil
Faculty of Physical Education and Dance
Federal University of Goias
Goiania, Brazil 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Although being overweight and/or obese are associated with numerous health risks, the prevalence of both are continuing to increase worldwide. The treatment would include anything that results in an increase in energy expenditure (exercise) or a decrease in energy intake (diet). However, our metabolism seems to adapt to variations in physical activity to maintain total energy expenditure. Although lower-than-expected weight loss is often attributed to incomplete adherence to prescribed  interventions, there are other factors that might influence the results, such as, metabolic downregulation.

So, instead of making people spend more calories, maybe we have to think on how to promote metabolic changes in order to overcome these physiological adaptations above-mentioned. In this regard, high intensity training might be particularly interesting as a strategy to promote fat loss. Irrespective the amount of calories spent during training, higher intensity exercise seems to promote many physiological changes that might favor long-term weight loss. For example, previous studies have shown that interval training is able to promote upregulation of important enzymes associated with glycolysis and beta oxidation pathways, which occurs in a greater extent than with moderate intensity continuous exercise.

Our findings suggest that interval training might be an important tool to promote weigh loss. However, I t might be performed adequately and under direct supervision in order to get better results.

Continue reading

Bariatric Surgery Could be a Cost-Effective Intervention in Patients with NASH Cirrhosis who are Overweight or Obese.

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jagpreet Chhatwal PhDAssistant Professor, Harvard Medical SchoolSenior Scientist, Institute for Technology AssessmentMassachusetts General Hospital

Dr. Jagpreet Chhatwal

Jagpreet Chhatwal PhD
Assistant Professor, Harvard Medical School
Senior Scientist, Institute for Technology Assessment
Massachusetts General Hospital

Chin Hur, MDAssociate Professor of MedicineHarvard Medical School

Dr. Chin Hur

Chin Hur, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine
Harvard Medical School

 

 

 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, is one of the leading causes of liver transplantation. Because of increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States, NASH-related cirrhosis cases are expected to increase in the near future. Unfortunately, there are few pharmacological treatments for NASH, and none with proven long-term benefit. Weight loss can be effective in managing NASH but not many patients can lose the sufficient weight necessary to impact NASH and/or maintain long-term weight loss. In contrast, bariatric surgery can provide long-term weight loss and thus potentially reverse liver damage in cirrhosis. However, bariatric surgery is associated with mortality and morbidity associated with the procedure.

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Genes Help Determine Whether You Are Shaped Like an Apple or Pear

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ruth Loos, PhD The Charles Bronfman Professor in Personalized Medicine Director, Genetics of Obesity and Related Traits Program Co-Director, Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY

Dr. Loos


Ruth Loos, PhD
The Charles Bronfman Professor in Personalized Medicine
Director, Genetics of Obesity and Related Traits Program
Co-Director, Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
New York, NY

 

 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Which type of body fat distribution carries greater risk of diabetes or other obesity-related health disorders?

Response: Obesity broadly consists of two component; [1] there is overall body size (assessed using BMI) and [2] there is fat distribution (assessed using WHR). Both are “heritable”, which mean that they are in part determined by our genome (and the other part is determined by our lifestyle).

Over the past 15 years, geneticists have used an approach to screen the whole genome of thousands of people to identify genetic variations that differ between e.g. obese people vs non-obese people.

We have applied this approach to both components of obesity and have found so far that genes for “overall body size” seem to act in the brain, likely controlling hunger, satiety, reward, etc., whereas the genes that determine where in the body the excess fat will be stored when you gain weight (i.e. fat distribution) seem to act more “locally” at the fat cell level itself, determining the storage and release of fat.  Continue reading

Higher Protein, Lower Calorie Diet Can Improve Function and Weight Loss in Older Adults

Kristen M. Beavers Assistant Professor, Department of Health and Exercise Science Department of Biostatistical Sciences Wake Forest School of Medicine Winston-Salem, NC

Dr. Beavers

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Kristen M. Beavers PhD, MPH, RD
Assistant Professor, Department of Health and Exercise Science
Department of Biostatistical Sciences
Wake Forest School of Medicine
Winston-Salem, NC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Weight loss recommendation for older adults with obesity is controversial, in part because overall weight loss is accompanied by loss of muscle and bone, which may exacerbate age-related risk of disability and fracture. Identification of interventions that can preserve muscle and bone while promoting fat loss should maximize cardiometabolic benefit, while minimizing potential harm to the musculoskeletal system.

This randomized controlled trial was originally designed to test whether a higher protein, nutritionally complete meal plan could preserve lean mass and mobility in older adults undergoing a six month intentional weight loss program. Four publications have resulted from this study: * “Effect of an Energy-Restricted, Nutritionally Complete, Higher Protein Meal Plan on Body Composition and Mobility in Older Adults with Obesity,” Journals of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, published online in advance of print June 21, 2018 * “Effect of a Hypocaloric, Nutritionally Complete, Higher-Protein Meal Plan on Bone Density and Quality in Older Adults With Obesity,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, published online in advance of print Jan. 9, 2019 * “Effect of Intentional Weight Loss on Mortality Biomarkers in Older Adults With Obesity,” Journals of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, published online in advance of print Aug. 20, 2018 * “Effects of a Hypocaloric, Nutritionally Complete, Higher Protein Meal Plan on Regional Body Fat and Cardiometabolic Biomarkers in Older Adults with Obesity,” Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, published online in advance of print Feb. 11, 2019

Across the four publications, we found that:

* Participants lost about 18 pounds, most of it fat (87 percent), and preserved muscle mass. The control group lost about half a pound.

* Even when participants lost weight, they maintained bone mass. In fact, trabecular bone score, a measure of bone quality which predicts fracture risk, seemed to improve.

* Fat was lost in the stomach, hips, thighs and rear, which is important for preventing or controlling cardiometabolic diseases such as diabetes and stroke.

* Participants’ score on the Healthy Aging Index, which measures biomarkers that predict mortality and longevity, improved by 0.75 points. Continue reading

Poor Fitness and Obesity in Early Life Linked to Greater Disability as Adult

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Pontus Henriksson | PhD and Registered Dietitian Postdoctoral Researcher | SFO-V Fellow Department of Biosciences and Nutrition Karolinska Institutet

Dr. Henriksson

Pontus Henriksson | PhD and Registered Dietitian
Postdoctoral Researcher | SFO-V Fellow
Department of Biosciences and Nutrition
Karolinska Institutet 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: In many countries, disability pensions are granted to working-aged persons who are likely to never work full-time again because of a chronic disease or injury diagnosed by a physician. In addition to serving as an important indicator of chronic disease, disability pensions are associated with high societal costs.

Hence, we examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity (two potentially modifiable factors) were associated with disability pension later in life.

Our main findings were that low physical fitness and/or obesity during adolescence, were strongly associated with disability pension later in life due to a wide range of diseases and causes.  Continue reading

Waist to Height Ratio Linked to Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Men

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Vitor Engrácia Valenti Professor São Paulo State University Marília

Dr. Valenti

Vitor Engrácia Valenti, PhD
Professor
São Paulo State University Marília

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Autonomic modulation and cardiorespiratory variables are influenced by numerous factors. Abdominal fat tissue is a relevant variables related to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension, which are associated to increased risk of morbidity and mortality.

We evaluated cardiorespiratory variables and autonomic nervous system before and during recovery from exercise in healthy physically active men divided according to with waist-stature ratio (WSR): G1 – between 0.40 and 0.449 (N = 19), and G2 – between 0.45 and 0.49. This metholodigcal procedure is able to provide important information regarding the risk for developing cardiovascular disease in the future.

Our main findings indicated that healthy physically active men with waist-stature ratio values close to the risk limit (between 0.449 and 0.5) presented slower return of autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables to baseline values after moderate exercise. It suggests that this group present an elevated probability of developing cardiovascular disease in the future compared to the groups with lower values of waist-stature ratio.

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Younger Generations at Much Higher Risk of Obesity Related Cancers

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Hyuna Sung, PHD Principal Scientist, Surveillance Research American Cancer Society, Inc. 250 Williams St. Atlanta, GA 30303 

Dr. Sung

Hyuna Sung, PHD
Principal Scientist, Surveillance Research
American Cancer Society, Inc.
250 Williams St.
Atlanta, GA 30303 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: This project was motivated by our previous finding on the rise of colorectal cancer among young adults before age 55. Changes in cancer trends among young age group have significant implications because the newly introduced carcinogenic agents are likely to affect trends among young people before they affect those among older people. Owing to this relationship, cancer trends among young people can be often considered as a bellwether for future disease burden. Given the dramatic increase of the obesity prevalence during 3-4 decades in the US, we wanted to expand the colorectal cancer finding to the more comprehensive list of cancers and explain them in the context of obesity epidemic.

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Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer Identified

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Brian R. Lane MD PhD Division of Urology Spectrum Health Grand Rapids, Michigan

Dr. Lane

Brian R. Lane MD PhD
Division of Urology
Spectrum Health
Grand Rapids, Michigan

MedicalResearch.com: Can you explain how you conducted your study, and what the main findings were?

Response:  We used large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify genetic variants associated with obesity measures, blood pressure, lipids, type 2 diabetes, insulin, and glucose. these genetic variants were used as proxies for the above-mentioned risk factors and evaluated in relation to renal cell carcinoma risk (kidney cancer) using GWAS data from 10,000 RCC patients and 20,000 control participants.

–          Based on these genetic data, we found that multiple measures of obesity, as well as diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and fasting insulin, are associated with renal cell carcinoma risk. In contrast, we found little evidence for an association with RCC risk for systolic blood pressure (SBP), circulating lipids, overall diabetes, or fasting glucose.  Continue reading

Men, the Microbiome, and Weight Loss

The obesity rate has climbed steadily for men in the United States, currently rolling in at nearly 38% and still rising. That’s far from good news, and it’s doing nothing to help with the growing cardiovascular and heart disease statistics. Fighting obesity can be incredibly difficult, especially with our increasingly sedentary lifestyles brought on by modern conveniences. With diets popping up every day, it can be hard to pick, but one diet has arisen with a focus on digestive and general body health rather than strict weight loss: fiber-high diets.

What is it?

Fiber-high diets are exactly what they sound like, in that they’re dietary plans based on consuming fiber heavy foods to help promote a healthy digestive system. Our gut is home to massive colonies of helpful bacteria that work to aid us in breaking down our food and keep our body healthy. Fiber-high diets focus on feeding these bacteria the best possible fuel to promote a healthy body system, commonly referred to as the microbiome.

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Periodic Low Calorie Days Can Extend Lifespan (at least in mice)

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Valter Longo, PhD Edna M. Jones Professor of Gerontology  Professor of Biological Sciences Leonard Davis School of Gerontology Director of the USC Longevity Institute USC

Dr. Longo

Valter Longo, PhD
Edna M. Jones Professor of Gerontology
Professor of Biological Sciences
Leonard Davis School of Gerontology
Director of the USC Longevity Institute
USC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The use of a low calorie diet that mimics fasting for 4 days twice a month starting at middle age can extend lifespan and rejuvenate mice.

In humans a similar diet once a month causes improvements in cholesterol, blood pressure , inflammation, fasting glucose etc consistent with rejuvenation

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Maternal Obesity Raises Risk of Congenital Heart Defects

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Martina Persson, M.D, PhD Karolinska Institutet

Dr. Persson

Martina Persson, M.D, PhD
Karolinska Institute

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: It is well known that maternal obesity increases risks of adverse fetal outcomes, including congenital malformations of the heart. However, it is unclear if maternal overweight and obesity associate with risks of specific and more complex congenital heart defects. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Sweden using data from several health registries. The study included more than 2 million live, singletons born between 1992-2012. Risks (prevalence rate ratios) of complex heart defects (Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries (TGA), atrial septal defects (ASD), aortic arch defects, and single ventricle heart) and several specific heart defects were estimated in infants to mothers with overweight and increasing degree of obesity.

We found that risks of aortic arch defects, ASD and patent ductus arteriosus (in term infants) increased with maternal obesity severity. On the other hand, we found no clear associations between maternal BMI and risks of several other complex and specific heart defects.  Continue reading

Obesity in Childhood Adversely Impacts Lung Development

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Judith Garcia Aymerich Head of the Non-Communicable Diseases and Environment Programme ISGlobal 

Dr. Garcia-Aymerich

Judith Garcia Aymerich
Head of the Non-Communicable Diseases and Environment Programme
ISGlobal 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Several studies have assessed the associations of overweight and obesity with lung function in children and adolescents, but they have found contradictory results. An important limitation of these studies is that most of them considered only overall body weight and did not take into account for the different contribution of lean body mass and fat mass, and their relative proportions that vary by age and sex. Continue reading