Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 26.11.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Monika K. Goyal, MD Associate Division Chief, Emergency Medicine Children’s National Hospital Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine and Health Sciences The George Washington University Washington, District of Columbia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: There has been growing attention to the disproportionate use of police force in communities of color. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether Black and Hispanic teenagers have higher rates of death due to police shootings when compared to white youth. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Stanford / 19.11.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Fatima Rodriguez, MD, MPH, FACC, FAHA Assistant Professor, Cardiovascular Medicine Stanford University School of Medicine Palo Alto, CA 94304 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The COVID-19 pandemic has magnified existing racial/ethnic disparities in the United States. The goal of this study was to leverage new data collected from the American Heart Association’s COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry to understand racial/ethnic differences in presentation and outcomes for hospitalized patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cannabis, Ophthalmology, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Social Issues / 09.11.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joshua Uhr MD Ophthalmologist Philadelphia, PA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Disparities in American society have been at the forefront of the public consciousness in recent months. As part of the larger discussion about inequality, disparities in health outcomes have received much attention. In light of the renewed recognition that these disparities are stark and widespread, we felt it important to evaluate disparities in our own field, ophthalmology. Previous studies have shown disparate outcomes for individual eye conditions, such as glaucoma, cataract, and retinal detachment. Although the common and relevant endpoint of these is visual impairment, few prior studies have examined disparities in visual impairment more broadly. Our aim was to provide an updated analysis of disparity in visual impairment among adults in the United States based on race and socioeconomic status.  (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Rheumatology, UCSF / 07.11.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Milena Gianfrancesco, PhD, MPH Assistant Professor. Education Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine University of California, San Francisco MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: This study utilized data from the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance Provider Survey, which launched on March 25th. To date, it has collected information on over 6,000 patients with rheumatic disease diagnosed with COVID-19 from over 40 countries worldwide. As COVID-19 spread across the world in the spring, and especially within the United States, it became clear that the disease was impacting certain groups more than others. Growing attention and research began to illustrate the disproportionate burden of COVID-19 among racial/ethnic minorities in the United States. We know that racial and ethnic minorities experience a higher burden of rheumatic disease risk and severity; therefore, our group was interested in examining whether the disproportionate burden of COVID-19 also affected this susceptible population. (more…)
Author Interviews, Electronic Records, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Social Issues / 22.09.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Hailey Miller, PhD, RN Postdoctoral Associate Duke University School of Nursing Stephen P. Juraschek, MD PhD Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: Digital tools, such as the electronic medical record (EMR), are increasingly utilized to identify and recruit participants for clinical trials. These strategies offer a strong opportunity to increase recruitment yields, however, our previous work has demonstrated that patient portal users are disproportionately White, and therefore utilizing these strategies may contribute to the under-representation of Black Americans in clinical research. This study examined multiple recruitment strategies, including EMR-based strategies and other non-EMR strategies, such as community mailing, Facebook advertisement and newspaper advertisement, to understand if recruitment strategies influenced the demographic composition of trial participants. Given our previous finding that patient portal users are disproportionately White, one of our EMR-based strategies included postal mailing to individuals without a patient portal. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, ESMO, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Social Issues / 21.09.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ziad Bakouny, MD, MSc Post-doctoral research fellow Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology Dana-Farber Cancer Institute MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected patients with cancer, with these patients unfortunately having worse outcomes than the general population. In fact, a recent report by the COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium (CCC19) showed that the mortality rate in patients with cancer who develop COVID-19, at 30 days median follow-up, was 16%. Although the adverse outcomes of patients with cancer who develop COVID-19 has received much attention, few studies have thus far investigated the effects of the potential disruption to cancer care delivery caused by the pandemic. Our aim in the COVID and Cancer Outcomes Study (CCOS) was therefore to evaluate this disruption to cancer care caused by the pandemic. This is a multicenter prospective cohort study that included patients seen in the outpatient setting at the Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston during one week in March (between March 2 and March 6 2020). Data was collected 3 months before this index week and 3 months prospectively (during the first peak of the pandemic in the Northeastern United States). (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, NYU, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 16.09.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Aisha T. Langford, PhD, MPH Assistant Professor Department of Population Health Co-Director, CTSI Recruitment and Retention Core NYU Grossman School of Medicine NYU Langone Health New York, NY 10016 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: In 2018, the American Heart Association (AHA) published an updated Scientific Statement on Resistant Hypertension. The term apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) is used when pseudoresistance (e.g., white coat effect, medication nonadherence) cannot be excluded. The current study was designed to investigate if Black adults with aTRH, a group disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease, receive evidence-based approaches to lower blood pressure as recommended in the 2018 AHA Scientific Statement. Specifically, we studied healthy lifestyle factors including not smoking, not consuming alcohol, ≥75 minutes of vigorous-intensity or ≥150 minutes of moderate or vigorous physical activity per week, and body mass index <25 kg/m2; and recommended antihypertensive medication classes among US Black adults. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 21.08.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ashwini Sehgal, MD Professor, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine Professor, Department of Bioethics, School of Medicine Professor, Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, School of Medicine Director and Duncan Neuhauser Professor of Community Health Improvement, Center for Reducing Health Disparities, Case Western School of Medicine  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: News media and politicians frequently discuss the high toll of deaths from firearms and drug overdoses. They usually mention the numbers of deaths, citing figures like 40,000 firearm deaths last year, or death rates such as 20 overdose deaths per 100,000 population. But for most people, it's hard to grasp the real meaning of both the large absolute numbers and the small annual rates.  So in a new study published in the American Journal of Medicine, I used official death certificate data to calculate the chance that an American child will die from a gunshot or a drug overdose over the course of a lifetime. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 19.08.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anura Ratnasiri PhD Senior Research Scientist (Epidemiology and Biostatistics) Benefits Division Department of Health Care Services Sacramento, CA 95899-7417 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Infant mortality rate (IMR) is a widely-reported indicator of population health and is used as a standardized measurement of deaths in the first year of life per thousand live births. While IMR has been steadily declining in the United States, it remains relatively high compared with other developed countries. Even though significant improvements have been made in the quality and access to neonatal and infant care during the past decade, large educational, socioeconomic, racial, ethnic, geographic and behavioral disparities persist, and appear to be responsible for significant differences in IMR among different subgroups. Certain maternal and infant characteristics have important associations with IMR, and this study attempted to quantify major maternal and infant predictors, and trace associated mortality trends during the study period. There were no recent studies on infant mortality using a large data set such as California State. Moreover, gestational age based on obstetric estimates from fetal ultrasound, prepregnancy obesity, and smoking during pregnancy were not available in prior population-based studies in California. (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 17.08.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pinar Karaca-Mandic, PhD Professor, Finance Department Arthur Williams Jr. Professor of Healthcare Risk Management Academic Director, Medical Industry Leadership Institute (MILI) Carlson School of Management University of Minnesota MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Several studies have highlighted disparities in COVID-19 infection rates and deaths. Less is known about disparities in hospitalizations. Reports from the Centers for Disease Control showed that in the nation overall, non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics and American Indian Alaska Native persons have substantially higher rates of COVID-19 hospitalization. Our study extends this work by providing a state-by-state analysis of race/ethnic prevalence of cumulative COVID-19 hospitalizations and comparing this prevalence to ethnic/racial composition of each state’s population. Through our University of Minnesota Covid-19 hospitalization tracking project (https://carlsonschool.umn.edu/mili-misrc-covid19-tracking-project) we collect data every day from state department of health websites, and we started collecting information on race/ethnicity breakdown of the hospitalizations as soon as states started reporting such data. During our study period, between April 30 and June 24, 12 states reported cumulative hospitalizations by race/ethnicity. By the end of our study, our data from these 12 states represented almost 50,000 hospitalizations.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Exercise - Fitness, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Social Issues / 03.08.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marc Weisskopf, PhD, ScD Cecil K. and Philip Drinker Professor of Environmental Epidemiology and Physiology Departments of Environmental Health and Epidemiology Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Boston, MA 02115  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: There is a long history of health disparities by race. We were interested to see whether these also show up in professional football players, with the thought that perhaps the advantages that come with being an elite athlete in a sport (e.g. related to income, potential access to carte, prestige) might minimize health disparities. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Social Issues / 03.08.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nasim B. Ferdows, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Department of Health Administration and Policy Hudson College of Public Health The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center Oklahoma City, OK MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: This half a century study of US senior men and women who died between 1968 and 2016 shows how disparities in the Black and White mortality of older US citizens have changed over time, as well as how the racial disparities differ in rural, suburban and urban areas. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Diabetes, Gender Differences, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 29.06.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Giuseppina Imperatore, MD, PHD CDC, Atlanta MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The lifetime risk of diabetes (LRD), a probability of developing diabetes during a person’s lifespan, is a measure of future disease burden that reflects the impact of incidence (occurrence of new cases per year) and mortality. The years of potential life lost to diabetes (YPLLD) is the number of life-years lost due to diabetes, calculated as the difference between the life expectancy of a person without diabetes and a person with diabetes at the age of diagnosis. For example, the number of life-years lost for a person diagnosed at age 20 years is the difference in life expectancy of a person who died without developing diabetes and a person who was diagnosed with diabetes at 20 years of age.  Both incidence and mortality of diabetes have been decreasing for more than a decade. The effects of those changes on lifetime risk of diabetes and years of potential life lost to diabetes are not known. In this study, we used nationally representative diabetes surveillance data to provide updated estimates for the lifetime probability of development of diabetes, and to assess changes in incidence and mortality on lifetime risk and life-years lost due to diabetes in the USA. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Metabolic Syndrome, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Weight Research / 26.06.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Robert Wong, MD, MS Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Healthcare System Stanford University School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Prior to this study, we already knew that obesity and metabolic syndrome were major public health issues in the U.S.  A previous analyses by our team which analyzed data through 2012 observed than one in three adults in the U.S. have metabolic syndrome.  The aim of our current study was to evaluate more recent trends in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and to identify whether certain groups are at higher risk of having metabolic syndrome.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 24.06.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Megan B. Cole Brahim, PhD, MPH Assistant Professor | Dept. of Health Law, Policy, & Management Boston University School of Public Health Boston, MA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Enrollment in high deductible health plans (HDHPs)—which require patients to pay on the upwards of thousands of dollars in out-of-pocket costs before they can use their health insurance coverage for most services—has skyrocketed over the last decade. For cancer survivors in particular, this is really concerning, as patients may avoid or delay necessary health care services or important medications because they can’t afford their deductible. We know from previous work that HDHPs are associated with less use of health care, including less cancer screening and treatment. However, there has been very little work to assess how HDHPs may contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in care, and our study is the first known study to assess how HDHPs may contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in cancer survivors. To fill this gap, we used nationally representative survey data from 2013-2018 to assess how enrollment in high deductible health plans was associated with cost-related barriers to care among cancer survivors with private insurance, and how this relationship varied across racial/ethnic groups. (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 21.05.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Charles H. Hennekens, MD, DrPH Sir Richard Doll Professor Senior Academic Advisor FAU, Boca Raton, FL  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Blacks and other disadvantaged minorities in the United States have markedly reduced life expectancies compared with their white counterparts.  As is the case with most fatal diseases, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is already taking a disproportionate toll on blacks and other disadvantaged minorities. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Orthopedics, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Surgical Research / 19.05.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alyson Cavanaugh, PT, PhD Joint Doctoral Program in Epidemiology University of California, San Diego/ San Diego State University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: More than 700,000 total knee replacements are performed annually in the United States, but there is a racial disparity in outcomes after the surgery. If the knee replacement procedure is considered a highly effective treatment, why don't black women present with the same outcomes as whites? Physical function when going into surgery has a large impact on the potential functional outcomes after surgery. Our hypothesis was that black women were presenting to surgery with poorer physical function, which was contributing to poorer functional outcomes after surgery. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Cost of Health Care, Heart Disease, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Statins / 14.05.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Ankur Pandya, PhD Assistant Professor of Health Decision Science Department of Health Policy and Management Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The 2013 ACC-AHA cholesterol treatment guidelines greatly expanded statin medication eligibility for individuals between the ages of 40-75 years without known cardiovascular disease, and there was some concern that African Americans at "intermediate risk" per those guidelines could be (arguably) overtreated with statins. The 2018 ACC-AHA guidelines included coronary artery calcium assessment for individuals at intermediate cardiovascular disease risk; those with a "zero" calcium score and no other risk factors would now change the eligibility (from indicated statin to not indicated). (more…)
Author Interviews, Beth Israel Deaconess, COVID -19 Coronavirus, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 01.05.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rishi WadheraMDMPPMPhil Instructor in Medicine at Harvard Medical School Cardiologist,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: With more than a million confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the United States, there is growing concern that low-income communities and racial/ethnic minorities may be disproportionately shouldering the burden of the pandemic. New York City, which is comprised of 5 boroughs (Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island) with unique demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, has emerged as the epicenter of the COVID-19 outbreak. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Kidney Disease, OBGYNE, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 30.03.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Silvi Shah, MD, MS, FACP, FNKF, FASN Assistant Professor Division of Nephrology University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, OH-45267 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The study identified 42,190,790 pregnancy related hospitalizations between Jan. 1, 2006 and Dec. 31, 2015, using data from the from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. (more…)
Author Interviews, Education, Gender Differences, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Yale / 24.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Katherine A. Hill, BA, BS Yale School of Medicine New Haven, Connecticut MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Previous studies have shown that mistreatment is a common and damaging experience for medical students. However, there is little research on whether the prevalence of medical student mistreatment varies by demographic factors such as student sex, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation.  (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Menopause, Race/Ethnic Diversity, University of Pittsburgh / 05.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Samar R. El Khoudary, M.D., M.P.H. Associate Professor of Epidemiology and Saad Samargandy, M.P.H. Ph.D. Student University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Research findings suggest that women experience adverse changes in multiple clinical measures of their cardiovascular health during the menopause transition period. We were interested in evaluating the timing of critical changes in arterial stiffness and investigating potential racial differences in how arterial stiffness progresses during the menopause transition. Arterial stiffness refers to the elasticity of arteries and it measures the rate at which blood flows through arteries. Stiffer arteries can lead to dysfunction in how well the heart pumps and moves blood, and damage to the heart, kidneys and other organs. We used a subset of data from SWAN Heart, an ancillary study that enrolled women from Pittsburgh and Chicago between 2001 and 2003 and included two examinations of early markers of cardiovascular health over time. Ultimately, 339 women were included in this study, 36% black and the rest white. (more…)
Author Interviews, Beth Israel Deaconess, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 17.01.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: John Danziger, MD Harvard Medical Faculty Physicians, Nephrology Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Racial health disparities have long been described, extending even into the highest levels of medical care, namely the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Accordingly, we wanted to know whether improvements in ICU care seen over the last decade are equally observed in minority and non-minority serving hospitals. (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 16.01.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Elizabeth A. Howell, MD, MPP Director of The Blavatnik Family Women’s Health Research Institute Mount Sinai Health System Vice Chair for Research Professor in the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Science Associate Dean for Academic Development Professor Department of Population Health Science and Policy Icahn Mount Sinai, New York MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Previous research has demonstrated racial and ethnic disparities in severe maternal morbidity rates in hospitals and that between-hospital differences -- i.e., Black and Latina mothers receiving care at hospitals with worse outcomes -- explain a sizable portion of these disparities.  However, less attention has been paid to within-hospital disparities -- whether Black and Latina mothers have worse outcomes than White mothers who deliver in the SAME hospital. In this paper, we set out to measure within-hospital racial and ethnic disparities and to evaluate the potential contribution of insurance type to these disparities.  Our study question was based on the observation that women with Medicaid can follow different care pathways than women with private insurance. Pregnant women insured by Medicaid are often seen by resident physicians with attending coverage that may differ from attending physicians caring for commercially insured women. In addition, Medicaid reimbursement for delivery hospitalization is far less than that for commercially insured.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 09.01.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Naomi Y Ko, MD Director, Inpatient Medical Operations Assistant Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine Boston University School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The background for this study is to help understand the association between risk of more advanced cancer in racial minorities and insurance.   (more…)
Author Interviews, Dermatology, Education, Gender Differences, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 08.01.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Imam Xierali, PhD Associate Professor / UT Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, Texas MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Despite the continued efforts in academic medicine to increase the representation of women and minorities underrepresented in medicine (URM), there is a lack of information on trends in dermatology department faculty diversity and how they compare with those in other clinical departments. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 07.01.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Robert H. Schneider, MD, FACC Director, Institute for Natural Medicine and Prevention Dean, College of Integrative Medicine Maharishi University of Management Fairfield, Iowa 52556 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Abnormal enlargement of heart, known as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). It doubles the risk for heart attacks, heart failure, arrhythmias, stroke, and mortality. African Americans have twice the rate of LVH compared to whites. This may partly explain the disproportionally high CVD death rates in blacks. Psychosocial stress contributes the development of LVH and CVD. African Americans are exposed to excess psychosocial stress imposed by socioeconomic disparities and racism. However, there is little known about the potential role of stress reduction in the prevention of LVH in the general population or African Americans in particular. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess if stress reduction with Transcendental Meditation could prevent left ventricular hypertrophy in African Americans and thereby help to prevent subsequent heart disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, Education, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Social Issues / 02.12.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lynn Blewett, PhD Mayo Professor, Division of Health Policy and Management Director, State Health Access Data Assistance Center (SHADAC) University of Minnesota MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We used a new set of questions about patient's perspectives of cultural competence of their providers that was added to the National Health Interview Survey and accessed through the Minnesota Population Center IPUMS Health Surveys.   MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report? Response: Most patients (97%) report being treated with respect by their providers. BUT we also found important disparities.  Black or Hispanic (vs White), uninsured (vs insured), and low income (vs >200% FPL) individuals reported being treated with respect less often, viewed a shared culture as more important, and saw providers who shared culture less often. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 30.10.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michelle Morse, MD, MPH Founding Co-Director, EqualHealth Soros Equality Fellow Assistant Professor, Harvard Medical School Co-Founder, Social Medicine Consortium  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?
  • Response: Frontline clinicians have a unique vantage point to identify and characterize inequities in care. This study was inspired by internal medicine residents’ first-hand clinical experiences of black and Latinx patients who were frequently admitted to the general medicine service, as opposed to the cardiology service, with an ultimate diagnosis of HF.
  • Research has shown that structural inequities are pervasive throughout healthcare delivery systems and across many services, within both the inpatient and outpatient arenas. We hope other institutions and clinicians will be equally committed to addressing inequities in their own contexts, systems, and care settings and that patients will identify opportunities for self-advocacy in their care.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Emergency Care, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 09.09.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Amresh D Hanchate, PhD Research Assistant Professor Department of Medicine, School of Medicine Boston University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: National guidelines require EMS transportation to the nearest suitable hospital. To what extent this occurs and whether this varies by the race and ethnicity of the patient is unknown since there is little to no prior research on destination patterns of EMS-transported patients to hospitals. (more…)