Who Does Better After Bariatric Surgery?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Alison E. Field, ScD Professor and Chair of Epidemiology Brown University School of Public Heath Providence, RI

Dr. Field

Alison E. Field, ScD
Professor and Chair of Epidemiology
Brown University School of Public Heath
Providence, RI

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  

Response: In the United States, approximately 40% of adults are obese. There are a range of treatment options, but relatively few people are able to lose weight and maintain the loss. The most effective treatment is bariatric surgery, but even among patients who have undergone bariatric surgery, there is a range in weight change patterns after surgery. This suggests that not all people with obesity are similar. There may be different causes and optimal treatment plans that vary by obesity subgroup. Our goal was to identify subgroups and to examine if they differed in terms of weight loss after bariatric surgery.

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Eat Carbs in the Morning, Fat at Night?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
"Compare-the-Use-of-Carbohydrates-and-Lipids-in-Energy-Storage" by Zappys Technology Solutions is licensed under CC BY 2.0Kirsi-Marja Zitting, Ph.D.

Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders
Departments of Medicine and Neurology
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Boston, MA 02115

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: This study is a follow-up study to our previous study where we found that chronic insufficient sleep together with chronic jet lag is associated with adverse changes in metabolism, including increase in blood sugar levels (Buxton et al. Science Translational Medicine, 2012). The present study focuses on the influence of the time of day on metabolism, which has not been investigated in humans independent of the effects of sleep, physical activity and diet.

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Antibiotics and Acid Suppressants May Be Risk Factor For Pediatric Obesity

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
"babies (365-222)" by Robert Couse-Baker is licensed under CC BY 2.0Dr. Christopher M Stark
Department of Pediatrics
William Beaumont Army Medical Center
El Paso, Texas
Department of Pediatrics
Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
Bethesda, Maryland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Rates of pediatric obesity have increased over the past decade, which has led researchers to search for modifiable risk factors that may explain this increase. Recent studies have identified an association between native gut bacteria alterations and the development of obesity. Several population-based studies have evaluated whether or not there is an association between antibiotic exposure and the development of obesity, with mixed results.

No studies have previously evaluated if acid suppressing medications are associated with developing obesity.

We found that young children prescribed antibiotics, acid suppressants, and combinations of these medications in the first two years of life are more likely to develop obesity after two years of age.

Our study represents the largest study to evaluate pediatric antibiotic prescriptions and obesity risk, with nearly ten times as many patients as the next largest study.

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Obesity Increases Risk of Death From All Causes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Kaitlin Wade PhD Research Associate and Early Career Researcher Representative Integrative Epidemiology Unit (IEU) Bristol Medical School (Population Health Sciences) Faculty of Health Sciences University of Bristol 

Dr. Wade

Dr. Kaitlin Wade PhD
Research Associate and Early Career Researcher Representative
Integrative Epidemiology Unit (IEU)
Bristol Medical School (Population Health Sciences)
Faculty of Health Sciences
University of Bristol 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Whilst severe obesity increases the risk of death in the population, there are conflicting results in the literature with some papers suggesting a protective effect of being overweight. Many observational studies also report a J-shaped association between body mass index – a measure of weight accounting for a person’s height – and mortality, where individuals who are underweight also have an increased risk of mortality compared to those within the ‘normal’ range. Such controversial findings are not without limitation, as bias by age, ill-health and other lifestyle factors are likely. One method to overcome the limitations of observational studies – Mendelian randomization – uses genetic variation in a person’s DNA to help understand the causal relationships between risk factors and health outcomes to provide a more accurate estimate of relationships by removing confounding factors (such as smoking, income and physical activity) and reverse causation (where people lose weight due to ill-health), which can explain conflicting findings in previous studies.

Until now, no study has used such a genetic-based approach to explore the link between body mass index and mortality.

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Why Are Children Not Receiving Adequate Treatment For Obesity?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Janey Pratt, MD Clinical Associate Professor, Surgery Stanford UniversityDr. Janey Pratt, MD
Clinical Associate Professor, Surgery
Stanford University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In 2013 obesity became recognized as a disease.  The rate of pediatric obesity continues to rise.  Severe pediatric obesity is rising at a even faster rate than obesity in pediatrics.  Despite this Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (MBS) remains underutilized in the treatment of severe pediatric obesity.  There is a significant amount of adult data and now pediatric data about effective treatments for severe obesity.  These support the use of MBS as a primary treatment for severe obesity in children. (BMI > 120% of 95th percentile with a comorbidity or BMI > 140% of 95th percentile).

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Higher BMI Linked to Increased Risk of Younger Colon Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Stuart Po-Hong Liu, MD, MPH

Dr. Po-Hong Liu

Stuart Po-Hong Liu, MD, MPH
Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit Massachusetts General Hospital and
Harvard Medical School
Boston

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Although there were global decreases in overall colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, CRC rates have increased dramatically in those aged 20 to 49 years in the United States, parts of Europe, and Asia. The etiology and early detection of young-onset becomes an emerging research and clinical priority. Another important fact that is that this emerging public health concern has resulted in updated guidelines from the American Cancer Society advising average-risk screening begin at age 45, rather than 50.

However, up to this point, the etiology of young onset CRC remains largely unknown. Elucidating the role of traditional CRC risk factors in the etiopathogenesis of young-onset CRC is one of the first research agenda. Continue reading

More Patients With Bariatric Surgery Admitted for Gallstone-Related Biliary Disease

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Violeta Popov, MD PhD FACG Assistant Professor of Medicine Director of Bariatric Endoscopy, NY VA Harbor Healthcare(Manhattan) Division of Gastroenterology NYU Langone Medical Center 

Dr. Popov

Violeta Popov, MD PhD FACG
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Director of Bariatric Endoscopy, NY VA Harbor Healthcare(Manhattan)
Division of Gastroenterology
NYU Langone Medical Center 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Bariatric surgery is the most effective method currently available for durable weight loss. In the first few months after surgery, patients typically experience significant weight loss. Rapid weight reduction though can lead to the development of gallstones and biliary disease, described in up to 40% of post-bariatric patients. To avoid these complications, the gallbladder was removed during open bariatric procedures in the past. However, with the advent of laparoscopic surgery, concomitant cholecystectomy with bariatric surgery is no longer performed for many reasons.  The aim of is study is to assess if biliary diseases such as acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, acute cholangitis, and cholecystectomy have increased with this change in practice. This is a retrospective cohort analysis of the National Inpatient Sample (NIS), the largest publicly available inpatient database in the United States of nonfederal institutions, with approximately 1000 hospitals participating and information on over 7 million inpatient admissions.

We found that from 2006 to 2014 there has been an approximately 10-fold increase in hospital admissions for biliary diseases, as well as similar increase in cholecystectomies, in patients who have a history of bariatric surgery. There was no significant change in admissions in patients without bariatric surgery between 2006 and 2014 admitted for the same biliary diseases.  Continue reading

Obesity Linked to Alarming Risk in Gastric and Colon Cancers in Young Adults

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Hisham Hussan, M.D. Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine Director, Obesity and Bariatric Endoscopy Section Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Department of Internal Medicine The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center Columbus, OH 43210

Dr. Hussan

Hisham Hussan, M.D.
Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine
Director, Obesity and Bariatric Endoscopy Section
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition
Department of Internal Medicine
The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center
Columbus, OH 43210

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Obesity, a major healthcare burden, is an established risk factor for many gastrointestinal cancers. With obesity being on the rise, we inspected whether obesity related gastrointestinal cancers are increasing in different age groups, and relation to obesity.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? 

Response: We identify an alarming increase in incidence of gastric and colorectal cancers in young adults (less than 50 years of age) between 2002-2013.

This was paralleled by an uptrend in obese patients undergoing surgeries for these cancers during the same period. 

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Our results suggest, for the first time, a contributing role of obesity in the etiology as well as the increasing incidence of gastric and colorectal cancers in young adults. 

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: More studies are needed to investigate the interplay of epigenetics factors such as young-onset obesity and western diet in relation to risk of adults developing colorectal and gastric cancers at an earlier age. Also public policies are needed to counter obesity and the rising incidence of gastric and colorectal cancer in this young high risk group.

MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add?

Response: My main career focus is translational and clinical research at the interface of energy balance, the microbiome and gastrointestinal cancer.

We have no financial disclosers or conflict of interest.

Citation:

 ACG18 abstract:

Rising, Age‐Specific, Trends of Obesity‐Related Gastrointestinal Cancers Correspond With Increasing Cancer Resections in Obese Patients: A 2002‐2013 National Analysis Using the SEER and NIS Databases

Oct 9, 2018 @ 11:58 am

The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

 

Most Overweight or Obese Children Will Stay So

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Antje Körner, M.D Center for Pediatric Research University Hospital for Children and Adolescents University of Leipzig Germany

Dr. Körner

Antje Körner, M.D
Center for Pediatric Research
University Hospital for Children and Adolescents
University of Leipzig
Germany

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We were interested to find out, when (at what age) obesity in children emerges, whether there is something such as an critical age.

There are many opinions on that but very few well-powered studies. We tracked weight/BMI development of more than 51,000 children from infancy to adolescence. We see, that it is clearly early childhood – the preschool years when obesity sets in in the children. If a child is obese at one or up to two years of age, chances are about 50:50 to return to normal weight; with 3 years of age, most children with overweight or obesity will stay so, almost 90%.

When we look at it dynamically, we see the strongest increase in excessive weight between 2 and 6 years of age in those adolescents who are obese. Even after that young age there is steady further increase in additional weight gain, hence worsening of obesity. 

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Our intention is to raise awareness that obesity sets in at that very young age. Often you hear of “innocent puppy fat” in the very young children, which will grow away. According to our data you cannot rely on returning to normal weight as soon as 3 years of age.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: Therefore, we have to think more in means of prevention. This early childhood is the age where habits are formed. Hence every day life should be structured in a healthy way and environment should favour a healthy life style. 

Citation:

Acceleration of BMI in Early Childhood and Risk of Sustained Obesity

Mandy Geserick, M.Sc., Mandy Vogel, Ph.D., Ruth Gausche, M.B.A., Tobias Lipek, M.D., Ulrike Spielau, M.Sc., Eberhard Keller, M.D., Roland Pfäffle, M.D., Wieland Kiess, M.D., and Antje Körner, M.D.

October 4, 2018
N Engl J Med 2018; 379:1303-1312
DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa180352

Oct 5, 2018 @ 12:41 pm

The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

 

Functional Imagery Training Improved Weight Loss and Keeping Weight Off

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Linda Solbrig PhD University of Plymouth

Dr. Solbrig

Dr Linda Solbrig PhD
University of Plymouth

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Diets are restrictive; they work in the short-term, but re-gain is common. Individuals trying to manage their weight find that motivation fades over time and that this is the hardest part about maintain a healthy weight. When given choice to self-set goals we are much more likely to stick with them; they are more sustainable and we can succeed long-term. Using multi-sensory mental imagery supports motivation to change in the long run and also the opportunity to test out in our imagination if the actions we decided will lead to personal goal success actually fit with our lives, or whether we need to tweak, or even change them.

Functional Imagery Training (FIT) is based on two decades of research showing that mental imagery is more strongly emotionally charged than other types of thought and that it can directly interfere with unwanted food cravings. It uses multi-sensory mental imagery to strengthen people’s motivation and confidence to achieve their own goals, and teaches people how to do this for themselves, so they can stay motivated even when faced with challenges. It is not about creating a static picture, but encourages the use of all our senses, how a situation may feel, seeing with the mind’s eye and hearing with the mind’s ear and so on, creating a mini movie in our minds where we are the lead actors working on our personal goals, overcoming adversity and succeeding.  Continue reading

Study Finds No Need to Fear Carbohydrates

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Hana Kahleova, MD, PhD, MBA Director of Clinical Research Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine Washington, DC 20016

Dr. Kahleova

Hana Kahleova, MD, PhD, MBA
Director of Clinical Research
Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine
Washington, DC 20016 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: The effects of carbohydrates on body weight and insulin sensitivity are controversial.

In this 16-week randomized clinical trial, we tested the role of carbohydrate quantity and quality, as part of a plant-based diet, on body weight, body composition, and insulin resistance. We have demonstrated that carbohydrates and dietary fiber play important roles in the regulation of body weight, body composition, and insulin resistance in overweight individuals.

Increased consumption of total carbohydrate was associated with a decrease in BMI and volume of visceral fat, even after adjustment for energy intake. Increased consumption of total and particularly insoluble fiber was associated with a decrease in BMI, fat mass, and volume of visceral fat.

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Could Household Cleaners Be Making Children Overweight?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Kozyrskyj

Anita Kozyrskyj PhD
Professor in Pediatrics
Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry
School of Public Health
University of Alberta

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Data for this study were collected in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) cohort of over 3,500 full-term infants born between 2009 and 2012. When infants were 3-4 months of age, parents provided a sample of their poop. At that time, parents checked-off responses to questions about their home, including type and frequency of cleaning product use. The infant poop was initially frozen, then thawed later to extract DNA from the sample and identify microbes on the basis of their DNA sequence.  Continue reading

USPSTF: Behavior-Based Weight Loss Interventions Associated with Weight Loss and Lower Risk of Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Chyke Doubeni, M.D., M.P.H.  Harrison McCrea Dickson, M.D. and Clifford C. Baker, M.D. Presidential Professor Associate Professor of Epidemiology  Senior scholar, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics  University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Dr. Doubeni

Chyke Doubeni, M.D., M.P.H.
Harrison McCrea Dickson, M.D. and Clifford C. Baker, M.D. Presidential Professor
Associate Professor of Epidemiology
Senior scholar, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Obesity is an important public health issue that affects nearly 4 in 10 American adults. It increases the risk for many chronic health conditions as well as premature death from diabetes, coronary heart disease, various types of cancer, and other conditions. As such, it was important for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force to review the current evidence and update the recommendation on this topic.

Based on a review of the most recent studies, we found that intensive, multicomponent behavioral interventions are safe and effective. They can help people lose weight, maintain their weight loss, and reduce the risk of obesity-related conditions such as diabetes in people with high blood sugar. Therefore, the Task Force is recommending that clinicians offer or refer adults with a body mass index, or BMI, of 30 kg/m2 or higher to these behavioral interventions.    Continue reading

Mouth Microbiome Linked to Childhood Obesity

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Sarah J.Carnahan Craig PhD

Dr. Carnahan Craig

Dr. Sarah J.Carnahan Craig PhD
Postdoctoral Scholar
Makova Lab
Biology Department
Center for Medical Genomics
Penn State University

 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: This study stems from a long standing collaboration with pediatrician, Ian Paul at Penn State Hershey Medical School (and a co-author on this paper). Ian is very interested in understanding and preventing childhood obesity. It also is part of a much larger, collaborative study objective, lead by Ian and Leann Birch (another co-author), to understand social/behavioral contributors to childhood obesity, how a responsive parenting intervention can prevent childhood overweight/obesity, and the biological factors that contribute to the disease. This is an important research area as childhood obesity is a public health problem — one in three children are overweight or obese. A fuller understanding of factors that contribute to childhood obesity, how to identify children who are at risk for developing childhood obesity, and methods to prevent childhood obesity are of critical importance.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: The main finding from this paper is that the oral microbiota (the collection of bacteria that live in the mouth) are significantly related to young child growth patterns. The surprising part of this finding was that we observed this result with the oral microbiota and not the gut microbiota. The oral microbiota (in comparison to the gut microbiota, which has been associated with obesity in many previous studies) are largely understudied, especially in young children. The gut microbiome we found to be strongly influenced by diet; when the two are considered together, there is a significant relationship with child growth patterns.

Additionally, our team developed novel statistical methods to use child growth curves as a more comprehensive outcome rather than an outcome of weight at a single time point (i.e. it uses more of the information about how a child is growing). These methods allow us to better detect the relationship between child growth and the microbiota; they increase our power. 

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Readers should take away that there are many factors that contribute to obesity and obesity prevention – along with a healthy diet and exercise, biological factors, such as the microbiota for instance, could potentially be an important consideration. Additionally, we’re in the early stages of truly understanding how these microbes influence health. Importantly, we are unable to make any kind of causal conclusions – meaning we don’t know if the microbes are influencing the growth patterns, is health/environment influencing the microbes, or is it both directions.  

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: One of the limitations of this study is that it looks at the microbiota at a single time point, at two years after birth –  this is a dynamic community, so we are really only seeing a snapshot of what is happening. Additionally, the study is retrospective in that the microbiota is sampled at two years and the growth trajectory is made of measurements from birth through two years. Because of this, we might be missing important dynamics happening earlier in life. A more comprehensive study would be to sample the microbiota at all the time points you are sampling growth, health, and other information — this is a study we are currently doing. We hope that by building on this study and examining the microbiota (both oral and gut) longitudinally and in concert with the social, environmental, and health data that we will be closer to a fuller understanding, which could potentially identify children who are most at risk of developing childhood obesity and be prime candidates for obesity intervention programs.  

Citation: 

Sarah J. C. Craig, Daniel Blankenberg, Alice Carla Luisa Parodi, Ian M. Paul, Leann L. Birch, Jennifer S. Savage, Michele E. Marini, Jennifer L. Stokes, Anton Nekrutenko, Matthew Reimherr, Francesca Chiaromonte, Kateryna D. Makova. Child Weight Gain Trajectories Linked To Oral Microbiota Composition. Scientific Reports, 2018; 8 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-31866-9

Sep 19, 2018 @ 9:27 pm

 

 

 

The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

 

Do Menu Labels Cause Diners to Order Fewer Calories?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

John Cawley PhD Professor of policy analysis and management College of Human Ecology Cornell University

Dr. Cawley

John Cawley PhD
Professor of policy analysis and management
College of Human Ecology
Cornell University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The background is that diet-related chronic disease has increased dramatically in the US and many other economically developed countries. For example, the prevalence of obesity in the U.S. has roughly tripled since 1960, and the prevalence of Type II diabetes has also increased significantly.  As a result, policymakers are looking for ways to facilitate healthy eating.  One possible approach is to require that restaurants list on their menus the number of calories in each menu item.  Several cities such as New York City and Philadelphia passed such laws, and in May of this year (2018) a nationwide law took effect requiring such calorie labels on the menus of chain restaurants. However, the effects of this information is not well known.

To answer that question, we conducted randomized controlled field experiments in two sit-down, full-service restaurants.  Parties of guests were randomly assigned to either the control group that got the regular menu without calorie information, or the treatment group that got the same menus but with calorie counts on the menu.  We then documented what items people ordered and then surveyed the patrons after their dinner.  Overall we collected data from over 5,000 patrons.

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Sucralose Metabolites Accumulate in Body Fat Over Time

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Volker Bornemann, Ph.D. President and CEO Avazyme, Inc. Durham, North Carolina 27703

Dr. Bornemann

Volker Bornemann, Ph.D.
President and CEO
Avazyme, Inc.
Durham, North Carolina 27703

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Since the approval of sucralose in 1998 by the US FDA and by the European Union in 2004, there have been numerous independent reports that suggest sucralose is metabolized in the body and is metabolically active.

These independent studies contradict information submitted to regulatory agencies by sucralose manufacturers who claimed sucralose is safe because it quickly passes through the body unchanged.  In light of these conflicting results, we decided to conduct an experiment to settle the question of whether sucralose is metabolized by the body and determine if it is retained in body fat using the state-of-the art analytic techniques at Avazyme.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: The main findings are that sucralose is indeed metabolized in the intestinal tract, and the metabolites are more fat soluble than sucralose itself.  Furthermore, sucralose accumulated in body fat over time.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Sucralose is retained in body fat and is also metabolized contrary to claims by the manufacturer.  A risk assessment of these findings should be performed by regulatory agencies to determine if the metabolites or retention of sucralose in adipose tissue adversely affect human health. 

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: The levels of sucralose and its metabolites in body fat and cell membranes of human consumers of sucralose products should be determined.  In addition, the DNA in fat cells and epithelial cells lining the alimentary tract should be assessed for any adverse changes in DNA.  Further scientific studies should be performed to determine the hazard potential of bioaccumulation of sucralose and the toxicity of the acetylated metabolites. 

Disclosures: This research was supported independently and not by any company associated with the sweetener industry. 

Citation: Volker Bornemann, Stephen C. Werness, Lauren Buslinger & Susan S. Schiffman (2018) Intestinal Metabolism and Bioaccumulation of Sucralose In Adipose Tissue In The Rat, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, DOI: 10.1080/15287394.2018.1502560

Sep 1, 2018 @ 10:53 pm

The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

 

Low Birth Weight Associated With More Diabetes and Hypertension in Adulthood

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Chinese baby laying on a bed” by simpleinsomnia is licensed under CC BY 2.0Wanghong Xu, MD, PhD

Professor of Epidemiology
School of Public Health
Fudan University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis proposes that cardiovascular diseases and other chronic conditions in adulthood may be a consequence of an unfavorable intrauterine life, a relationship that is further modified by patterns of postnatal growth, environment, and lifestyle.

Based on the two large-scale cohort studies, the Shanghai Women’s Health Study and the Shanghai Men’s Health Study, we observed nonlinear associations for birth weight with baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and low birth weight was linked with lower BMI, smaller WC, but larger WHR and WHtR.

An excess risk of T2DM and hypertension was observed for low birth weight (<2500 g) versus birth weight of 2500-3499 g since baseline and since birth. The results support the DoHad hypothesis, and indicate the importance of nutrition in early life on health in Chinese population.  Continue reading

Diabetes: Microvascular Complications Markedly Decreased After Bariatric Surgery

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

David Arterburn, MD, MPH Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute Seattle, WA 

Dr. Arterburn

David Arterburn, MD, MPH
Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute
Seattle, WA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: More than 9 percent of adult Americans—about 30 million people—are estimated to have type 2 diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association. The disease tends to worsen over time, with blood sugar levels rising along with the risks of developing large blood vessel (macrovascular) complications like heart attack and stroke, as well as small blood vessel (microvascular) complications affecting the nerves of the feet and hands (neuropathy), kidneys (nephropathy), and eyes (retinopathy).

Among more than 4000 patients who underwent bariatric surgery, the 5-year incidence of microvascular disease — including neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy — was nearly 60% lower than that of 11,000 matched nonsurgical control patients receiving usual diabetes care.  Continue reading

Obesity Links PTSD and Diabetes Risk

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jeff Scherrer, Ph.D. Associate professor; Research director Department of Family and Community Medicine Saint Louis University Center for Health Outcomes Research

Dr. Scherrer

Jeff Scherrer, Ph.D.
Associate professor; Research director
Department of Family and Community Medicine
Saint Louis University Center for Health Outcomes Research 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The rationale for this study comes from evidence that patients with PTSD are more likely to be obese than persons without PTSD and have more difficulty losing weight.

Given the obesity epidemic and substantial role of obesity in risk of type 2 diabetes, we sought to determine if obesity accounted for the existing evidence that PTSD is a risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes.  Other studies have adjusted for obesity or BMI in models that control for obesity/BMI and other confounders simultaneously which prohibits measuring the independent role of obesity on the ass Continue reading

Parenting Educational Intervention Can Reduce Childhood Obesity

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ian M. Paul, M.D., M.Sc. Professor of Pediatrics and Public Health Sciences Chief, Division of Academic General Pediatrics Vice Chair of Faculty Affairs, Department of Pediatrics Penn State College of Medicine Hershey, PA 17033-0850

Prof. Paul

Ian M. Paul, M.D., M.Sc.
Professor of Pediatrics and Public Health Sciences
Chief, Division of Academic General Pediatrics
Vice Chair of Faculty Affairs, Department of Pediatrics
Penn State College of Medicine
Hershey, PA 17033-0850

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: 20-25% of 2-5 year old children are overweight or obese in the US, and these children have increased risk of remaining overweight across the lifecourse. To date, research efforts aimed at preventing early life overweight have had very limited success.

In our randomized clinical trial that included 279 mother-child dyads, a responsive parenting intervention that began shortly after birth significantly reduced body mass index z-score compared with controls at age 3 years. Continue reading

Behavioral Intervention for Underserved Preschool-Age Children on Change in BMI

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Shari Barkin, MD, MSHS William K. Warren Foundation Endowed Chair Professor of Pediatrics Division Chief of Academic General Pediatrics Director of Pediatric Obesity Research Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Dr. Barkin

Shari Barkin, MD, MSHS
William K. Warren Foundation Endowed Chair
Professor of Pediatrics
Division Chief of Academic General Pediatrics
Director of Pediatric Obesity Research
Vanderbilt University Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Obesity often begins in childhood and disproportionately affects some populations, including underserved children. Given the challenges associated with achieving effective obesity treatment, the focus needs to be on prevention and needs to start early. Barkin et al conducted the longest behavioral intervention obesity prevention trial with 610 underserved parent-preschool child pairs, testing a three-year pragmatic approach that focused on families based in the communities in which they lived, and partnering with both Metro Parks and Recreation and the Nashville Public Library Foundation. Eligible children were high normal weight or overweight but not obese and lived in neighborhoods with access to neighborhood built environments that included parks and recreation and library branches.  Continue reading

Bariatric Surgical Approach To Increase Bile Acids May Reduce Cocaine Reward

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Aurelio Galli, Ph.D. Professor of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics and Psychiatry & Behavioral Science Associate Director for Research Strategy Vanderbilt Brain Institute

Dr. Galli

Aurelio Galli, Ph.D.
Professor of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics and Psychiatry & Behavioral Science
Associate Director for Research Strategy
Vanderbilt Brain Institute

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The study builds on evidence that bile acids influence the brain’s reward system. Bile acids are normally released from the gall bladder into the upper part of the small intestine, where they emulsify fats for absorption, before being recycled further down the small intestine. In bile diversion surgery, an experimental treatment for weight loss, bile is released at the end of the small intestine, increasing the amount of bile acids that enter the general circulation.

Mice treated with this surgery have less appetite for high-fat foods, which suggests that bile acids affect brain reward pathways.

We demonstrated that mice receiving the surgery also showed less preference for the cocaine-associated chamber, indicating that cocaine was probably less rewarding. Continue reading

Two-Day Fast Per Week vs Daily Calorie Restriction in Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Diabetes Test” by Victor is licensed under CC BY 2.0Sharayah Carter
PhD candidate|BNutDiet|BMedPharmSc (Hons)|APD
School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences
University of South Australia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Intermittent energy restriction is a new popular diet method with promising effects on metabolic function but limited research exists on its effects on improving glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes.

The findings of our research demonstrate that a diet with 2-days of severe energy restriction per week is comparable to a diet with daily moderate energy restriction for glycaemic control.  Continue reading

Does Your Morning Coffee Really Make You Eat Less?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Coffee being poured Coffee pot pouring cup of coffee. copyright American Heart Association
Leah Panek-Shirley, PhD

Assistant Professor
Buffalo State College
Health, Nutrition, and Dietetics
Houston Texas

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?


Response:
The findings of existing previous research evaluating the effects of caffeine on appetite and eating are equivocal.

This study evaluated the effects of no (0 mg/kg body weight, e.g. placebo), low (1 mg/kg body weight), and moderate (3 mg/kg body weight) doses of caffeine in juice on appetite and eating in the laboratory and under free-living conditions.

While this study identified a small decrease (about 70 calories) in caloric intake after consuming the low (1 mg/kg) dose of caffeine in the laboratory at breakfast, this difference did not persist throughout the entire day.  In addition, there were no differences in hunger, fullness, thirst, or desire to eat as a result of caffeine.

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So Far, Genes Don’t Explain How Many Calories We Consume

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“In-N-Out meal #1” by Chris Makarsky is licensed under CC BY 2.0Dr. Christina Holzapfel PhD
Junior Research Group Leader at
Institute for Nutritional Medicine
Technical University of Munich

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: A lot of articles about genetic factors and nutritional intake have been published in the last years. Findings are inconsistent and it is not clear, whether genetic variants, especially associated with body mass index, are associated with nutritional intake.

Therefore we performed a systematic literature search in order to get an overview about the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and total energy, carbohydrate and fat intakes. We identified about specific search terms and their combinations more than 10,000 articles. Of these, 39 articles were identified for a relationship between genetic factors and total energy, carbohydrate, or fat consumption.

In all studies, we most frequently encountered the fat mass and obesity (FTO) associated gene as well as the melanocortin 4 receptor gene (MC4R). There are indications of a relationship between these two genes and total energy intake. However, the evaluation of the studies did not provide a uniform picture. There is only limited evidence for the relationship between the FTO gene and low energy intake as well as between the MC4R gene and increased energy intake.

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