2017’s Fattest Cities in America

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jill Gonzalez WalletHub Analyst

Jill Gonzalez

Jill Gonzalez
WalletHub Analyst

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We based our research on recent findings that suggest that 70 percent of the adult U.S. population is overweight or obese. With that in mind, we wanted to find which metro areas offer the best environments for a healthy and active lifestyle.

Based on the report’s methodology, we concluded that areas in the south tend to have higher overweight and obese rates, as some fail to offer residents healthy environments and amenities that would facilitate a more active lifestyle. Please find the report’s main findings here: https://wallethub.com/edu/fattest-cities-in-america/10532/#main-findings.

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Adiposity Related Cancer Risk May Vary On Fat Locations

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Arjun Gupta, MD and

Ian J. Neeland MD, Assistant Professor
Dedman Family Scholar in Clinical Care
Division of Cardiology
UT Southwestern Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Adiposity is traditionally measured using the body mass index, which refers to a persons weight in kilograms divided by their height (in meters) squared. Persons with higher body mas index have been shown to have increased risk of certain cancers, however body mass index by itself is not a completely representative measure of body fat risk, because distinct fat depots such as visceral adipose tissue, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, liver fat and lower body fat have differing metabolic impact.

We aimed to study the relationship between specific fat depots and the risk of incident cancer among relatively young, multiethnic participants in the Dallas Heart Study. Individuals without prevalent cancer underwent quantification of adipose depots using MRI and DEXA scans from 2000-2002, and were followed for the development of cancer for up to 12 years. In multivariable models adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol use, family history of malignancy and body mass index, visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue or liver fat were not associated with risk of cancer but each 1-standard deviation increase in lower body fat was associated with a 31% reduced incidence of cancer.

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Democrats More Likely To Attribute Obesity to Genetics

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Professor Don Haider-Markel Chair, Department of Political Science University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045

Prof.  Haider-Markel

Professor Don Haider-Markel
Chair, Department of Political Science
University of Kansas
Lawrence, KS 66045

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: We have studied causal attributions for conditions and problems in society for some time. We noticed that public debate over obesity had increased and new policy proposals were being proposed to address what was deemed as a growing public health problem. As the salience of the issue increased so too did partisan views on the topic.

Based on these observations, we wanted to explore individual beliefs about the causes, or attributions for, obesity. Existing research and theory suggested that Republicans following a conservative philosophy would be more likely to attribute obesity to personal choices, such as eating habits and lack of exercise—in short, putting the locus of control on individuals. Meanwhile liberal leaning Democrats, with a known predisposition to suggest conditions or problems are outside of the control of the individual, would be more likely to attribute obesity to either genetic or other biological factors, or the broader context of widely available low-cost high-fat food sources.

Additionally, we know that individuals tend to make attributions that are self-serving. In other words, people tend to make attributions that put themselves in a positive light. Thus, personal weight should factor into obesity attributions. Here we expected that overweight people would be more likely to make attributions that removed personal blame, such as pointing to a genetic cause. People closer to an ideal weight would, on the other hand, be more likely to attribute weight-level to personal choices.

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11 Cancer Types Have Strong Connection to Obesity

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Maria Kyrgiou MSc, PhD, MRCOG Clinical Senior Lecturer & Consultant in Gynaecologic Oncology IRDB - Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London West London Gynaecological Cancer Centre, Queen Charlotte's & Chelsea-Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial Healthcare NHS Trust

Dr. Kyrgiou

Dr Maria Kyrgiou MSc, PhD, MRCOG
Clinical Senior Lecturer & Consultant in Gynaecologic Oncology
IRDB – Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London
West London Gynaecological Cancer Centre, Queen Charlotte’s & Chelsea-Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial Healthcare NHS Trust 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?
Response: Obesity has become a major public health challenge and it’s prevalence worldwide has more than doubled amongst women n the last four decadesExcess body weight has been associated with an increased risk of developing and dying from numerous cancers. Although the reported associations may be potentially causal, some of the associations may be flawed due to inherent study biases such as residual confounding and selective reporting of positive results.

We included 204 meta-analyses investigating associations between adiposity and the development or death from 36 primary cancers and their sub-types. Adiposity was associated with a higher risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma, gastric cardia, colon and rectal cancer in men, biliary tract system, pancreatic, postmenopausal breast among HRT non-users, endometrial, ovarian, and kidney cancer and multiple myeloma.

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Late Risers Eat More Fat and Sugar In Evening

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Mirkka Maukonen

MSc (nutrition), PhD Candidate
the National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Public Health Solutions
Helsinki, Finland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Recent literature has highlighted the importance of sleep and circadian rhythms in development of obesity and metabolic dysfunctions. Furthermore, it has been suggested that in addition to quality of the diet also meal timing may play role in development of obesity. For example, skipping breakfast and eating at later times in the evening have been associated with higher BMI. However, little is known about how the timing of circadian rhythms (chronotype) affects timing of energy intake and its association with metabolic health.

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Deep Brain Stimulation Shows Promise in Anorexia Nervosa

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Andres M Lozano OC, MD PhD FRCSC FRSC University Professor, University of Toronto Dan Family Professor and Chairman of Neurosurgery RR Tasker Chair in Functional Neurosurgery Canada Research Chair in Neuroscience Toronto Western Hospital Toronto

Dr. Andres Lozano

Andres M Lozano OC, MD PhD FRCSC FRSC
University Professor, University of Toronto
Dan Family Professor and Chairman of Neurosurgery
RR Tasker Chair in Functional Neurosurgery
Canada Research Chair in Neuroscience
Toronto Western Hospital
Toronto

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We discovered an area of the brain that is overactive in patients with depression and anxiety the subcallosal cingulate area (SCC). As these problems feature prominently in patients with Anorexia, we hypothesized that adjusting thie activity of this brain area with Deep brain stimulation (DBS) could be helpful. Our findings suggest that DBS in anorexia patients is relatively safe, can normalize abnormal brain activity and may help some with severe and resistant symptoms.

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One Fatty Meal Results In Metabolic Disturbances

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Prof. Dr. Michael Roden Director, German Diabetes Center (DDZ) Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf Chair/Professor, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf Director, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology University Hospital Düsseldorf Düsseldorf, Germany

Prof. Michael Roden

Prof. Dr. Michael Roden
Director, German Diabetes Center (DDZ)
Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research
at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
Chair/Professor, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases
Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
Director, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology
University Hospital Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf, Germany

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) continue to increase at an alarming rate. Their occurrence has been associated with intake of saturated fats, for example that of palm oil. This study aimed to shed light on how dietary fat initiates metabolic changes which lead to the aforementioned diseases. To this end we provided 14 young healthy volunteers an oral dose of palm oil or placebo randomly, in a crossover manner, with an 8-week washout period between each intervention.

One acute dose of palm oil leads to insulin resistance in the main insulin sensitive tissues of the body: the liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. In the liver, it also results in increased accumulation of triglycerides, increased production of glucose from lipid and amino acid precursors (rather than from glycogen), and increased energy metabolism, as denoted by increased hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content. Moreover, a similar experiment in mice revealed that one dose of palm oil differentially regulates genes and pathways which are known or suspected regulators of NAFLD, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), members of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells.

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Sustained Contact With Dietician Improves Maintenance of Weight Loss

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Corrine I. Voils, PhD Research Career Scientist, William S Middleton Veterans Memorial Hospital Visiting Professor of Surgery, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Dr. Corrine Voils,

Corrine I. Voils, PhD
Research Career Scientist, William S Middleton Veterans Memorial Hospital
Visiting Professor of Surgery, University of Wisconsin-Madison

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Weight loss interventions can help people lose weight, but most people tend to regain weight after a weight loss period. There is a need to identify effective strategies to help people maintain weight loss. We found that an intervention focused on maintenance behavioral skills that was delivered primarily by telephone reduced weight regain compared to usual care over 56 weeks.

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Bisphenol A May Promote Obesity By Interfering with Leptin Early in Life

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Alfonso Abizaid PhD

Department of Neuroscience
Carleton University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a compound considered to be a potential environmental hazard and an endocrine disruptor. We have found an association between exposure to BPA at levels that are considered safe by Health Canada and the EPA early in life, and the development of obesity. In addition, we found that this propensity to develop obesity is due to under development of the hypothalamic projection field of POMC neurons, a set of neurons that regulate satiety and stimulate metabolic rate.

In this paper we replicate those findings and also show that this abnormal development is due to BPA altering the secretion of the hormone leptin at critical times where this hormone is important for the post-natal development of these POMC neurons.

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Physical Activity Not Enough To Ward Off Weight Gain

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Lara Dugas, PhD, MPH, FTOS Public Health Sciences Loyola University Chica

Dr. Lara Dugas

Lara Dugas, PhD, MPH, FTOS
Public Health Sciences
Loyola University Chicago

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Our NIH-funded study is led by Dr. Amy Luke, Public Health Sciences, Loyola University Chicago, and is titled “Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition study” or METS. It was initiated in 2010, and 2,500 young African-origin adults were recruited from 5 countries, spanning the Human Development Index (HDI), a WHO index used to rank countries according to 4 tiers of development. The 5 countries include the US, Seychelles, Jamaica, South Africa, and Ghana. Within each country 500 young adults, 25-45 yrs., and 50% male, were recruited and followed prospectively for 3 years. Each year, contactable participants completed a health screening, body composition, wore an activity monitor for 7 days, and told researchers everything they had eaten in the preceding 24hrs. Our main research questions we were trying to answer were to understand the impact of diet and physical activity on the development of obesity, and cardiovascular disease in young adults. It was important to have countries spanning the HDI, with differences in both country-level dietary intake and physical activity levels.

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Losing Some Weight May Reduce Risk of Endometrial Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Juhua Luo, PhD Associate professor of epidemiology and biostatistics Indiana University School of Public Health

Dr. Juhua Luo

Juhua Luo, PhD
Associate professor of epidemiology and biostatistics
Indiana University School of Public Health

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: We already know obesity increases risk of endometrial cancer. However, information on whether weight loss reduces risk of endometrial cancer is limited.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: Women losing 5% or more weight reduced risk of getting endometrial cancer by 29%. This was observed for any weight loss but risk was even lower for obese women with intentional weight loss. Obese women intentionally losing their weights by 5% or more reduced risk of getting endometrial cancer by 56%.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Among post-menopausal women, intentional weight loss reduces risk of getting endometrial cancer, especially for obese women. Our findings suggest that weight loss in postmenopausal women may not be too late for potential health benefit.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study?

Response: Additional research on intentional weight loss in relation to risk for other obesity-related cancer types and for mortality from cancer or other diseases are needed.

MedicalResearch.com: Thank you for your contribution to the MedicalResearch.com community.

Citation:

Intentional Weight Loss and Endometrial Cancer Risk

Juhua LuoRowan T. ChlebowskiMichael HendryxThomas RohanJean Wactawski-WendeJ, Cynthia A. ThomsonAshley S. FelixChu Chen, …

JCO Jan 2017

Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions.

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Childhood Antibiotic Use Linked To Higher BMI At Age 3

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Melissa N. Poulsen, PhD, MPH</strong> Postdoctoral Fellow Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Geisinger Center for Health Research

Dr. Melissa N. Poulsen

Melissa N. Poulsen, PhD, MPH
Postdoctoral Fellow
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Geisinger Center for Health Research

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Several past studies report positive associations between early childhood antibiotic use (particularly in the first year of life) and body mass index (BMI) later in childhood. Studies have also observed positive associations with prenatal antibiotic use and BMI, but without information on childhood antibiotics, such studies cannot rule out an underlying causal relationship between prenatal antibiotic exposure and early childhood antibiotic use.

No study to date has concurrently evaluated prenatal and early childhood antibiotic exposure. We used mother-child linked electronic health record data to determine whether prenatal and childhood antibiotic use are independently associated with BMI at age 3 years.

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