Author Interviews, Prostate Cancer, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 04.08.2014

Isaac J. Powell MD Wayne State University/Karmanos Cancer Inst University Health Center Detroit, MI 48201. MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Isaac J. Powell MD Wayne State University/Karmanos Cancer Inst University Health Center Detroit, MI 48201. Medical Research: What is the background for your study? Dr. Powell: During the PSA testing era for prostate cancer, which is responsible for early treatment, survival disparity between African Americans and European Americans has been eliminated. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Stroke / 25.06.2014

Wuwei (Wayne) Feng MD MS FANA Assistant Professor, Department of Neuroscience Department of Health Science & Research Medical University of South Carolina Stroke Center The Center of Rehabilitation Research in Neurological Conditions MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Wuwei (Wayne) Feng MD MS FANA Assistant Professor, Department of Neuroscience Department of Health Science & Research Medical University of South Carolina Stroke Center The Center of Rehabilitation Research in Neurological Conditions MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Feng: Stroke hospitalization rate is decreasing in the elderly, but increasing in the young/middle aged population, but this increase is mainly driven by the increase in blacks (not in whites) which incurred persistent racial disparity in stroke. It has tremendous economic impact as outlined in the paper. Of hospital charges totaling $2.8 billion over 10-year period, $453.2 million (16.4%) are associated with racial disparity (79.6% from patients <65 years). By way of background: 84,179 stroke hospitalizations occurred in South Carolina from 2001 to 2010. Blacks accounted for 29,846 (35.5%) and whites accounted for 54,333 (64.5%) of the strokes. Among blacks, 50.4% were <65 years of age compared to 29.6% among whites. The overall stroke hospitalization rate decreased over the 10-year period. There was a significant reduction in stroke hospitalization rate in the older (≥65 years old) populations, for both blacks and whites. Whereas, in the younger populations (<65 years old), the overall rate of stroke hospitalizations actually increased significantly; however this increase was only associated with black patients. For example, the hospitalization rate per 100,000 for young blacks was 121 in 2001, 139 in 2005 and 142 in 2010 (a 17.3% increase from 2001). This racial disparity was more severe in the younger group with the highest disparity seen in the 45-54 year age groups for both ischemic strokes (having a clot) and intra-cerebral hemorrhagic strokes. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 23.06.2014

Krim K. Lacey, PhD Research Fellow, Research Center for Group Dynamics Program for Research on Black Americans (PRBA) Institute for Social Research University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Krim K. Lacey, PhD Research Fellow, Research Center for Group Dynamics Program for Research on Black Americans (PRBA) Institute for Social Research University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lacey: The main findings from this nationally representative study were that U.S. Black women abused by a domestic partner, on a whole were vulnerable to various negative physical and mental health problems. While the findings of the study support the few previous studies conducted on women within this population, this study was the first population-based, predominantly black sample that used structured clinical assessments. Importantly, the study substantiates other arguments that the Black population is not culturally monolithic, that African American and Caribbean Black women are affected differently by severe intimate partner violence. Another key finding was the association identified between eating disorders and intimate partner violence, which in general, has been largely underexplored. Finally, the study provided national information on the health outcomes of Caribbean Black women; one of the fastest growing subgroups within the Black population. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, JAMA, MD Anderson, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 20.06.2014

Dalliah Black, MD F.A.C.S. Department of Surgical Oncology The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dalliah Black, MD F.A.C.S. Department of Surgical Oncology The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Black: This is a retrospective study from 2002 - 2007 using the SEER/Medicare database of over 31,000 women with node negative breast cancer evaluating the utilization of sentinel node biopsy (SNB) as it transitioned from an optional method for axillary staging to the standard of care instead of complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). We found that SNB use increased each year in both white and black breast cancer patients throughout the study period. However, SNB was less often performed in black patients (62.4%)compared to white patients (73.7%) and this disparity persisted through 2007 with a 12% difference. Appropriate black patients more often had an ALND instead of the minimally invasive sentinel node biopsy which resulted in worse patient outcomes with higher lymphedema rates in black patients. However, when black patients received the minimally invasive SNB, their rates of lymphedema were low and comparable to white patients who received SNB. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 14.05.2014

dr_Helmneh Sineshaw MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Helmneh Sineshaw, MD, MPH Senior Epidemiologist, Health Services Researcher American Cancer Society MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sineshaw: We found that non-Hispanic black women had nearly twofold higher odds of being diagnosed with triple-negative (TN) breast cancer subtype than did their white counterparts, regardless of their socioeconomic group. We also found higher odds of presenting with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer in Asian/Pacific Islander women compared with white women at every level of socioeconomic status. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, MD Anderson, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 18.04.2014

Dr. Lorraine R. Reitzel Ph.D Associate Professor in the Health Program of the Department of Educational Psychology College of Education, University of Houston in Houston, Texas. MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Lorraine R. Reitzel Ph.D Associate Professor in the Health Program of the Department of Educational Psychology College of Education, University of Houston in Houston, Texas. MedicalResearch.com: Please tell us about your study. Dr. Reitzel: The current study represented a secondary analysis of data that were collected by Dr. Lorna McNeill and colleagues at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The parent study was focused on better understanding factors associated with cancer risk among African American adults, and several faculty members including myself contributed ideas about the variables we thought might play a role. The current study represents one of several studies emerging from these data. The current study was led by Ms. Pragati S. Advani, a graduate student on my research team, who was interested in better understanding the associations between financial strain and modifiable behavioral risk factors for cancer among African American adults. Financial strain represents an unfavorable income to needs ratio and was assessed using a questionnaire that tapped into current difficulty affording things that represent pretty basic components of life, including suitable food, clothing, and housing for the respondent and their family. The modifiable behavioral risk factors for cancer examined included smoking cigarettes, at-risk alcohol use, being overweight/obese, getting insufficient physical activity, and having inadequate fruit and vegetable intake. We also included a tally of the total number of these factors (0 to 5) as an outcome variable of interest. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Thyroid Disease / 18.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Donald S. A. McLeod, FRACP, MPH Department of Population Health, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Queensland, Australia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. McLeod: We examined the incidence of Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis by race/ethnicity among U.S. active duty service personnel aged 20-54 years over a 15-year period (more than 20,000,000 person years follow-up). Cases were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. In women, we found that Graves’ disease was almost twice as common among non-Hispanic black and Asian-Pacific Islander personnel compared with non-Hispanic white personnel. While in men, non-Hispanic black and Asian-Pacific Islander personnel had over two-and-a-half times higher incidence compared with non-Hispanic white personnel. The opposite pattern existed for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, with non-Hispanic white personnel having the highest incidence, and non-Hispanic black and Asian-Pacific Islander personnel the lowest incidence. Hispanic personnel did not have significantly different incidence compared to white personnel for either disorder. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gender Differences, Orthopedics, Race/Ethnic Diversity, UCLA / 08.04.2014

Dr. Carolyn Crandall, M.D. Division of General Internal Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90024, USA MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Carolyn Crandall, M.D. Division of General Internal Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90024, USA MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Crandall: We found that higher social class was linked with a lower risk of fractures among non-Caucasian women. Compared with non-Caucasian women who had no more than a high school education, those with at least some postgraduate education had nearly 90% lower rates of non-traumatic fracture. These results were present even after we accounted for income. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Stroke, University of Michigan / 14.03.2014

Lynda D. Lisabeth, PhD Interim Chair and Associate Professor Department of Epidemiology University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lynda D. Lisabeth, PhD Interim Chair and Associate Professor Department of Epidemiology University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lisabeth: The main findings were that Mexican Americans scored worse than non-Hispanic whites on all outcomes measured at 90 days following stroke, including neurologic, functional and cognitive outcomes, after adjustment for confounding factors. Further, we found that one-third of Mexican American stroke survivors have post-stroke dementia. Mexican Americans experienced more aphasia than non-Hispanic whites. Levels of functional impairment were substantial, with Mexican Americans on average experiencing moderate functional disability. Mexican Americans reported significantly greater difficulty than non-Hispanic whites with all activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) that were studied. (more…)
Author Interviews, Prostate Cancer, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 14.01.2014

David M. Albala, MD Associated Medical Professionals of NY, PLLC Syracuse, NY 13210 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David M. Albala, MD Associated Medical Professionals of NY, PLLC Syracuse, NY 13210 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Albala: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death and American man. Prostate cancer diagnosis and mortality differences between African American and Caucasian populations have been highlighted in the literature. Research has shown that African American males are at a biological predisposition for prostate cancer and that additional socioeconomic and physician-patient educational factors may contribute to a higher mortality rate among this group - over two times greater than that of Caucasian American males. At present the most commonly used to detection tools for prostate cancer are the serum prostatic specific antigen test (PSA) and a digital rectal examination (DRE). These complementary tests provide physicians with an indication of whether to proceed with biopsy for a definitive pathological diagnosis. Despite ongoing disputes regarding the effectiveness of PSA screening as an indicator for prostate cancer, a superior alternative test as yet to become available for men at risk. The American Urological Association (AUA) emphasizes the value of early detection and that sheared decision-making should not be overlooked and that shared decision making should be integral to screening decisions. The AUA urges individuals to personally assess, with their physicians, whether a PSA screen is necessary. Emphasis should be placed on the proper education of African American men who are at increased risk for the disease, as well as on their participation in repeated screening practices for the earliest possible detection of prostate cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 29.12.2013

Aisha T. Langford, PhD, MPH Postdoctoral Fellow VA Health Services Research and Development Service (HSR&D & U-M Center for Bioethics and Social Sciences in Medicine (CBSSM) 2800 Plymouth Road, NCRC Building 16, Room 400S-15 Ann Arbor, MI 48109 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Aisha T. Langford, PhD, MPH Postdoctoral Fellow VA Health Services Research and Development Service & U-M Center for Bioethics and Social Sciences in Medicine Ann Arbor, MI 48109 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Langford: The main and perhaps most interesting finding was that there were no racial/ethnic differences in cancer clinical trial enrollment, refusal rates, or "no desire to participate in research" as the reason given for clinical trial refusal; however, patients over the age of 65 had lower odds of being enrolled in a clinical trial. Additionally, higher odds of having physical/medical conditions were associated with older age, males, and non-Hispanic blacks. (more…)
Author Interviews, Prostate Cancer, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 11.12.2013

Dr David P. Turner PhD Assistant Professor Director of shRNA Technology Medical University of South Carolina Dept of Pathology & Lab Medicine Charleston SC 29425 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr David P. Turner PhD Assistant Professor, Director of shRNA Technology Medical University of South Carolina Dept of Pathology & Lab Medicine Charleston SC 29425 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Turner: Our research has identified a potential mechanistic link between sugar derived metabolites and cancer associated pathways which may be a biological consequence of the socioeconomic and biological factors that are known to drive cancer health disparity. African Americans develop and die more frequently of cancer than any other population in the US. We examined the levels of reactive metabolites known as advanced glycation end-products, or AGEs for short, in serum and tumor samples from African American and Non-Hispanic White prostate cancer patients. In both the serum and tumor tissue, the levels of AGE metabolites were consistently higher in the African American prostate cancer patients than their White counterparts. AGE functions as a ligand for the receptor for AGEs, or RAGE for short. We also identified that RAGE protein levels were higher in African Americans with prostate cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Pediatrics, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Transplantation / 10.12.2013

Rachel Patzer, PhD, MPH Assistant Professor Emory University School of Medicine Department of Surgery, Division of Transplantation MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rachel Patzer, PhD, MPH Assistant Professor Emory University School of Medicine Department of Surgery, Division of Transplantation MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Patzer: We found significant racial/ethnic differences in important health outcomes among pediatric and adolescent patients who received a liver transplantation at a large transplant center in the Southeastern U.S., where rates of mortality and graft failure were higher among minorities compared to white patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Colon Cancer, Nature, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Stanford / 18.11.2013

 James Murphy, M.D. Assistant Professor Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center 3855 Health Sciences Drive La Jolla, CA 92093 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: James Murphy, M.D. Assistant Professor, Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies ,UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center La Jolla, CA 92093 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Murphy: This study evaluated racial disparity in metastatic colorectal cancer. In a large population-based cohort we found of over 11,000 patients we found that black patients were less likely to be seen in consultation by a cancer specialist, and were less likely to receive treatment with chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation. Furthermore, we found that this disparity in treatment accounted for a substantial portion of the race-based differences between black and white patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, Medicare, Race/Ethnic Diversity, University of Michigan, Weight Research / 25.09.2013

Dr. Lauren Hersch Nicholas Ph.D Research Affiliate, Population Studies Center. Faculty Research Fellow, Survey Research Center University of Michigan MedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation Dr. Lauren Hersch Nicholas Ph.D Research Affiliate, Population Studies Center. Faculty Research Fellow, Survey Research Center University of Michigan MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Nicholas: We found that a Medicare policy designed to improve the safety of bariatric surgery was associated with 17% decline in the share of Medicare patients from minority groups receiving bariatric surgery. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 07.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lindsey Enewold PhD, MPH Division of Military Epidemiology and Population Sciences John P. Murtha Cancer Center Walter Reed National Military Medical Center Rockville, Maryland MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: With increasing time since breast cancer diagnosis women were less likely to receive surveillance mammography. Minority women were equally or more likely than non-Hispanic white women to receive surveillance mammography within an equal access healthcare system. (more…)
Author Interviews, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Vitamin D / 06.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christopher J Gallagher MD Bone Metabolism Unit, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Gallagher: Vitamin D 400 IU daily will meet the RDA ( Recommended Dietary Allowance for 97.5% of population) for young white women age 25-45 years. Black women may need more- 800-1600 IU, however,the number of black women in study was small and this dose needs confirmation. This data is based on exceeding a serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D level of 20ng/ml ( 50nmol/l) (more…)
Author Interviews, HPV, Infections, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 02.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com interview with: Matthew B. Schabath, Ph.D Assistant Member, Department of Cancer Epidemiology H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive MRC-CANCONT, Tampa, Florida MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Schabath: In this study we found that Asian/Pacific Islander men had the lowest incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and that they exhibited a lower probability of acquiring new HPV infections. Furthermore, men of multiple and mixed race had the second lowest incidence of HPV infection and however, while they had a lower probability of acquiring HPV, they also had a lower probability of clearing an HPV infection once acquired. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Heart Disease, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 09.07.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Nazim Ghouri MBChB, MRCP UK Specialty Registrar (Diabetes/Endocrinology/GIM) and Honorary Clinical Lecturer Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre University of Glasgow Glasgow G12 8TA Lower cardiorespiratory fitness contributes to increased insulin resistance and fasting glycaemia in middle-aged South Asian compared with European men living in the UK MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: In this study we aimed to determine the extent to which increased insulin resistance and blood sugar levels in South Asian men, compared to white European men, living in the UK, was due to lower fitness and physical activity levels. We studied 100 South Asian and 100 European men aged 40-70 years living in Scotland without diagnosed diabetes and measured their blood sugar levels, insulin resistance and other risk factors. The men also undertook a treadmill exercise test to determine how much oxygen their bodies were able to use during intense exercise – a key measure of physical fitness, wore accelerometers for a week to assess their physical activity levels, and had a detailed assessment of their body size and composition. Statistical modeling was then used to determine the extent to which body size and composition, fitness and physical activity variables explained differences in insulin resistance and blood sugar between South Asians and Europeans. The results suggested that lower fitness, together with greater body fat in South Asians, explained over 80 per cent of their increased insulin resistance compared to white men with Low fitness being the single most important factor associated with the increased insulin resistance and blood sugar levels in middle-aged South Asian compared to European men living in the UK. (more…)
Author Interviews, Nutrition, OBGYNE, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 06.07.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Lauren A. Wise Slone Epidemiology Center 1010 Commonwealth Avenue Boston, MA MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wise: We found that the strong inverse association between dairy and uterine fibroids in black women in the Black Women's Health Study is not explained by percent European ancestry. (more…)
HIV, Infections, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 21.06.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. H. Irene Hall, PhD Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC 1600 Clifton Road, MS E-47, Atlanta, GA 30333 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hall: Our research finds that, across all populations, far too few Americans with HIV receive the care they need to stay healthy and reduce risk of transmission. According to our research, gaps in care are the largest among African Americans and young people. Moving forward, improving care for all HIV-infected people will be critical to achieving the goal of an AIDS-free generation in America. More specifically, some of the key findings of the study include:
  • Overall, only a quarter of all Americans with HIV have a suppressed viral load – meaning the level of HIV in their bodies is low enough to stay healthy and dramatically reduce the chance of transmitting to others.
  • By race/ethnicity, African-Americans and Hispanics or Latinos are less likely to be aware of their infection compared to whites.
  • By age, younger Americans are less likely to be in ongoing care and have a suppressed viral load; HIV care and viral suppression generally improved with age. For example:
  • Fifteen percent of those aged 25-34 were virally suppressed, compared to 36 percent of those aged 55-64.
  • In terms of ongoing care, 28 percent of those 25-34 years old were retained in care, compared to 46 percent of those aged 55-64. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Stroke / 08.05.2013

MedicalResearch.com eInterview with Jane C Khoury, PhD

Associate Professor Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center MLC 5041, 3333 Burnet Avenue Cincinnati, Ohio 45229-3039 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Khoury: Over all age groups, those with diagnosed diabetes have at least 3-fold increased risk of incident ischemic stroke compared to those without diabetes. This is even more pronounced in those less than 65 years of age, with 5-fold and 12-fold increase for those of black and white race respectively. All rates are adjusted to the 2000 population. (more…)
Author Interviews, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 08.05.2013

MedicalResearch.com eInterview with Annette Langer-Gould, MD, PhD From the Department of Research and Evaluation Kaiser Permanente, Southern California, Pasadena; and Neurology Department Kaiser Permanente, Southern California Los Angeles Medical Center, CA. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Langer-Gould: The main findings of the study were that multiple sclerosis is more common in black women than in white women, which run contrary to the widely accepted belief that blacks are less susceptible to MS. In particular, we found that black patients had a 47 percent higher risk of MS than white patients, while Hispanic and Asian patients had a 50 percent and 80 percent lower risk compared to white patients, respectively. We also found that 70 percent of MS cases occurred in females, but this preponderance of females diagnosed was more pronounced among black patients than white patients. In addition, black women had a higher incidence of MS than white patients of both genders, while black men had a similar risk of being diagnosed with MS compared to white men. The lower risk among Hispanic and Asian patients was true for both sexes. (more…)