LGBTQ+ Youth Not As Safe At School As We Like To Think

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Tasseli McKay, MPH Violence and Victimization Research Program Center for Justice, Safety and Resilience RTI International

Tasseli McKay

Tasseli McKay, MPH
Violence and Victimization Research Program Center for Justice, Safety and Resilience
RTI International

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?
Response: Prompted by a mass murder of LGBTQ+ individuals in Orlando in 2016 and a range of pending legislation affecting LGBTQ+ communities, RTI researchers analyzed 20 years’ worth of published studies on violence and LGBTQ+ communities.  The systematic review identified patterns of evidence across 102 peer-reviewed studies as well as a few unpublished analyses and non-peer-reviewed papers. With The Henne Group, RTI also carried out a series of focus-group discussions to elicit the perspectives of members of LGBTQ+ communities on the violence and victimization issues identified in the review.  These were conducted with LGBTQ+ communities in San Francisco; New York City; Durham, North Carolina; and rural Wyoming.

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Older Women Face Greater Risk of Diabetes From Statins

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr Mark Jones, Senior Lecturer
Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health
The University of Queensland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Multiple clinical trials have shown statins reduce LDL cholesterol, cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality. However statins are also associated with adverse events, including type 2 diabetes. There have been very few older women included in statin trials hence effects of the drug in this population are somewhat uncertain. Also, more generally, results from clinical trials may not translate well into clinical practice.

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Female Soccer Players Have High Risk of Concussion

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Wellington K. Hsu, MD Clifford C. Raisbeck, MD, Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery Associate Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery Northwestern University Chicago, IL

Dr. Hsu

Wellington K. Hsu, MD
Clifford C. Raisbeck, MD, Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery
Associate Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery
Northwestern University
Chicago, IL

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Concussions remains a significant problem in youth sports. The recent enactment of Traumatic brain injury laws have certainly heightened awareness regarding this problem. Our study looked at publicly available data regarding diagnosis of concussion in high school athletes. We found that females are more likely to be diagnosed with a concussion than males. We also concluded that girl soccer players and boys football players are at highest risk for a diagnosis of concussion. Since the neck meant of the Traumatic brain injury state laws, the diagnosis of concussion in this patient group increased significantly past decade.

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Military Physicians Say They Need More Education on Transgender Health Care

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
David A. Klein, MD, MPH

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS)
Bethesda, Maryland
Fort Belvoir Community Hospital (FBCH), Fort Belvoir, Virginia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In June 2016, the ban was lifted on transgender personnel serving openly in the military. Research suggests approximately 200 active-duty service members may request a gender transition annually.

The purpose of this study is to determine military family physician readiness to care for such patients. The majority (74 percent) of physicians have not received any formal education on the treatment of patients with gender dysphoria. Almost half of surveyed physicians are willing to prescribe cross-hormone therapy; of these, 99 percent report the need for additional training and/or assistance to do so. 53 report an unwillingness to prescribe even with additional education and assistance.

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Only a Quarter of Medical Grand Round Speakers Are Women

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Julie R. Boiko, MD, MS
Resident Physician, PGY1
Department of Pediatrics
University of California, San Francisco

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Grand rounds is an over 100-year-old tradition in US medical school clinical departments of recurring, expert-delivered lectures to update physicians and physicians-in-training on recent advances in relevant medicine. We wanted to determine whether gender representation of speakers at grand rounds aligns with the gender distribution of people typically represented in grand rounds audiences — faculty, residents, and medical students — by clinical specialty according to national academic medical trainee and workforce statistics.

We chose to focus on grand rounds speakers as visible representations of women in academic medicine. This is important because, despite women and men entering medicine at comparable rates, women are much more likely to depart academic medical careers. As current and recent medical students, we considered that consistent exposure to successful female role models in grand rounds speaking venues may positively reinforce women trainees’ desires to continue in academic medical careers.

We found that the people at the podiums do not resemble the people in the audience. Only 26% of grand rounds speakers are women. Even accounting that some clinical specialties contain few women faculty and residents, grand rounds speakers in most specialties we studied were statistically less likely to be women as compared to faculty and residents. Across the specialties, grand rounds speakers are 44% less likely than medical students, 39% less likely than residents, and 21% less likely than faculty to be women.

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Metabolic Syndrome Severity Confers Greater Cardiovascular Risk

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Mark D. DeBoer, MD Associate Professor of Pediatrics Division of Pediatric Endocrinology University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22908

Dr. DeBoer

Mark D. DeBoer, MD
Associate Professor of Pediatrics
Division of Pediatric Endocrinology
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22908

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Worldwide there remains a need for accurate prediction of cardiovascular disease. One such predictor is the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of individual risk factors including central obesity, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and high fasting glucose. Metabolic Syndrome is usually diagnosed using set criteria, where a person is diagnosed if he or she has abnormalities in at least 3 of the individual components. Using these criteria, someone with MetS (compared to without MetS) has a >50% greater chance of developing cardiovascular disease over the ensuing 10 years. The problem is that prior studies showed that having MetS did not increase risk above that seen for having the abnormalities in the individual risk factors themselves.

Our study used a continuous MetS severity score that we derived previously and assessed this score as a predictor of future cardiovascular disease in two large cohorts. We found that even when analyzed with abnormalities in the individual Metabolic Syndrome components, higher levels of the MetS severity score conferred higher risk for cardiovascular disease. This suggests the potential for following this score in individuals over time to identify those at higher risk for future cardiovascular disease.

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Pelvic Floor Symptoms May Lead To Exercise Avoidance in Menopausal Women

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Eija K. Laakkonen PhD Assistant professor Gerontology Research Center Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences University of Jyväskylä

Dr. Laakkonen

Dr. Eija K. Laakkonen PhD
Assistant professor
Gerontology Research Center
Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences
University of Jyväskylä

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Physical activity improves health and may delay the onset of chronic diseases. For women in particular, the rate of some chronic diseases accelerates at middle age around the time of menopause; therefore it is important to identify the determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during midlife in this population.

The main aim of this study was to characterize the level of physical activity and to examine the association between different female reproductive factors and objectively-measured physical activity in middle-aged women. The reproductive factors included cumulative reproductive history index, and perceived menopausal and pelvic floor dysfunction symptoms.

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More Children Means Increasingly Less Sleep For Mothers

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Kelly L. Sullivan, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Epidemiology Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health Georgia Southern University Statesboro, Georgia

Dr. Sullivan

Kelly L. Sullivan, PhD
Assistant Professor
Department of Epidemiology
Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health
Georgia Southern University
Statesboro, Georgia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The original aim of this study was to determine which factors were associated with getting sufficient sleep in men and women. In this analysis, we considered many possible influences including BMI, age, race, education, marital status, exercise, employment status, and income in addition to having children in the household. The aim was to determine which factors were most strongly associated with insufficient sleep in men and women specifically in order to inform efforts to best address their sleep challenges.

In this study, we found that younger women with insufficient sleep time were more likely to have children in the household compared with women who reported sufficient sleep. Each child in the household was associated with a nearly 50% increase in a woman’s odds of insufficient sleep.

This finding held after controlling for the potential effects of age, exercise, employment status and marital status. Children in the household were also associated with the frequency of feeling unrested among younger women, but not among younger men. Women with children reported feeling tired about 25% more frequently compared to women without children in the household.

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Gender Differences in Sweating Explained By Size

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Sean Notley, PhD. Postdoctoral Fellow School of Human Kinetics | École des sciences de l'activité physique University of Ottawa | Université d'Ottawa Ottawa ON

Dr. Notley

Sean Notley, PhD.
Postdoctoral Fellow
School of Human Kinetics | École des sciences de l’activité physique
University of Ottawa | Université d’Ottawa
Ottawa ON

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Gender-differences in human heat loss (skin blood flow and sweating) have long been ascribed to innate differences between men and women. However, we believed that these were more related more to size than to gender, because most previous research compared average (larger) men with average (smaller) women. In our view, the size and shape (morphology) of an individual might be as important, if not more important, than gender in determining heat loss.

When we matched men and women for body morphology, and when we studied those participants in tolerable conditions, we found that larger men and women were more dependent on sweating and less on skin blood flow, while smaller individuals were more reliant on skin blood flow and less on sweating. Moreover, as anticipated, gender differences in those heat-loss responses could be explained almost entirely by individual variations in morphology.

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State Same-Sex Marriage Policies Associated With Reduced Adolescent Suicide Attempts

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Julia R.G. Raifman, ScD

Post-doctoral fellow
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents between the ages of 15 and 24 years old in the United States. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents have elevated rates of suicide attempts. In our study, we found that 29% of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents reported attempting suicide in the past year relative to 6% of heterosexual adolescents.

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Female Career Vietnam War Veterans Report Leading Happy, Productive Lives

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jeanne Mager Stellman, PhD Professor Emerita & Special Lecturer Department of Health Policy & Management Mailman School of Public Health Columbia University York NY 10032

Dr. Jeanne Stellman

Jeanne Mager Stellman, PhD
Professor Emerita & Special Lecturer
Department of Health Policy & Management Mailman
School of Public Health Columbia University
York NY 10032

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: We examined the experiences of 1285 American women, military and civilian, who served in Vietnam during the war and responded to a mail survey conducted approximately 25 years later in which they were asked to report and reflect upon their experiences and social and health histories.

The data were collected as part of a much larger study that centered about methodological approaches to studying health effects of the military herbicides used in Vietnam. To our knowledge, this is the first study

(a) to describe the experiences of civilian women deployed to a war zone and to compare them to those of military women;

(b) to differentiate the experiences and outcomes among military women by the length of their military career service;

(c) to contextualize the general health and happiness, marital characteristics, and childbearing patterns of women deployed to Vietnam and those of their peers by comparing them to a contemporaneous nationally representative age-matched cohort, the General Social Survey (GSS).

Overall, this paper provides insight into the experiences of the understudied women who served in Vietnam, and sheds light on subgroup differences within the sample.

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Weak Thigh Muscles Contribute to Knee Arthritis in Women

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Adam Culvenor, PT, PhD

Dr. Adam Culvenor

Adam Culvenor, PT, PhD
Research Fellow,Institute of Anatomy
Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniversität
Strubergasse Salzburg, Austria

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Thigh muscle weakness, particularly of the knee extensors (quadriceps), is a common feature of people with knee osteoarthritis. Thigh muscle weakness could be a consequence of knee osteoarthritis, or precede knee osteoarthritis development. There is conflicting evidence regarding the role of thigh muscle weakness as a risk factor for incident knee osteoarthritis in both men and women. Thigh muscle specific strength is a measure of muscle quality incorporating both the capacity of the muscle to produce force as well as muscle structure (ie. size, cross-sectional area), and preliminary data suggests this may be a more relevant measure of strength in relation to knee osteoarthritis development.

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