Majority of Murdered Women Are Killed By Current or Former Partners

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

EmikoPetrosky MD M.P.H Science Officer, National Violent Death Reporting System at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emory University Rollins School of Public Health

Dr. Petrosky

EmikoPetrosky MD M.P.H
Science Officer, National Violent Death Reporting System at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Emory University Rollins School of Public Health

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Homicide is one of the leading causes of death for women aged 44 years and younger. In 2015, 3,519 girls and women died by homicide in the United States.  It is the 5th leading cause of death for women under 45 years age (defining women as 18-44 years of age).

The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) links together data from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, and law enforcement reports, resulting in more information about the circumstances of death than what is available elsewhere.

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Brain Imaging Confirms Boys and Girls Experience Depression Differently

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jie-Yu Chuang PhD Department of Psychiatry University of Cambridge Cambridge, United Kingdom

Dr. Jie-Yu Chuang

Jie-Yu Chuang PhD
Department of Psychiatry
University of Cambridge
Cambridge, United Kingdom 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Men and women appear to suffer from depression differently, and this is particularly striking in adolescents. By 15 years of age, girls are twice as likely to suffer from depression as boys. There are various possible reasons for this, including body image issues, hormonal fluctuations and genetic factors, where girls are more at risk of inheriting depression. However, differences between the sexes don’t just involve the risk of experiencing depression. Men are more liable to suffer from persistent depression, whereas in women depression tends to be more episodic. Compared with women, depressed men are also more likely to suffer serious consequences from their depression, such as substance abuse and suicide. Despite this, so far, most researchers have focused on depression in women, likely because it is more common. As a result, we’d like to make people more aware of the sex difference issue in depression.

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Sex Of Research Subjects Plays a Large Role in Outcomes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Sanger Insitute - Wellcome Trust. Photo by Phil MynottDr Natasha Karp PhD

Senior Staff Scientist – Biostatistician
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: There is evidence that the prevalence of disease, the symptoms experienced,  the progression,  and the side effects can be  dependent on sex.  However, women are underrepresented within biomedical research and this can be seen in the reporting, design of the experiments and subsequent statistical analysis.

Examples

  • A review of international animal research between 2011 and 2012 found that 22 per cent of studies did not state the sex of the animals, and of those that did, 80 per cent of studies used solely males and only 3 per cent included both males and females (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25175501)
  • In a study across 10 fields of biology,  80% of the rodents were male  (Beery and Zucker 2011 Neurosci Biobehav Rev).  This rate has not changed in 20 years  (Mazure and Jones 2015 BMC Women’s health)
  • Women encounter adverse drug reactions more often than men (odds ratio 1.596 confidence interval: 1.3-1.94)( Zopf et al 2008  Eur J Clinic Pharmacol)
  • Example – cardiovascular disease is the number one killer of US women,  and women differ to men in symptoms, outcomes and risk factors, yet only one third of cardiovascular trials subjects are female and only 31% of trials report results by sex (http://www.brighamandwomens.org/Departments_and_Services/womenshealth/ConnorsCenter/Policy/ConnorsReportFINAL.pdf)
  • Example – It took 21 years to lower the  dosing guidelines for women for the insomnia drug Zolpidem due to differences in the clearance rate of the drug exposing women to greater health risks (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4918870/)

As a result of these observations, multiple bodies have called for sex to be considered as a biological variable in preclinical research.  The largest funders of biomedical research (National Institute of Health) made inclusion of sex a requirement of funding with a few well defined exceptions.  There was some push back on this,  particularly that scientists should be trusted and would know when sex was a variable and it was a waste of resources. I felt there was a knowledge gap on the role of sex.  We have had published studies of individual examples where sex had a role but no large scale study.

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Dramatic Increase in ACL Injuries and Surgery in Adolescent Girls

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Mackenzie M. Herzog, MPH PhD Candidate, Injury Epidemiology The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

Mackenzie Herzog

Mackenzie M. Herzog, MPH
PhD Candidate, Injury Epidemiology
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: In 1999, a study by Arendt et al. reported that women were more likely to tear their ACL than men while playing the same sport. Since then, numerous studies have investigated this sex difference in ACL injury, and many prevention programs targeting youth athletes have been developed and tested. Although randomized trials have demonstrated the value of injury prevention programs in reducing the risk of ACL injury, the overall impact of these programs has not been examined in the general population. Our study investigated the net impact of research and prevention efforts over nearly 20 years in reducing ACL injuries by assessing time trends of ACL reconstruction, a consequence of ACL injury, among commercially-insured individuals in the United States.

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Lower Heart Rate in Adolescent Boys Partly Explains Gender Gap in Crime

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Olivia Choy Ph.D. candidate in Criminology Department of Criminology, University of Pennsylvania University of Pennsylvania

Olivia Choy

Olivia Choy
Ph.D. candidate in Criminology
Department of Criminology, University of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The higher rate of offending among males compared to females is a well-documented phenomenon. However, little is known about what accounts for this gender difference. As males have been found to have significantly lower heart rates than females and lower resting heart rates have been associated with higher levels of offending, we tested whether low heart rate may partly account for the gender gap in crime.

Resting heart rate at age 11 accounted for 5.4% to 17.1% of the gender difference in crime at age 23.

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Gender Minorities More Likely To Report Physical and Mental Health Challenges

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Carl G Streed Jr. M.D. Pronouns: he, him, his, himself Fellow, Division General Internal Medicine & Primary Care Brigham & Women’s Hospital

Dr. Streed

Carl G Streed Jr. M.D.
Pronouns: he, him, his, himself
Fellow, Division General Internal Medicine & Primary Care 
Brigham & Women’s Hospital

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has underscored the need to better understand the health of gender minorities, including transgender and gender non-conforming individuals. Prior investigations of gender minorities are limited by the lack of national gender identity data. In 2013, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed a gender identity question for the Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS); states had the option to administer this module beginning 2014. Our study aims to examine the health status of gender minorities in the US compared to cisgender peers.

Compared to cisgender adults, gender minority adults are younger, less likely to be non-Hispanic white, married or living with a partner, have a minor child in the household, or be English speaking; but are more likely to have lower income, be unemployed, be uninsured, have unmet medical care due to cost, be overweight, and report depression.

Gender minority adults, compared to cisgender adults, are more likely to report: poor or fair health; difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions; and being limited in any way. These outcomes remained significant after adjustment.

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Sexual Minority College Students Still Report Barriers to Campus Mental Health Services

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Michael S. Dunbar, PhD Associate Behavioral Scientist RAND Corporation

Dr. Dunbar

Michael S. Dunbar, PhD
Associate Behavioral Scientist
RAND Corporation

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Sexual minority college students suffer from mental health problems like anxiety and depression at higher rates than their heterosexual peers. If they aren’t addressed, these types of issues can have serious negative effects on things like academic achievement, employment, and quality of life –among others. This study analyzed information from a survey about mental health needs and use of mental health services. The survey was completed by over 33,000 students from nine University of California campuses, nine California State University campuses and 15 California community colleges. The results were weighted to help reflect California’s college student population.

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Brain Triggers For Eating Differ in Obese Men vs Women

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Arpana Gupta, Ph.D. Assistant Professor G. Oppenheimer Center for Neurobiology of Stress and Resilience Ingestive Behavior and Obesity Program Vatche and Tamar Manoukin Division of Digestive Diseases David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA

Dr. Gupta

Arpana Gupta, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
G. Oppenheimer Center for Neurobiology of Stress and Resilience
Ingestive Behavior and Obesity Program
Vatche and Tamar Manoukin Division of Digestive Diseases
David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Past studies have demonstrated how an imbalance in the processing of rewarding and salient stimuli results in maladaptive or excessive eating behaviors. However, stress and drug use are known to affect how sex and sex hormones modulate responses of the dopamine system involved in reward, and are thought to underlie sex differences in the pathophysiology of drug addiction and treatment response. These results suggest similar sex effects on the mesolimbic reward system may also be at play in obesity.

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Males and Females Undergo Separate But Interconnected Evolution

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Moran Gershoni (PhD) Senior intern, Molecular Genetics Weizmann Institute of Science Ben Gurion University Rehovot Area, Israel

Dr. Gershoni

Moran Gershoni PhD
Senior intern, Molecular Genetics
Weizmann Institute of Science
Ben Gurion University
Rehovot Area, Israel

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The background for this study is the question why “bad” is common? More specifically, we asked why the prevalence of some unfitted traits, like diseases and infertility, is sometimes much higher than intuitively expected? Several years ago we hypothesized that, at least in some of the cases, the relatively high prevalence of a morbid phenotype is directly arises from the fact that humans are composed of two ‘kinds’, men and women. This is since men and women share nearly the same genome but differently utilize some of it. Thus, the very same genetic code might affect men and women in a different and even in an antagonist manner. Therefore, disease-cause mutations in one sex can be neutral, or even beneficial, to the other sex. This allows such mutations to be sustained and propagated to relative high population frequencies.

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ADHD Less Common in Girls, But Has More Serious Consequences

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Professor Jill Pell MD Director of Institute (Institute of Health and Wellbeing) Associate (School of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing) University of Glasgow

Prof. Pell

Professor Jill Pell MD
Director of Institute (Institute of Health and Wellbeing)
Associate (School of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing)
University of Glasgow

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The novelty of our study lies in its scale and scope. In terms of scope, it reported on six educational outcomes and three health outcomes in the same group of children.

In terms of scale, it is the first study of a whole country to compare educational outcomes of children with treated ADHD with their unaffected peers and is more than 20 times larger than previous studies on similar educational outcomes. The only previous countrywide study on health outcomes, included only children with very severe ADHD who were in psychiatric hospitals.

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