Could Household Cleaners Be Making Children Overweight?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Kozyrskyj

Anita Kozyrskyj PhD
Professor in Pediatrics
Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry
School of Public Health
University of Alberta

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Data for this study were collected in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) cohort of over 3,500 full-term infants born between 2009 and 2012. When infants were 3-4 months of age, parents provided a sample of their poop. At that time, parents checked-off responses to questions about their home, including type and frequency of cleaning product use. The infant poop was initially frozen, then thawed later to extract DNA from the sample and identify microbes on the basis of their DNA sequence.  Continue reading

USPSTF: Behavior-Based Weight Loss Interventions Associated with Weight Loss and Lower Risk of Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Chyke Doubeni, M.D., M.P.H.  Harrison McCrea Dickson, M.D. and Clifford C. Baker, M.D. Presidential Professor Associate Professor of Epidemiology  Senior scholar, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics  University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Dr. Doubeni

Chyke Doubeni, M.D., M.P.H.
Harrison McCrea Dickson, M.D. and Clifford C. Baker, M.D. Presidential Professor
Associate Professor of Epidemiology
Senior scholar, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Obesity is an important public health issue that affects nearly 4 in 10 American adults. It increases the risk for many chronic health conditions as well as premature death from diabetes, coronary heart disease, various types of cancer, and other conditions. As such, it was important for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force to review the current evidence and update the recommendation on this topic.

Based on a review of the most recent studies, we found that intensive, multicomponent behavioral interventions are safe and effective. They can help people lose weight, maintain their weight loss, and reduce the risk of obesity-related conditions such as diabetes in people with high blood sugar. Therefore, the Task Force is recommending that clinicians offer or refer adults with a body mass index, or BMI, of 30 kg/m2 or higher to these behavioral interventions.    Continue reading

Mouth Microbiome Linked to Childhood Obesity

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Sarah J.Carnahan Craig PhD

Dr. Carnahan Craig

Dr. Sarah J.Carnahan Craig PhD
Postdoctoral Scholar
Makova Lab
Biology Department
Center for Medical Genomics
Penn State University

 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: This study stems from a long standing collaboration with pediatrician, Ian Paul at Penn State Hershey Medical School (and a co-author on this paper). Ian is very interested in understanding and preventing childhood obesity. It also is part of a much larger, collaborative study objective, lead by Ian and Leann Birch (another co-author), to understand social/behavioral contributors to childhood obesity, how a responsive parenting intervention can prevent childhood overweight/obesity, and the biological factors that contribute to the disease. This is an important research area as childhood obesity is a public health problem — one in three children are overweight or obese. A fuller understanding of factors that contribute to childhood obesity, how to identify children who are at risk for developing childhood obesity, and methods to prevent childhood obesity are of critical importance.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: The main finding from this paper is that the oral microbiota (the collection of bacteria that live in the mouth) are significantly related to young child growth patterns. The surprising part of this finding was that we observed this result with the oral microbiota and not the gut microbiota. The oral microbiota (in comparison to the gut microbiota, which has been associated with obesity in many previous studies) are largely understudied, especially in young children. The gut microbiome we found to be strongly influenced by diet; when the two are considered together, there is a significant relationship with child growth patterns.

Additionally, our team developed novel statistical methods to use child growth curves as a more comprehensive outcome rather than an outcome of weight at a single time point (i.e. it uses more of the information about how a child is growing). These methods allow us to better detect the relationship between child growth and the microbiota; they increase our power. 

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Readers should take away that there are many factors that contribute to obesity and obesity prevention – along with a healthy diet and exercise, biological factors, such as the microbiota for instance, could potentially be an important consideration. Additionally, we’re in the early stages of truly understanding how these microbes influence health. Importantly, we are unable to make any kind of causal conclusions – meaning we don’t know if the microbes are influencing the growth patterns, is health/environment influencing the microbes, or is it both directions.  

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: One of the limitations of this study is that it looks at the microbiota at a single time point, at two years after birth –  this is a dynamic community, so we are really only seeing a snapshot of what is happening. Additionally, the study is retrospective in that the microbiota is sampled at two years and the growth trajectory is made of measurements from birth through two years. Because of this, we might be missing important dynamics happening earlier in life. A more comprehensive study would be to sample the microbiota at all the time points you are sampling growth, health, and other information — this is a study we are currently doing. We hope that by building on this study and examining the microbiota (both oral and gut) longitudinally and in concert with the social, environmental, and health data that we will be closer to a fuller understanding, which could potentially identify children who are most at risk of developing childhood obesity and be prime candidates for obesity intervention programs.  

Citation: 

Sarah J. C. Craig, Daniel Blankenberg, Alice Carla Luisa Parodi, Ian M. Paul, Leann L. Birch, Jennifer S. Savage, Michele E. Marini, Jennifer L. Stokes, Anton Nekrutenko, Matthew Reimherr, Francesca Chiaromonte, Kateryna D. Makova. Child Weight Gain Trajectories Linked To Oral Microbiota Composition. Scientific Reports, 2018; 8 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-31866-9

Sep 19, 2018 @ 9:27 pm

 

 

 

The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

 

Do Menu Labels Cause Diners to Order Fewer Calories?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

John Cawley PhD Professor of policy analysis and management College of Human Ecology Cornell University

Dr. Cawley

John Cawley PhD
Professor of policy analysis and management
College of Human Ecology
Cornell University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The background is that diet-related chronic disease has increased dramatically in the US and many other economically developed countries. For example, the prevalence of obesity in the U.S. has roughly tripled since 1960, and the prevalence of Type II diabetes has also increased significantly.  As a result, policymakers are looking for ways to facilitate healthy eating.  One possible approach is to require that restaurants list on their menus the number of calories in each menu item.  Several cities such as New York City and Philadelphia passed such laws, and in May of this year (2018) a nationwide law took effect requiring such calorie labels on the menus of chain restaurants. However, the effects of this information is not well known.

To answer that question, we conducted randomized controlled field experiments in two sit-down, full-service restaurants.  Parties of guests were randomly assigned to either the control group that got the regular menu without calorie information, or the treatment group that got the same menus but with calorie counts on the menu.  We then documented what items people ordered and then surveyed the patrons after their dinner.  Overall we collected data from over 5,000 patrons.

Continue reading

Sucralose Metabolites Accumulate in Body Fat Over Time

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Volker Bornemann, Ph.D. President and CEO Avazyme, Inc. Durham, North Carolina 27703

Dr. Bornemann

Volker Bornemann, Ph.D.
President and CEO
Avazyme, Inc.
Durham, North Carolina 27703

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Since the approval of sucralose in 1998 by the US FDA and by the European Union in 2004, there have been numerous independent reports that suggest sucralose is metabolized in the body and is metabolically active.

These independent studies contradict information submitted to regulatory agencies by sucralose manufacturers who claimed sucralose is safe because it quickly passes through the body unchanged.  In light of these conflicting results, we decided to conduct an experiment to settle the question of whether sucralose is metabolized by the body and determine if it is retained in body fat using the state-of-the art analytic techniques at Avazyme.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: The main findings are that sucralose is indeed metabolized in the intestinal tract, and the metabolites are more fat soluble than sucralose itself.  Furthermore, sucralose accumulated in body fat over time.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Sucralose is retained in body fat and is also metabolized contrary to claims by the manufacturer.  A risk assessment of these findings should be performed by regulatory agencies to determine if the metabolites or retention of sucralose in adipose tissue adversely affect human health. 

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: The levels of sucralose and its metabolites in body fat and cell membranes of human consumers of sucralose products should be determined.  In addition, the DNA in fat cells and epithelial cells lining the alimentary tract should be assessed for any adverse changes in DNA.  Further scientific studies should be performed to determine the hazard potential of bioaccumulation of sucralose and the toxicity of the acetylated metabolites. 

Disclosures: This research was supported independently and not by any company associated with the sweetener industry. 

Citation: Volker Bornemann, Stephen C. Werness, Lauren Buslinger & Susan S. Schiffman (2018) Intestinal Metabolism and Bioaccumulation of Sucralose In Adipose Tissue In The Rat, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, DOI: 10.1080/15287394.2018.1502560

Sep 1, 2018 @ 10:53 pm

The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

 

Low Birth Weight Associated With More Diabetes and Hypertension in Adulthood

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Chinese baby laying on a bed” by simpleinsomnia is licensed under CC BY 2.0Wanghong Xu, MD, PhD

Professor of Epidemiology
School of Public Health
Fudan University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis proposes that cardiovascular diseases and other chronic conditions in adulthood may be a consequence of an unfavorable intrauterine life, a relationship that is further modified by patterns of postnatal growth, environment, and lifestyle.

Based on the two large-scale cohort studies, the Shanghai Women’s Health Study and the Shanghai Men’s Health Study, we observed nonlinear associations for birth weight with baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and low birth weight was linked with lower BMI, smaller WC, but larger WHR and WHtR.

An excess risk of T2DM and hypertension was observed for low birth weight (<2500 g) versus birth weight of 2500-3499 g since baseline and since birth. The results support the DoHad hypothesis, and indicate the importance of nutrition in early life on health in Chinese population.  Continue reading

Diabetes: Microvascular Complications Markedly Decreased After Bariatric Surgery

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

David Arterburn, MD, MPH Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute Seattle, WA 

Dr. Arterburn

David Arterburn, MD, MPH
Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute
Seattle, WA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: More than 9 percent of adult Americans—about 30 million people—are estimated to have type 2 diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association. The disease tends to worsen over time, with blood sugar levels rising along with the risks of developing large blood vessel (macrovascular) complications like heart attack and stroke, as well as small blood vessel (microvascular) complications affecting the nerves of the feet and hands (neuropathy), kidneys (nephropathy), and eyes (retinopathy).

Among more than 4000 patients who underwent bariatric surgery, the 5-year incidence of microvascular disease — including neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy — was nearly 60% lower than that of 11,000 matched nonsurgical control patients receiving usual diabetes care.  Continue reading

Obesity Links PTSD and Diabetes Risk

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jeff Scherrer, Ph.D. Associate professor; Research director Department of Family and Community Medicine Saint Louis University Center for Health Outcomes Research

Dr. Scherrer

Jeff Scherrer, Ph.D.
Associate professor; Research director
Department of Family and Community Medicine
Saint Louis University Center for Health Outcomes Research 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The rationale for this study comes from evidence that patients with PTSD are more likely to be obese than persons without PTSD and have more difficulty losing weight.

Given the obesity epidemic and substantial role of obesity in risk of type 2 diabetes, we sought to determine if obesity accounted for the existing evidence that PTSD is a risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes.  Other studies have adjusted for obesity or BMI in models that control for obesity/BMI and other confounders simultaneously which prohibits measuring the independent role of obesity on the ass Continue reading

Parenting Educational Intervention Can Reduce Childhood Obesity

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ian M. Paul, M.D., M.Sc. Professor of Pediatrics and Public Health Sciences Chief, Division of Academic General Pediatrics Vice Chair of Faculty Affairs, Department of Pediatrics Penn State College of Medicine Hershey, PA 17033-0850

Prof. Paul

Ian M. Paul, M.D., M.Sc.
Professor of Pediatrics and Public Health Sciences
Chief, Division of Academic General Pediatrics
Vice Chair of Faculty Affairs, Department of Pediatrics
Penn State College of Medicine
Hershey, PA 17033-0850

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: 20-25% of 2-5 year old children are overweight or obese in the US, and these children have increased risk of remaining overweight across the lifecourse. To date, research efforts aimed at preventing early life overweight have had very limited success.

In our randomized clinical trial that included 279 mother-child dyads, a responsive parenting intervention that began shortly after birth significantly reduced body mass index z-score compared with controls at age 3 years. Continue reading

Behavioral Intervention for Underserved Preschool-Age Children on Change in BMI

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Shari Barkin, MD, MSHS William K. Warren Foundation Endowed Chair Professor of Pediatrics Division Chief of Academic General Pediatrics Director of Pediatric Obesity Research Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Dr. Barkin

Shari Barkin, MD, MSHS
William K. Warren Foundation Endowed Chair
Professor of Pediatrics
Division Chief of Academic General Pediatrics
Director of Pediatric Obesity Research
Vanderbilt University Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Obesity often begins in childhood and disproportionately affects some populations, including underserved children. Given the challenges associated with achieving effective obesity treatment, the focus needs to be on prevention and needs to start early. Barkin et al conducted the longest behavioral intervention obesity prevention trial with 610 underserved parent-preschool child pairs, testing a three-year pragmatic approach that focused on families based in the communities in which they lived, and partnering with both Metro Parks and Recreation and the Nashville Public Library Foundation. Eligible children were high normal weight or overweight but not obese and lived in neighborhoods with access to neighborhood built environments that included parks and recreation and library branches.  Continue reading

Bariatric Surgical Approach To Increase Bile Acids May Reduce Cocaine Reward

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Aurelio Galli, Ph.D. Professor of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics and Psychiatry & Behavioral Science Associate Director for Research Strategy Vanderbilt Brain Institute

Dr. Galli

Aurelio Galli, Ph.D.
Professor of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics and Psychiatry & Behavioral Science
Associate Director for Research Strategy
Vanderbilt Brain Institute

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The study builds on evidence that bile acids influence the brain’s reward system. Bile acids are normally released from the gall bladder into the upper part of the small intestine, where they emulsify fats for absorption, before being recycled further down the small intestine. In bile diversion surgery, an experimental treatment for weight loss, bile is released at the end of the small intestine, increasing the amount of bile acids that enter the general circulation.

Mice treated with this surgery have less appetite for high-fat foods, which suggests that bile acids affect brain reward pathways.

We demonstrated that mice receiving the surgery also showed less preference for the cocaine-associated chamber, indicating that cocaine was probably less rewarding. Continue reading

Two-Day Fast Per Week vs Daily Calorie Restriction in Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Diabetes Test” by Victor is licensed under CC BY 2.0Sharayah Carter
PhD candidate|BNutDiet|BMedPharmSc (Hons)|APD
School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences
University of South Australia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Intermittent energy restriction is a new popular diet method with promising effects on metabolic function but limited research exists on its effects on improving glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes.

The findings of our research demonstrate that a diet with 2-days of severe energy restriction per week is comparable to a diet with daily moderate energy restriction for glycaemic control.  Continue reading

Does Your Morning Coffee Really Make You Eat Less?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Coffee being poured Coffee pot pouring cup of coffee. copyright American Heart Association
Leah Panek-Shirley, PhD

Assistant Professor
Buffalo State College
Health, Nutrition, and Dietetics
Houston Texas

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?


Response:
The findings of existing previous research evaluating the effects of caffeine on appetite and eating are equivocal.

This study evaluated the effects of no (0 mg/kg body weight, e.g. placebo), low (1 mg/kg body weight), and moderate (3 mg/kg body weight) doses of caffeine in juice on appetite and eating in the laboratory and under free-living conditions.

While this study identified a small decrease (about 70 calories) in caloric intake after consuming the low (1 mg/kg) dose of caffeine in the laboratory at breakfast, this difference did not persist throughout the entire day.  In addition, there were no differences in hunger, fullness, thirst, or desire to eat as a result of caffeine.

Continue reading

So Far, Genes Don’t Explain How Many Calories We Consume

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“In-N-Out meal #1” by Chris Makarsky is licensed under CC BY 2.0Dr. Christina Holzapfel PhD
Junior Research Group Leader at
Institute for Nutritional Medicine
Technical University of Munich

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: A lot of articles about genetic factors and nutritional intake have been published in the last years. Findings are inconsistent and it is not clear, whether genetic variants, especially associated with body mass index, are associated with nutritional intake.

Therefore we performed a systematic literature search in order to get an overview about the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and total energy, carbohydrate and fat intakes. We identified about specific search terms and their combinations more than 10,000 articles. Of these, 39 articles were identified for a relationship between genetic factors and total energy, carbohydrate, or fat consumption.

In all studies, we most frequently encountered the fat mass and obesity (FTO) associated gene as well as the melanocortin 4 receptor gene (MC4R). There are indications of a relationship between these two genes and total energy intake. However, the evaluation of the studies did not provide a uniform picture. There is only limited evidence for the relationship between the FTO gene and low energy intake as well as between the MC4R gene and increased energy intake.

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Study Finds Capsaicin (Metabocin) in Chili Peppers Prevents Weight Gain, Promotes Weight Loss

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Home-Grown Chilis” by barockschloss is licensed under CC BY 2.0Baskaran Thyagarajan, M. Pharm., Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Pharmaceutics and Neuroscience
Molecular Signaling Laboratory
University of Wyoming School of Pharmacy
Laramie, Wyoming 82071 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The culinary benefit of chili peppers is known for decades. Previous research works have identified the benefits of chili peppers for treating pain and metabolic diseases.  Recently, we have discovered that CAPSAICIN, the chief ingredient in natural chili peppers, triggers the conversion of energy storing white adipocytes into energy expending brown like (Beige or brown in white, BRiTE, cells). This increases thermogenesis and counters  high fat diet-induced obesity without modifying energy intake (in other words, without causing appetite suppression).

Our published research clearly demonstrates the expression of capsaicin receptor in the white and brown adipose tissues and activation of these receptors (TRPV1, transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1) by capsaicin underlies its anti-obesity effect. Since capsaicin is pungent, we have developed a polymer coated orally bioavailable formulation of capsaicin. This polymer coating decreases the burst release of capsaicin, which reduces its pungency. Also, the polymer coating sustains the release of capsaicin for longer period of time, which will enhance its (capsaicin’s) bioavailability in the body.

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It Take More Than Obesity To Shorten Lifespan

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jennifer L. Kuk, PhD Associate Professor York University School of Kinesiology and Health Science Toronto, Ontario 

Dr. Kuk

Jennifer L. Kuk, PhD
Associate Professor
York University
School of Kinesiology and Health Science
Toronto, Ontario

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Most of the literature on metabolic health obesity has shown that individuals with ‘metabolically healthy obesity’ are still at increased mortality risk.

However, most of these studies have defined healthy as zero or one metabolic risk factor.  This is problematic as hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidemia alone increase your mortality risk and should preclude you from the ‘healthy’ group.

We show that individuals with obesity and no other metabolic risk factors are no more likely to die than normal weight individuals with no metabolic risk factors. 

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OPTIFAST Program Resulted in Weight Loss and Greater Improvement in Diabetes Control

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Rothberg . 7/3/07 Headshots of Internal Medicine fellows for Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetes.

Dr. Rothberg

Dr. Amy Rothberg MD PhD
Associate Professor, Endocrinology and Medicine
Michigan Medicine Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetes Clinic
University of Michigan 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you briefly outline the essentials of the Optifast plan?

Response: OPTIWIN is a year-long, multi-center, open-label, randomized, head-to-head study. It was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the medically-monitored, meal replacement OPTIFAST Program on weight loss and maintenance, in comparison with a standard-of-care, food-based diet among adults with a BMI higher than 30 kg/m2.

Nestlé Health Science’s OPTIFAST Program combines proven essential features of weight loss success ‒ medical monitoring, nutrition education, exercise guidance, in-person support, full meal replacement and behavior modification. With OPTIFAST meal replacement products, the program gives patients the prescribed amount of calories and micronutrients each day. It is a non-surgical option designed for people with a Body Mass Index (BMI) greater than 30, and is available in more than 400 weight loss clinics nationwide.

The Program is comprised of three core phases ‒ active weight loss (during which total diet replacement is used), transition to self-prepared ‘everyday’ meals and maintenance. Clinical supervision is a key component of the program as it helps assess progress towards better health and emotional well-being.

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Severe Obesity More Common in Rural or Urban Areas in US?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Cynthia L. Ogden, PhD, MRP Chief, NHANES Analysis Branch Epidemiologist, NCHS/CDC Hyattsville, MD 20782

Dr. Ogden

Cynthia L. Ogden, PhD, MRP
Chief, NHANES Analysis Branch
Epidemiologist, NCHS/CDC
Hyattsville, MD 20782

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: 40% of adults and over 18% of youth in the US have obesity. Disparities in obesity have been reported by demographics and urbanization.

We looked at the prevalence of obesity and severe obesity by demographics and by level of urbanization – rural, small/medium metro and large urban. We also looked at trends over time in urban and rural areas.

Obesity and severe obesity rates were higher in rural areas than large urban areas among adults. Among youth, severe obesity rates were higher in rural areas compared to large urban areas.

Differences in age, smoking, education or race/ethnicity between urban and rural areas did not explain the differences we found between urban and rural areas.

Between 2001-2004 and 2013-2016 severe obesity among men in rural areas more than tripled and among women more than doubled. Increases in severe obesity also occurred in urban areas in men and women but they were not nearly as large.

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More Weight Loss Linked To Greater Decrease in Knee Arthritis Pain

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Wake Forest professor of Health and Exercise Science Steve Messier, Friday, June 15, 2018.

Prof. Messier

Professor Steve Messier
Director of the J.B. Snow Biomechanics Laboratory
J.B Snow Biomechanics Laboratory
Wake Forest University

MedicalResearch.com: Why did you undertake this study?

Response: This was a secondary analysis of the Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) clinical trial originally published in JAMA in 2013, Volume 310, Number 12, pages 11263-1273.

We were interested to see if losing 20% of your body weight had any additional benefits compared to a 10% weight loss that we previously have shown to be beneficial.

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Developing a Pill That Mimics Effects of Gastric Bypass Surgery

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jeff Karp B.Eng. PhD. Professor of Medicine Center for Nanomedicine and Division of Engineering in Medicine Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School Boston MA

Prof. Karp

Jeff Karp B.Eng. PhD.
Professor of Medicine
Center for Nanomedicine and Division of Engineering in Medicine
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Harvard Medical School
Boston MA

MedicalResearch.com: How would you briefly explain the most important findings and conclusions of this study to a non-expert?

  • The type-2 diabetes (T2D) epidemic will affect over 642 million people worldwide by 2040. As a result, diabetes costs the US healthcare over $174 billion dollars annually and is the leading cause of blindness, amputations, renal failure, and poor cardiovascular outcomes. Recently, bariatric surgery, bypassing stomach and intestine from the food stream, has shown promising results and shown to be superior to pharmaceuticals in managing T2D. However, the risks of surgery along with permanent changes to gastrointestinal anatomy deters many suitable patients from surgery, with less than 1-2% of Americans who qualify for weight loss surgery actually undergoing the procedure. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a safe, non-invasive and effective treatment for wider diabetic patient population.
  • We envisioned a pill that a patient can take before a meal that transiently coats the gut to replicate the effects of surgery. During the past 8 years, we’ve been working on this idea and have developed a safe gut-coating material that can potentially mimic the beneficial effects of gastric bypass procedures in the form a pill.
  • LuCI can be activated in any part of gastrointestinal tract (e.g. stomach, duodenum, intestine, colon) to form a temporary physical barrier that isolates that part of gastrointestinal tract. In our pre-clinical models, LuCI coated the duodenum to modulate glucose responses in oral glucose tolerance tests.
  • These beneficial effect are observed without any evidence of systemic absorption of the drug.
  • We believe that LuCI could be a new therapeutic approach for T2D that is based on Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, but is safer, associated with significantly less complications, and thus can potentially help a wide T2D patient population.
  • In a separate set of studies, we also showed that luCi allows delivery of certain proteins and drugs, which would normally be degraded by the gastric acid, to the GI tract, protecting it from gastric acid digestion and prolonging their luminal exposure.

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Eating Disorders Occur Across All Age, Ethnic and Gender Groups

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Tomoko Udo, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Health Policy, Management, and Behavior School of Public Health University at Albany, State University of New York

Dr. Tomoko Udo

Tomoko Udo, PhD
Assistant Professor
Department of Health Policy, Management, and Behavior
School of Public Health
University at Albany, State University of New York

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  

Response: The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC III) was the largest epidemiological study on psychiatric disorders in US non-institutionalized adults that was conducted by the National Institution on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, and the first one sinceDSM-5 came out. The last population-based study with US adults that examined eating disorders was the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication Study conducted by Hudson and his colleagues and published in 2007.

We felt that it was important to obtain new prevalence estimates in a larger and representative sample especially because the DSM-5 included several changes to the criteria for eating disorders from the earlier DSM-IV. Thus, we thought it was important to provide updated and new prevalence estimates for eating disorders as well as how they are distributed across sex, ethnicity/race, and age.  Many  researchers and clinicians expected higher estimates than earlier studies as a result of “loosening” of diagnostic criteria for eating disorders.

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Obese Women Remain at Risk For Heart Disease, Even When Metabolically Healthy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Nathalie Eckel, MSc

German Diabetes Center
Düsseldorf, Germany 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

 Response: Obesity is associated with metabolic disorders such as diabetes, high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia, and with a higher risk of cardiovacular disease compared to normal weight. However, there is also the phenomenon of the so-called “metabolically healthy obesity” and “metabolically unhealthy normal-weight”. So far it has been unclear how metabolic risk factors change over time in metabolically healthy people depending on body weight and what cardiovascular disease risk results from this.

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Long Term Antidepressants Associated With Sustained Weight Gain

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr Rafael Gafoor
Research Associate
Kings College London 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Obesity and weight gain are global public health problems, with approximately 60% of UK adults currently overweight or obese. Depression is common in people who are severely obese and the rate of antidepressant prescribing is increasing, which could have potential impact on public health. However, little research has been reported on the impact of widespread antidepressant treatment on weight gain. So a UK based research team, led by Rafael Gafoor at King’s College London, set out to investigate the association between the use of antidepressants and weight gain. The researchers analysed body weight and body mass measurement data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) for over 300,000 adults with an average age of 51, whose body mass index (BMI) had been recorded three or more times during GP consultations from 2004-2014. Participants were grouped according to their BMI (from normal weight to severely obese) and whether or not they had been prescribed an antidepressant in a given year. Participants were then monitored for a total of 10 years.

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If Maternal Grandmother is Obese, So is Grandchild?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Great Grandmother” by David Amsler is licensed under CC BY 2.0Rebecca Somerville MB BCh BAO, BMedSci, MRCPI, MPH, PhD
School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science
University College Dublin
Dublin, Ireland 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Rates of obesity in the Western world have increased dramatically over recent decades. The negative health consequences of obesity are well known and significant amounts of research have been conducted into the causes and possible solutions. While it is clear that there have been massive changes in diet and physical activity at a societal level that are primarily responsible for this ‘obesity epidemic’, it is less clear the extent to which obesity, once established, or risk factors for same, can be perpetuated down generations. Family studies lend opportunity to explore these questions, however there are few world wide which incorporate 3 generations.

We therefore sought to examine patterns of central adiposity, as measured by waist circumference, between grandparents and their grandchildren, separately in maternal and paternal lines. We were able to utilize prospectively collected data from the Lifeways Cross-Generation Cohort Study. This is a longitudinal birth cohort, established in Ireland in 2001, involving up to 7 members of the same family (mother, father, child and 4 grandparents). In the 589 families where a child had a waist circumference measurement we found that, at the age of both 5 and 9, there was a direct relationship between the waist circumference of the maternal grandmother and her grandchild (both male and female). This remained after adjustment for a wide range of confounding variables including mother’s waist circumference. There was no relationship seen with any of the other grandparents.

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Not All Calories Affect Health Equally

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Soda” by Jannes Pockele is licensed under CC BY 2.0Kimber L. Stanhope, Ph.D., M.S., R.D.
Research Nutritional Biologist
Department of Molecular Biosciences: SVM
University of California, Davis 

MedicalResearch.com:? What are the main findings of this study?

Response: Sugar-sweetened beverages increase risk factors for cardiometabolic disease compared with calorically-equal amounts of starch.

We are not the first group of experts to reach this conclusion. The Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group reached a similar conclusion last year (Micha, 2017). Yet very different conclusions/opinions are being still being published by other researchers. (Latest example: Archer E., In Defense of Sugar: A Critique of Diet-Centrism. Progress in Cardiovascular Disease, May 1, 2018).

These conflicting conclusions confuse the public and undermine the implementation of public health policies, such as soda taxes and warning labels, that could help to slow the epidemics of obesity and cardiometabolic disease. We hope that the careful review of the evidence and the discussion of issues that can lead to conflicting opinions in nutrition research in this paper will help to clarify this issue.

Consumption of polyunsaturated (n-6) fats, such as those found in some vegetable oils, seeds, and nuts, lowers disease risk when compared with equal amounts of saturated fats.

It is important to note however, that the effects of saturated fat can vary depending on the type of food. Dairy foods such as cheese and yogurts, which can be high in saturated fats, have been associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk.

The non-caloric sweetener aspartame does not promote weight gain in adults.

Aspartame is the most extensively studied of the non-caloric sweeteners. None of the dietary intervention studies that have investigated the effects of aspartame consumption have shown it promotes body weight gain.

This includes studies in which the adult research participants consumed aspartame for 6 months, 1 year or 3 years.

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