Periodic Low Calorie Days Can Extend Lifespan (at least in mice)

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Valter Longo, PhD Edna M. Jones Professor of Gerontology  Professor of Biological Sciences Leonard Davis School of Gerontology Director of the USC Longevity Institute USC

Dr. Longo

Valter Longo, PhD
Edna M. Jones Professor of Gerontology
Professor of Biological Sciences
Leonard Davis School of Gerontology
Director of the USC Longevity Institute
USC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The use of a low calorie diet that mimics fasting for 4 days twice a month starting at middle age can extend lifespan and rejuvenate mice.

In humans a similar diet once a month causes improvements in cholesterol, blood pressure , inflammation, fasting glucose etc consistent with rejuvenation

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Maternal Obesity Raises Risk of Congenital Heart Defects

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Martina Persson, M.D, PhD Karolinska Institutet

Dr. Persson

Martina Persson, M.D, PhD
Karolinska Institute

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: It is well known that maternal obesity increases risks of adverse fetal outcomes, including congenital malformations of the heart. However, it is unclear if maternal overweight and obesity associate with risks of specific and more complex congenital heart defects. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Sweden using data from several health registries. The study included more than 2 million live, singletons born between 1992-2012. Risks (prevalence rate ratios) of complex heart defects (Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries (TGA), atrial septal defects (ASD), aortic arch defects, and single ventricle heart) and several specific heart defects were estimated in infants to mothers with overweight and increasing degree of obesity.

We found that risks of aortic arch defects, ASD and patent ductus arteriosus (in term infants) increased with maternal obesity severity. On the other hand, we found no clear associations between maternal BMI and risks of several other complex and specific heart defects.  Continue reading

Obesity in Childhood Adversely Impacts Lung Development

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Judith Garcia Aymerich Head of the Non-Communicable Diseases and Environment Programme ISGlobal 

Dr. Garcia-Aymerich

Judith Garcia Aymerich
Head of the Non-Communicable Diseases and Environment Programme
ISGlobal 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Several studies have assessed the associations of overweight and obesity with lung function in children and adolescents, but they have found contradictory results. An important limitation of these studies is that most of them considered only overall body weight and did not take into account for the different contribution of lean body mass and fat mass, and their relative proportions that vary by age and sex. Continue reading

New Intestinal Microbiome Changes After Bariatric Surgery

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Casey Morrow, Ph.D. Leader of the research team and professor emeritus Department of Cell, Developmental and Integrative Biology University of Alabama at Birmingham

Dr. Morrow

Casey Morrow, Ph.D.
Leader of the research team and professor emeritus
Department of Cell, Developmental and Integrative Biology
University of Alabama at Birmingham

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) contains several distinct physical environments within the stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) and colon that harbor complex microbial communities.

Changes in the fecal microbe composition have been described for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), the most effective and durable treatment for morbid obesity, and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Continue reading

Breastfeeding Linked to Less Belly Fat and Smaller Waist Size

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
"Breast feeding... Like its her job." by Jason Lander is licensed under CC BY 2.0 <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0"> CC BY 2.0</a>Gabrielle G. Snyder, MPH
Department of Epidemiology
Graduate School of Public Health
University of Pittsburgh

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Although previous studies have investigated the association between breastfeeding duration and maternal weight change, we still do not know if there is an optimal duration of breastfeeding for mothers in order to realize potential health benefits. Furthermore, these studies were unable to determine whether health outcomes were due to breastfeeding or other health-promoting behaviors, like better diet and more physical activity.

Our study aims to address both points. To test the association between breastfeeding duration and maternal waist circumference, we used traditional regression models as well as two additional statistical methods that allowed us to control for factors that may influence if a woman would breastfeed and for how long. We found that women who breastfed more than 6 months had smaller waist circumference, as well as lower body mass index, one decade after delivery compared to women who breastfed 6 months or less. These results were consistent across all statistical methods.  Continue reading

Cancers Attributable to Obesity Vary by State

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Farhad Islami, MD PhD Scientific Director, Surveillance Research American Cancer Society, Inc. Atlanta, GA 30303

Dr. Islami

Farhad Islami, MD PhD
Scientific Director, Surveillance Research
American Cancer Society, Inc.
Atlanta, GA 30303

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Despite variations in excess body weight (EBW) prevalence among states in the United States, there was little information on the proportion of incident cancers attributable to EBW (or population attributable fraction, PAF) by state. This information would be useful to help states set priorities for cancer control initiatives.

In this paper, we estimated the PAF and number of incident cancer cases attributable to EBW by sex in all 50 states and the District of Columbia using representative exposure and cancer occurrence data. To provide more accurate estimates, we adjusted state-level data on body mass index (BMI) based on self-reported weight and height from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and education level (162 strata) using BMI values from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative survey with objectively-measured height and weight.

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After Menopause, High Body Fat Associated with Doubled Risk of Estrogen+ Breast Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Neil M. Iyengar, MD Breast Medicine Service Department of Medicine Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Evelyn H. Lauder Breast And Imaging Center New York, NY

Dr. Neil Iyengar

Neil M. Iyengar, MD
Breast Medicine Service
Department of Medicine
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Evelyn H. Lauder Breast And Imaging Center
New York, NY 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Obesity is one of the leading modifiable risk factors for the development of hormone receptor positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

Traditionally, physicians use a person’s body mass index (weight in kilograms divided by height in squared meters, kg/m2) to estimate body fat levels. A BMI of 30 or greater is considered to be obese, and this level of BMI increases the risk of at least 13 different cancers.

However, BMI is a crude measure of body fat and can be inaccurate. For example, some normal weight individuals (BMI less than 25) have obesity-related problems like diabetes and high blood pressure. Before our study, it was unknown whether high body fat levels in normal weight women contributes to obesity-related cancers such as breast cancer.

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What are the Patient Preferences that Determine Chose of Bariatric Surgery?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Michael Rozier, S.J., Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Health Management and Policy College for Public Health and Social Justice St. Louis University

Dr. Rozier

Michael Rozier, S.J., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Health Management and Policy
College for Public Health and Social Justice
St. Louis University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Patients considering surgery for weight loss have several options, which differ in significant ways, such as expected weight loss, risk of complication, modification of diet, effect on other medical conditions, and more. Previous studies have asked patients why they chose one procedure over another.

Instead, we quantified the relative importance of the key characteristics of surgical options. Using a discrete choice experiment, potential patients were given profiles of two weight loss options. They were asked to select one profile based on key characteristics such as out-of-pocket costs, total weight loss, risk of complication, and five other factors.

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Obesity Threat to Health of Individuals and Populations May Be Underestimated

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ching-Ti Liu, PhD Department of Biostatistics Boston University School of Public Health Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. Liu

Ching-Ti Liu, PhD
Department of Biostatistics
Boston University School of Public Health
Boston, Massachusetts

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Being overweight and obese are increasing worldwide and this obesity epidemic threatens to reverse the gains in life expectancy achieved over the past century. However, many investigators have observed, paradoxically, that overweight individuals are associated with a lower mortality risk. These results may suffer from a potential confounding due to illness or reverse causality in which preexisting conditions may alter both body weight and the risk of death.  Recently published studies have tried to mitigate this reverse causal bias by implementing sample exclusion and they came to a different conclusion: between BMI and all-cause mortality there is an increased risk of death for the entire range of weights that are in the overweight and obesity ranges.

However, the elimination strategies may lead to the loss of generalizability or precision due to over-adjustment. In addition, the traditional investigations have only utilized a subject’s weight at a single point in time, which makes it difficult to adequately address bias associated with reverse causality.

Currently, the idea incorporating a subject’s weight history has been proposed to deal with the concern of reverse causality, but the existing works had been based on a subject’s recall or self-reported data, which may lead to misclassification and, therefore, result in overestimating the risk of mortality.

To help assess the relevance of being overweight or obese to the risk of death in the general population, we conducted a prospective study, using an individuals’ maximum BMI before the beginning of survival follow-up instead of their weight status at a single point in time, using data from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS).

We observed increasing risk of mortality across various BMI categories (overweight < obese I < obese II) relative to normal weight using maximum BMI over 24 years of weight history.

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Obesity Strongly Related to Coronary Artery Disease and Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
"Obesity runs rampant in Indiana." by Steve Baker is licensed under CC BY-ND 2.0Haris Riaz MD
(Cardiology Fellow
Haitham Ahmed MD, MPH , Preventive Cardiologist,
Cleveland Clinic, Ohio

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Elevated cholesterol (specially low density lipoprotein) has been causally linked to the development of coronary artery disease whereas the causal relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disease has remained controversial. This is important because of increasing epidemic of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Mendelian randomization studies provide one way of determining a causal association where we can look at the outcomes of individuals stratified by the presence or absence of a particular allele. Since these alleles are randomly distributed in the population of interest, this is “nature’s randomized trial” in that the particular allele is naturally distributed and hence minimal risk of bias.

In other words, lets say that I hypothesize that a particular gene “A” is linked with coronary artery disease. If the given gene is indeed causally linked with coronary artery disease, patients with activation of that gene should have significantly greater risk of developing coronary artery disease.

Based on these principles, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence and found that the risk of developing coronary artery disease and diabetes is significantly increased with obesity. Although hypothesis generating, we think that these findings may suggest a causal association between obesity and cardiovascular disease.  Continue reading

Gelesis100 Hydrogel In Development For Weight Loss and Obesity

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Gelesis, Inc.H.M. Heshmati, M.D.

Executive Vice President, Endocrinology and Metabolism
Gelesis, Inc.

 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: The Gelesis Loss Of Weight (GLOW) clinical study is a pivotal, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of our lead investigational product candidate, Gelesis100, which is an oral, non-systemic approach to weight loss. The GLOW study was designed to assess change in body weight in adults with overweight or obesity after six months of treatment with Gelesis100.

Main findings from the GLOW study include the following:

  • 59% of Gelesis100-treated adults achieved weight loss of at least 5% over six months.

o   The new data show that Gelesis100-treated adults fell into two groups: responders, the 6 out of 10 who lost an average of 10% of their total body weight (about 22 pounds) and nearly 4 inches from their waist circumference. Non-responders, the 4 out of 10 who lost an average of 1% of their total body weight (about 2 pounds).

o   The complete Gelesis100 treatment group (including both responders and non-responders) demonstrated superiority compared to placebo (–6.4% vs. –4.4%, P=0.0007)

  • Successful response to Gelesis100 may be predicted by elevated fasting plasma glucose at baseline or weight loss as early as week 8.
  • There was a clear and early separation between responders and non-responders. More specifically, weight loss of at least 3% as early as after eight 8 weeks of treatment predicted clinically meaningful weight loss at six months, with sensitivity and specificity levels exceeding 80%.
  • The study also showed that nearly half of the adults with prediabetes or drug-naive type 2 diabetes were super-responders. These individuals, who typically face greater challenges to lose weight, had six times greater odds of being super-responders, compared to placebo (adjusted OR: 6.1, P=0.0071).
  • Gelesis100 had a highly favorable safety and tolerability profile. 

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OPTIFAST Total Meal Replacement Plan Supported Significant Weight Loss

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Jamy Ard MD Professor of Epidemiology and Prevention Co-director,the Wake Forest Baptist Health Weight Management Center Wake Forest School of Medicine

Dr. Ard

Dr. Jamy Ard MD
Professor of Epidemiology and Prevention
Co-director,the Wake Forest Baptist Health Weight Management Center
Wake Forest School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Obesity continues to be a growing health challenge, and doctors need as many resources as possible to help their patients achieve success. The OPTIWIN trial shows that a total meal replacement program like OPTIFAST can help with significant and sustained weight loss.

The OPTIFAST Program is a medically monitored weight loss program that combines meal replacement with behavioral counseling and personalized support. In the OPTIWIN study, participants were randomized to either the OPTIFAST Program (OP) or a behavioral intervention using a food-based diet (FB).

At both 26 and 52 weeks, the OP group lost, on average, twice as much of their initial body weight as the FB group:

  • At 26 weeks: 12.4% (SE 0.6) vs 6.0% (SE 0.6) of body weight lost (OP vs FB, respectively; p<0.001)
  • At 52 weeks: 10.5% (SE 0.6) vs 5.5% (SE 0.6) of body weight lost (OP vs FB, respectively; p<0.001)

Additionally, the proportion of participants who achieved clinically meaningful weight loss (≥5%, ≥10%, and ≥15%) was significantly higher in the OP group. For example:

  • At 26 weeks, 55% of the OP group lost at least 10% of their initial body weight vs 23% of the FB group (p<0.001)
  • At 52 weeks, 44% of the OP group lost at least 10% of their initial body weight vs 22% of the FB group (p<0.001)

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Who Does Better After Bariatric Surgery?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Alison E. Field, ScD Professor and Chair of Epidemiology Brown University School of Public Heath Providence, RI

Dr. Field

Alison E. Field, ScD
Professor and Chair of Epidemiology
Brown University School of Public Heath
Providence, RI

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  

Response: In the United States, approximately 40% of adults are obese. There are a range of treatment options, but relatively few people are able to lose weight and maintain the loss. The most effective treatment is bariatric surgery, but even among patients who have undergone bariatric surgery, there is a range in weight change patterns after surgery. This suggests that not all people with obesity are similar. There may be different causes and optimal treatment plans that vary by obesity subgroup. Our goal was to identify subgroups and to examine if they differed in terms of weight loss after bariatric surgery.

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Eat Carbs in the Morning, Fat at Night?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
"Compare-the-Use-of-Carbohydrates-and-Lipids-in-Energy-Storage" by Zappys Technology Solutions is licensed under CC BY 2.0Kirsi-Marja Zitting, Ph.D.

Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders
Departments of Medicine and Neurology
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Boston, MA 02115

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: This study is a follow-up study to our previous study where we found that chronic insufficient sleep together with chronic jet lag is associated with adverse changes in metabolism, including increase in blood sugar levels (Buxton et al. Science Translational Medicine, 2012). The present study focuses on the influence of the time of day on metabolism, which has not been investigated in humans independent of the effects of sleep, physical activity and diet.

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Antibiotics and Acid Suppressants May Be Risk Factor For Pediatric Obesity

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
"babies (365-222)" by Robert Couse-Baker is licensed under CC BY 2.0Dr. Christopher M Stark
Department of Pediatrics
William Beaumont Army Medical Center
El Paso, Texas
Department of Pediatrics
Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
Bethesda, Maryland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Rates of pediatric obesity have increased over the past decade, which has led researchers to search for modifiable risk factors that may explain this increase. Recent studies have identified an association between native gut bacteria alterations and the development of obesity. Several population-based studies have evaluated whether or not there is an association between antibiotic exposure and the development of obesity, with mixed results.

No studies have previously evaluated if acid suppressing medications are associated with developing obesity.

We found that young children prescribed antibiotics, acid suppressants, and combinations of these medications in the first two years of life are more likely to develop obesity after two years of age.

Our study represents the largest study to evaluate pediatric antibiotic prescriptions and obesity risk, with nearly ten times as many patients as the next largest study.

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Obesity Increases Risk of Death From All Causes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Kaitlin Wade PhD Research Associate and Early Career Researcher Representative Integrative Epidemiology Unit (IEU) Bristol Medical School (Population Health Sciences) Faculty of Health Sciences University of Bristol 

Dr. Wade

Dr. Kaitlin Wade PhD
Research Associate and Early Career Researcher Representative
Integrative Epidemiology Unit (IEU)
Bristol Medical School (Population Health Sciences)
Faculty of Health Sciences
University of Bristol 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Whilst severe obesity increases the risk of death in the population, there are conflicting results in the literature with some papers suggesting a protective effect of being overweight. Many observational studies also report a J-shaped association between body mass index – a measure of weight accounting for a person’s height – and mortality, where individuals who are underweight also have an increased risk of mortality compared to those within the ‘normal’ range. Such controversial findings are not without limitation, as bias by age, ill-health and other lifestyle factors are likely. One method to overcome the limitations of observational studies – Mendelian randomization – uses genetic variation in a person’s DNA to help understand the causal relationships between risk factors and health outcomes to provide a more accurate estimate of relationships by removing confounding factors (such as smoking, income and physical activity) and reverse causation (where people lose weight due to ill-health), which can explain conflicting findings in previous studies.

Until now, no study has used such a genetic-based approach to explore the link between body mass index and mortality.

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Why Are Children Not Receiving Adequate Treatment For Obesity?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Janey Pratt, MD Clinical Associate Professor, Surgery Stanford UniversityDr. Janey Pratt, MD
Clinical Associate Professor, Surgery
Stanford University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In 2013 obesity became recognized as a disease.  The rate of pediatric obesity continues to rise.  Severe pediatric obesity is rising at a even faster rate than obesity in pediatrics.  Despite this Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (MBS) remains underutilized in the treatment of severe pediatric obesity.  There is a significant amount of adult data and now pediatric data about effective treatments for severe obesity.  These support the use of MBS as a primary treatment for severe obesity in children. (BMI > 120% of 95th percentile with a comorbidity or BMI > 140% of 95th percentile).

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Higher BMI Linked to Increased Risk of Younger Colon Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Stuart Po-Hong Liu, MD, MPH

Dr. Po-Hong Liu

Stuart Po-Hong Liu, MD, MPH
Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit Massachusetts General Hospital and
Harvard Medical School
Boston

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Although there were global decreases in overall colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, CRC rates have increased dramatically in those aged 20 to 49 years in the United States, parts of Europe, and Asia. The etiology and early detection of young-onset becomes an emerging research and clinical priority. Another important fact that is that this emerging public health concern has resulted in updated guidelines from the American Cancer Society advising average-risk screening begin at age 45, rather than 50.

However, up to this point, the etiology of young onset CRC remains largely unknown. Elucidating the role of traditional CRC risk factors in the etiopathogenesis of young-onset CRC is one of the first research agenda. Continue reading

More Patients With Bariatric Surgery Admitted for Gallstone-Related Biliary Disease

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Violeta Popov, MD PhD FACG Assistant Professor of Medicine Director of Bariatric Endoscopy, NY VA Harbor Healthcare(Manhattan) Division of Gastroenterology NYU Langone Medical Center 

Dr. Popov

Violeta Popov, MD PhD FACG
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Director of Bariatric Endoscopy, NY VA Harbor Healthcare(Manhattan)
Division of Gastroenterology
NYU Langone Medical Center 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Bariatric surgery is the most effective method currently available for durable weight loss. In the first few months after surgery, patients typically experience significant weight loss. Rapid weight reduction though can lead to the development of gallstones and biliary disease, described in up to 40% of post-bariatric patients. To avoid these complications, the gallbladder was removed during open bariatric procedures in the past. However, with the advent of laparoscopic surgery, concomitant cholecystectomy with bariatric surgery is no longer performed for many reasons.  The aim of is study is to assess if biliary diseases such as acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, acute cholangitis, and cholecystectomy have increased with this change in practice. This is a retrospective cohort analysis of the National Inpatient Sample (NIS), the largest publicly available inpatient database in the United States of nonfederal institutions, with approximately 1000 hospitals participating and information on over 7 million inpatient admissions.

We found that from 2006 to 2014 there has been an approximately 10-fold increase in hospital admissions for biliary diseases, as well as similar increase in cholecystectomies, in patients who have a history of bariatric surgery. There was no significant change in admissions in patients without bariatric surgery between 2006 and 2014 admitted for the same biliary diseases.  Continue reading

Obesity Linked to Alarming Risk in Gastric and Colon Cancers in Young Adults

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Hisham Hussan, M.D. Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine Director, Obesity and Bariatric Endoscopy Section Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Department of Internal Medicine The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center Columbus, OH 43210

Dr. Hussan

Hisham Hussan, M.D.
Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine
Director, Obesity and Bariatric Endoscopy Section
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition
Department of Internal Medicine
The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center
Columbus, OH 43210

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Obesity, a major healthcare burden, is an established risk factor for many gastrointestinal cancers. With obesity being on the rise, we inspected whether obesity related gastrointestinal cancers are increasing in different age groups, and relation to obesity.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? 

Response: We identify an alarming increase in incidence of gastric and colorectal cancers in young adults (less than 50 years of age) between 2002-2013.

This was paralleled by an uptrend in obese patients undergoing surgeries for these cancers during the same period. 

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Our results suggest, for the first time, a contributing role of obesity in the etiology as well as the increasing incidence of gastric and colorectal cancers in young adults. 

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: More studies are needed to investigate the interplay of epigenetics factors such as young-onset obesity and western diet in relation to risk of adults developing colorectal and gastric cancers at an earlier age. Also public policies are needed to counter obesity and the rising incidence of gastric and colorectal cancer in this young high risk group.

MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add?

Response: My main career focus is translational and clinical research at the interface of energy balance, the microbiome and gastrointestinal cancer.

We have no financial disclosers or conflict of interest.

Citation:

 ACG18 abstract:

Rising, Age‐Specific, Trends of Obesity‐Related Gastrointestinal Cancers Correspond With Increasing Cancer Resections in Obese Patients: A 2002‐2013 National Analysis Using the SEER and NIS Databases

Oct 9, 2018 @ 11:58 am

The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

 

Most Overweight or Obese Children Will Stay So

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Antje Körner, M.D Center for Pediatric Research University Hospital for Children and Adolescents University of Leipzig Germany

Dr. Körner

Antje Körner, M.D
Center for Pediatric Research
University Hospital for Children and Adolescents
University of Leipzig
Germany

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We were interested to find out, when (at what age) obesity in children emerges, whether there is something such as an critical age.

There are many opinions on that but very few well-powered studies. We tracked weight/BMI development of more than 51,000 children from infancy to adolescence. We see, that it is clearly early childhood – the preschool years when obesity sets in in the children. If a child is obese at one or up to two years of age, chances are about 50:50 to return to normal weight; with 3 years of age, most children with overweight or obesity will stay so, almost 90%.

When we look at it dynamically, we see the strongest increase in excessive weight between 2 and 6 years of age in those adolescents who are obese. Even after that young age there is steady further increase in additional weight gain, hence worsening of obesity. 

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Our intention is to raise awareness that obesity sets in at that very young age. Often you hear of “innocent puppy fat” in the very young children, which will grow away. According to our data you cannot rely on returning to normal weight as soon as 3 years of age.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: Therefore, we have to think more in means of prevention. This early childhood is the age where habits are formed. Hence every day life should be structured in a healthy way and environment should favour a healthy life style. 

Citation:

Acceleration of BMI in Early Childhood and Risk of Sustained Obesity

Mandy Geserick, M.Sc., Mandy Vogel, Ph.D., Ruth Gausche, M.B.A., Tobias Lipek, M.D., Ulrike Spielau, M.Sc., Eberhard Keller, M.D., Roland Pfäffle, M.D., Wieland Kiess, M.D., and Antje Körner, M.D.

October 4, 2018
N Engl J Med 2018; 379:1303-1312
DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa180352

Oct 5, 2018 @ 12:41 pm

The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

 

Functional Imagery Training Improved Weight Loss and Keeping Weight Off

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Linda Solbrig PhD University of Plymouth

Dr. Solbrig

Dr Linda Solbrig PhD
University of Plymouth

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Diets are restrictive; they work in the short-term, but re-gain is common. Individuals trying to manage their weight find that motivation fades over time and that this is the hardest part about maintain a healthy weight. When given choice to self-set goals we are much more likely to stick with them; they are more sustainable and we can succeed long-term. Using multi-sensory mental imagery supports motivation to change in the long run and also the opportunity to test out in our imagination if the actions we decided will lead to personal goal success actually fit with our lives, or whether we need to tweak, or even change them.

Functional Imagery Training (FIT) is based on two decades of research showing that mental imagery is more strongly emotionally charged than other types of thought and that it can directly interfere with unwanted food cravings. It uses multi-sensory mental imagery to strengthen people’s motivation and confidence to achieve their own goals, and teaches people how to do this for themselves, so they can stay motivated even when faced with challenges. It is not about creating a static picture, but encourages the use of all our senses, how a situation may feel, seeing with the mind’s eye and hearing with the mind’s ear and so on, creating a mini movie in our minds where we are the lead actors working on our personal goals, overcoming adversity and succeeding.  Continue reading

Study Finds No Need to Fear Carbohydrates

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Hana Kahleova, MD, PhD, MBA Director of Clinical Research Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine Washington, DC 20016

Dr. Kahleova

Hana Kahleova, MD, PhD, MBA
Director of Clinical Research
Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine
Washington, DC 20016 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: The effects of carbohydrates on body weight and insulin sensitivity are controversial.

In this 16-week randomized clinical trial, we tested the role of carbohydrate quantity and quality, as part of a plant-based diet, on body weight, body composition, and insulin resistance. We have demonstrated that carbohydrates and dietary fiber play important roles in the regulation of body weight, body composition, and insulin resistance in overweight individuals.

Increased consumption of total carbohydrate was associated with a decrease in BMI and volume of visceral fat, even after adjustment for energy intake. Increased consumption of total and particularly insoluble fiber was associated with a decrease in BMI, fat mass, and volume of visceral fat.

Continue reading

Could Household Cleaners Be Making Children Overweight?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Kozyrskyj

Anita Kozyrskyj PhD
Professor in Pediatrics
Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry
School of Public Health
University of Alberta

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Data for this study were collected in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) cohort of over 3,500 full-term infants born between 2009 and 2012. When infants were 3-4 months of age, parents provided a sample of their poop. At that time, parents checked-off responses to questions about their home, including type and frequency of cleaning product use. The infant poop was initially frozen, then thawed later to extract DNA from the sample and identify microbes on the basis of their DNA sequence.  Continue reading

USPSTF: Behavior-Based Weight Loss Interventions Associated with Weight Loss and Lower Risk of Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Chyke Doubeni, M.D., M.P.H.  Harrison McCrea Dickson, M.D. and Clifford C. Baker, M.D. Presidential Professor Associate Professor of Epidemiology  Senior scholar, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics  University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Dr. Doubeni

Chyke Doubeni, M.D., M.P.H.
Harrison McCrea Dickson, M.D. and Clifford C. Baker, M.D. Presidential Professor
Associate Professor of Epidemiology
Senior scholar, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Obesity is an important public health issue that affects nearly 4 in 10 American adults. It increases the risk for many chronic health conditions as well as premature death from diabetes, coronary heart disease, various types of cancer, and other conditions. As such, it was important for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force to review the current evidence and update the recommendation on this topic.

Based on a review of the most recent studies, we found that intensive, multicomponent behavioral interventions are safe and effective. They can help people lose weight, maintain their weight loss, and reduce the risk of obesity-related conditions such as diabetes in people with high blood sugar. Therefore, the Task Force is recommending that clinicians offer or refer adults with a body mass index, or BMI, of 30 kg/m2 or higher to these behavioral interventions.    Continue reading