Adolescent Violent Offenders With Childhood Adversity Have Increased Risk of Suicide

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Emma Björkenstam PhD
Department of Public Health Sciences
Karolinska Institutet

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: My research team and I have previously shown that childhood adversity is associated with an elevated suicide risk in young adults, and this increased risk may be explained by maladaptive trajectories during adolescence. We also know that adolescent violent offending is linked with suicide, but up until now, less was known about the role of violent offending in the association between childhood adversity and later suicide.

Our main finding in the current study, based on almost half a million Swedes, is that individuals with a history of childhood adversity who also engage in violent offending in late adolescence, have a substantial increased risk of suicide.

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Most Older Drivers Do Not Take Advantage of Car Adaptations Which Make Driving Safer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
aaaTara Kelley-Baker PhD

Data and Information Group Leader
AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Background on LongROAD

The AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety (AAAFTS) launched the Senior Driver Initiative in 2012 in an effort to better understand and meet the safe mobility needs of older adult drivers. A multidisciplinary research team from six institutions was formed to design and implement the Longitudinal Research on Aging Drivers (LongROAD) study.

The aims of the study are to better understand:

  • 1) major protective and risk factors of safe driving;
  • 2) effects of medical conditions and medications on driving behavior and safety;
  • 3) mechanisms through which older adults self-regulate their driving behaviors to cope with functional declines;
  • 4) the extent, use, and effects of new vehicle technology and aftermarket vehicle adaptations among older drivers; and
  • 5) determinants and health consequences of driving cessation during the process of aging.

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Radiologic Findings Can Be Key In Identifying Intimate Partner Violence

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“IMGP6403_qtu-no-violence” by Rae Allen is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Elizabeth George, MD
PGY-4 Radiology Resident
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Dr. Bharti Khurana MD
Clinical Fellow, Harvard Medical School and
Assistant Director, Emergency Radiology
Director, Emergency Musculoskeletal Radiology
Program Director, Emergency Radiology Fellowship
Assistant Professor, Harvard Medical School


MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: According to the CDC, 1 in 3 women in the United States are victims of abuse by their intimate partner. Despite the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations, intimate partner violence (IPV) screening is still not widely implemented and IPV remains very prevalent and often under-recognized.

The goals of this study are to increase the awareness among physicians about this public health problem and to elucidate the potential role of imaging in the identification of these patients. In fact, there is a striking disparity in the literature on the role of imaging in identifying non-accidental trauma in children compared to intimate partner violence.

The common patterns of injury we identified in this population were soft tissue injuries (swelling, hematoma or contusion) followed by extremity fractures, which often involve the distal upper extremities, suggesting injury from defensive attempts. Other common injuries were facial fractures, which represent an easily accessible site for inflicting trauma, and pregnancy failure. Since radiologists have access to both current and prior radiological studies of these patients, they could play a critical role by putting the pieces together in identifying victims of IPV.

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Rapid Increase in ER Visits For Young Girls With Self-Inflicted Injuries

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Melissa C. Mercado PhD, MSc, MA Behavioral scientist Division of Violence Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control CDC

Dr. Mercado

Dr. Melissa C. Mercado PhD, MSc, MA
Behavioral scientist
Division of Violence Prevention
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Suicide ranks as the 10th leading cause of death for all age groups combined and has been among the top 12 leading causes of death since 1975 in the U.S. In 2015, across all age groups, suicide was responsible for 44,193 deaths in the U.S., which is approximately one suicide every 12 minutes.

Suicide was the second leading cause of death among U.S. youth aged 10-24 years in 2015. Self-inflicted injury is one of the strongest risk factors for suicide.

This study examined trends in non-fatal self-inflicted injuries treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs) among youth aged 10 to 24 years in the United States from 2001-2015.  The overall weighted age-adjusted rate for this group increased by 5.7% annually during the 2008 to 2015 period.  Age-adjusted trends for males overall and across age groups remained stable throughout 2001-2015.  However, rates among females increased significantly, by 8.4% annually. The largest increase among females was observed among those aged 10-14 years, with an increase of 18.8% annually from 2009 to 2015.

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Sending That Quick Text While Driving Can Kill You

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“texting and driving” by frankieleon is licensed under CC BY 2.0Ole J. Johansson

Junior researcher
Master’s in social psychology
Institute of Transport Economics

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Many countries have bans on driving while distracted and would fine drivers for texting while driving. Furthermore, people mostly know about the dangers of not paying attention to the traffic. Still, many people do engage in distracting behaviors. Thus, in this study, I wanted to examine:

a) Who are more likely to engage with distractors?

b) Is there an easy way to help people avoid distractions?

From these two points, we developed the study to engage with distracted driving from a psychological and scientific point of view.

Specifically using the theory of planned behavior and the big five to answer point a) and implementation intentions to answer point b).

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Exercise, Vision Testing and Osteoporosis Evaluation Are Keys To Fall Prevention

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Andrea C. Tricco PhD, MSc Scientist and Lead of the Knowledge Synthesis Team Associate Professor Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto Associate Editor Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, BMC Medical Research Methodology, Systematic Reviews

Dr. Tricco

Andrea C. Tricco PhD, MSc
Scientist and Lead of the Knowledge Synthesis Team
Associate Professor Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto
Associate Editor Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, BMC Medical Research Methodology, Systematic Reviews

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Falls are the leading cause of injury among older adults and account for $2 billion in direct health-care costs annually ($31 billion in costs to Medicare in the United States in 2012). We aimed to determine which types of fall-prevention programs may be effective for reducing falls in older people.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: Exercise, along with vision assessment and treatment, as well as an assessment and possible modification of a person’s living environment, reduced the risk of injurious falls by 23% compared to usual care.

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Severity of Firearm Injuries Escalates Over Ten Years

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Yi Zuo Lead Biostatistician  Center for Clinical Translational Epidemiology and Comparative Effectiveness Research Preventive Medicine & Epidemiology Department of Medicine Boston University School of Medicine Boston, MA 02118

Yi Zuo

Yi Zuo
Lead Biostatistician
Center for Clinical Translational Epidemiology and Comparative Effectiveness Research
Preventive Medicine & Epidemiology
Department of Medicine
Boston University School of Medicine
Boston, MA 02118 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Non-fatal firearm injuries constitute approximately 70% of all firearm trauma injuries in the United States. However, patterns of severity of those injuries are poorly understood.
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3 Million Americans Carry a Loaded Gun Daily

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Me holding USP gun” by Nghị Trần is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, MD, MPH, PhD
Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology
Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The impact of firearm carrying on public health and public safety is a topic of considerable interest in the US.  Nonetheless, contemporary national data on some of the most fundamental questions about the scope of firearm carrying among adults in the US do not exist. We used data collected through a nationally representative survey designed by investigators at Harvard University and Northeastern University and conducted in 2015 to understand why, how frequently, or in what manner (i.e., concealed or openly) US adults carry loaded handguns on their person. We also examined the prevalence of handgun carrying among this group by the stringency of state laws regulating concealed carry permits.
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“Shall Issue” Gun Law States Associated With Higher Homicide and Firearm Death Rates

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Michael Siegel, MD, MPH Professor, Department of Community Health Sciences Boston University School of Public Health Boston, MA 02118

Prof. Siegel

Michael Siegel, MD, MPH
Professor, Department of Community Health Sciences
Boston University School of Public Health
Boston, MA 02118

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: A central question in the debate about public policies to reduce firearm violence is whether easier access to concealed handguns increases or decreases the rate of firearm-related homicides. Previous studies on the impact of concealed carry permitting laws have yielded inconsistent results. Most of these studies were conducted more than a decade ago. This study provided a reexamination of this research question with more recent data, up to and including the year 2015.

While all states allow certain persons to carry concealed handguns, there are 3 major variations in permitting policy. In 9 states, law enforcement officials have wide discretion over whether to issue concealed carry permits; these are referred to as “may issue” states because police chiefs can deny a permit if they deem the applicant to be at risk of committing violence, even if there is not a criminal history. In 29 states, there is little or no discretion; these are referred to as “shall-issue” states because permits must be issued if requisite criteria are met. In an additional 12 states, no permit is necessary to carry a concealed handgun.

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Men and Women May Take Different Kinds Of Risks

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Thekla Morgenroth

Preferred pronouns: They/them/their
Research Fellow in Social and Organisational Psychology
Psychology
University of Exeter
Washington Singer Laboratories,
Exeter UK 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Risk-taking is often seen as an important trait that leads to economic success – for example when it comes to investing money – and career success. For example, we often hear that leaders need to be willing to take risks. Risk-taking is also strongly associated with masculinity, which leads to the idea that maybe gender differences in economic and career success can be explained by the fact that women are just too risk averse. When you look at the risk-taking literature, it appears that there is support for this idea with many studies showing that men do indeed take more risks than men.

Our research questions these ideas. We show that current measures of risk-taking are biased. They focus only on stereotypical “masculine” risk taking behaviors such as betting your money on the outcome of a sporting event or going whitewater rafting, and ignore the many risks that women take, such as going horseback riding or donating a kidney to a family member. When this bias is addressed, gender differences in risk-taking disappear or even reverse.

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Almost $3 Billion Spent Per Year On Injuries From Firearms

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Faiz Gani MD
Postdoctoral research fellow
Department of Surgery
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Baltimore, Maryland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The current study sought to evaluate epidemiological trend in emergency department (ED) visits for firearm-related injuries in the US.

In our study, we observed that 25.3 patients per 100,000 presented to the ED for a firearm-related injury. This translated to over 78,000 ED visits per year.

Over time, while firearm injuries decreased from 2006-2013, an increase in the incidence of firearm-related injuries was observed in 2014.

Additionally, over time injuries among older patients and those injured in an unintentional firearm injury increased. Injuries due to an assault decreased over time.

The average ED and inpatient charges were $5,254 and $95,887, respectively, resulting in an overall financial burden of approximately $25 billion over the study or an annual $2.8 billion in ED and inpatients charges.

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Over One Million Stair-Related Injuries Treated in ERs Each Year

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Gary Smith, MD, DrPH Director, Center for Injury Research and Policy Nationwide Children’s Hospital Columbus, OH

Dr. Smith

Gary Smith, MD, DrPH
Director, Center for Injury Research and Policy
Nationwide Children’s Hospital
Columbus, OH

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Previous studies have documented the frequency and characteristics of stair-related injuries among children and older adults. Numerous studies have examined gait characteristics of different age groups and their relationship to falls. In addition, it is estimated that the direct medical and indirect costs of non-fatal stair-related injuries are $92 billion annually in the US.

The current study investigates the epidemiological characteristics of stair-related injuries among all ages using a nationally representative sample over a multi-year period. Our study also expands upon prior research on this topic to investigate the mechanisms of stair-related injuries and examine trends.

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Requiring Some Firearms To Be Surrendered May Reduce Domestic Homicides

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Professor Michael Siegel, MD, MPH Department of Community Health Sciences Boston University School of Public Health Boston, MA 02118

Dr. Siegel

Professor Michael Siegel, MD, MPH
Department of Community Health Sciences
Boston University School of Public Health
Boston, MA 02118

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Each year, more than 1,800 people in the U.S. are killed by their intimate partners. Approximately half of these homicides are committed using firearms. While federal law prohibits people subject to domestic violence restraining orders from possessing firearms, there is no requirement that they surrender guns already in their possession.

To close this loophole, several states have enacted laws that not only prohibit gun possession by people subject to restraining orders, but which also explicitly require that they relinquish weapons that they already have.

In this study, we investigated the impact of state domestic violence-related firearm laws and rates of intimate partner homicide, using data from all 50 states over a 25-year period, 1991-2015.

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IED Injuries Even Worse Than Landmines

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Vivian Mcalister, M.B., CCFP(C), FRCSC, FRCS(I), FACS Professor - Department of Surgery London Health Sciences Centre University Hospital London, Ontario, Canada

Dr. McAlister

Dr. Vivian Mcalister, M.B., CCFP(C), FRCSC, FRCS(I), FACS
Professor – Department of Surgery
London Health Sciences Centre
University Hospital
London, Ontario, Canada

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This study was performed by medical and nursing officers who were all deployed to the war zone. We were deeply concerned about the type of injuries we were seeing. They were more awful than any we had seen before. We were familiar with reviews of antipersonnel landmine injuries that were reported by Red Cross surgeons in the 1990s. The injuries that we were dealing with were from antipersonnel IEDs more than landmines. We decided to do a formal prospective study for two reasons: first was to carefully describe the pattern of injury so we could develop new medical strategies, if possible, to help victims. The second reason was to catalogue these injuries so we could impartially and scientifically report what we were witnessing.

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U.S. Army Administrative Data Can Be Used To Predict Sexual Assault Perpetration

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Anthony J. Rosellini, Ph.D. Research Assistant Professor Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences Boston University Boston, MA 02215

Dr. Rosellini

Anthony J. Rosellini, Ph.D.
Research Assistant Professor
Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders
Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences
Boston University
Boston, MA 02215

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Sexual assault among service members is a significant concern of the Department of Defense (DoD) and U.S. Army. Although the annual rate of sexual assault among soldiers is believed to be decreasing, there have also been increases in the number of victims coming forward to report their experiences. The DoD and Army have responded by creating a framework of universal prevention in which all soldiers are required to participate in relatively brief programs aimed at decreasing rates of sexual assault. More intensive preventive interventions could be required, but would only be cost-effective if targeted at a subset of soldiers who are most likely to perpetrate sexual assault.

The goal of this study was to use DoD and U.S. Army administrative records that are available for all soldiers to develop prediction models for sexual assault perpetration. We used the records from all 821,807 male soldiers who served between 2004 and 2009 to develop separate models to predict assaults directed against within-family and non-family adults and minors.
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Pubic Hair Grooming–Related Injuries Surprisingly Common

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Thomas W. Gaither, BS
Department of Urology
University of California, San Francisco
General Hospital, San Francisco

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We study genitourinary trauma and reconstruction. This study was motivated from a previous study showing that Emergency Room visits due to grooming were increasing over the past nine year. We sought to better characterize who was at most risk for grooming injuries. We found that grooming is extremely common in both men and women and minor injuries occur in about 25% of groomers. Surprisingly, a little over one percent sought medical care due to their injury. Participants at most risk our those who remove all of their pubic hair frequently ( as opposed to those who just trim). We did not find any instruments that were necessarily putting participants at risk for injury.

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Alzheimer’s: Antidepressants Increase Risk of Head and Traumatic Brain Injuries

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Heidi Taipale, PhD Pharm Senior Researcher School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland; and Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet 

Dr. Taipale

Heidi Taipale, PhD Pharm
Senior Researcher
School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland; and
Department of Clinical Neuroscience
Karolinska Institutet 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Antidepressant use among older persons has been associated with an increased risk of falling and fall-related events, such as hip fractures, in previous studies. Our previous study identified risk of hip fractures in antidepressant among persons with Alzheimer’s disease. As falling is the main causal factor for head traumas and traumatic brain injuries among older persons, we hypothesized that antidepressant use could also be associated with these injuries.

We utilized a nationwide cohort of 70,718 persons newly diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, identified from the Finnish registers. The risk of head injuries and traumatic brain injuries was compared between persons initiating antidepressant use and comparison persons of the same age, gender and time since they received diagnoses of Alzheimer’s disease but not using antidepressants. We found a 40-percent increased risk of head injuries and 30-percent increased risk of traumatic brain injuries associated with antidepressant use. Antidepressant use was associated with a higher risk of head injuries especially at the beginning of use – during the first 30 days – but the risk persisted even longer, up to two years. The association was also confirmed in a study design comparing time periods within the same person, thus eliminating selective factors. Continue reading

Prescription Opioids Increasingly Found In Fatally Injured Drivers

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Stanford Chihuri, MPH Staff Associate/Data Analyst Department of Anesthesiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons Columbia University Medical Center NY, NY 10032

Stanford Chihuri

Stanford Chihuri, MPH
Staff Associate/Data Analyst
Department of Anesthesiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons
Columbia University Medical Center
NY, NY 10032 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In the past 2 decades, consumption of prescription opioids has substantially increased in the U.S. Prescription drugs may cause drowsiness and impaired cognition which may interfere with psychomotor functioning necessary during the operation of a motor vehicle. The current study assessed time trends in prescription opioids detected in drivers killed in motor vehicle crashes from 1995 to 2015 in 6 states in the U.S.

Results of the study showed that the prevalence of prescription opioids detected in fatally injured drivers has increased 700% in the past 2 decades.

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Majority of Murdered Women Are Killed By Current or Former Partners

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

EmikoPetrosky MD M.P.H Science Officer, National Violent Death Reporting System at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emory University Rollins School of Public Health

Dr. Petrosky

EmikoPetrosky MD M.P.H
Science Officer, National Violent Death Reporting System at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Emory University Rollins School of Public Health

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Homicide is one of the leading causes of death for women aged 44 years and younger. In 2015, 3,519 girls and women died by homicide in the United States.  It is the 5th leading cause of death for women under 45 years age (defining women as 18-44 years of age).

The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) links together data from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, and law enforcement reports, resulting in more information about the circumstances of death than what is available elsewhere.

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Pot Plus Alcohol Raises Fatal Traffic Accident Risk Over 500%

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Guohua Li DrPH, MD Professor and Director Center for Injury Epidemiology and Prevention Department of Epidemiology Mailman School of Public Health Columbia University

Dr. Li

Guohua Li DrPH, MD
Professor and Director
Center for Injury Epidemiology and Prevention
Department of Epidemiology
Mailman School of Public Health
Columbia University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Drugged driving has become a serious problem in the United States in the recent years due to increased consumption of marijuana and opioids. About 20% of fatally injured drivers used two or more substances, with alcohol-marijuana being the most commonly detected polydrug combination.

Our study of over 14000 fatal 2-car crashes indicates that drivers testing positive for alcohol, marijuana, or both are significantly more likely to be responsible for initiating these crashes than those using neither of the substances. Specifically, compared to drivers not using alcohol and marijuana, the risk of being responsible for initiating fatal crashes increases 62% for those testing positive for marijuana and negative for alcohol, 437% for those testing positive for alcohol and negative for marijuana, and 539% for those testing positive for both alcohol and marijuana. These results suggest that when used in combination, alcohol and marijuana have a positive interaction on the risk of fatal crash initiation.

The most common driver error leading to fatal 2-car crashes is failure to keep in proper lane, followed by failure to yield right of way and speeding.

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Roadside Oral Fluid Testing for Marijuana Intoxication

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Mitchell L. Doucette, MS PhD Candidate The William Haddon Jr Fellowship in Injury Prevention 2017 Co-Fellow Center for Injury Research and Policy Department of Health Management and Policy Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore, MD 21205

Mitchell Doucette

Mitchell L. Doucette, MS
PhD Candidate
The William Haddon Jr Fellowship in Injury Prevention 2017 Co-Fellow
Center for Injury Research and Policy
Department of Health Management and Policy
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Baltimore, MD 21205

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Currently in the U.S., 8 states have legalized marijuana for recreational use and an additional 28 states permit marijuana for medical use. Some states have instituted a legal driving limit for marijuana intoxication, 5 ng/mL, and for Colorado specifically, research indicates the average time from law enforcement dispatch to blood sample collection was 2.32 hours—a period of time outside the window of legal sample collection under state law and peak THC detectability. Countries with similar marijuana driving limits perform roadside oral fluid testing for establishing intoxication at point of arrest.

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Costs of Bike Accidents Skyrocket

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Tom Gaither, MD, MAS Department of Urology San Francisco, CA 94143

Dr. Gaither

Tom Gaither, MD, MAS
Department of Urology
San Francisco, CA 94143

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Admission to the hospital because of bicycle crashes has increased over the past 15 years. We aimed to estimate the costs due to these bicycle crashes.

From 1999 to 2013, the total costs due to these injuries (direct medical costs, work loss costs, and pain and suffering) were $209 billion dollars. Costs due to non-fatal injuries have increased by 137% over the study period. In 2013, the total direct and indirect costs were $24 billion dollars, which is approximately doubling the costs due to occupational injuries in the US.

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Children Continue To Suffer Serious Injuries From Lawnmowers

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Gary Smith, MD, DrPH Director, Center for Injury Research and Policy Nationwide Children’s Hospital Columbus, OH

Dr. Smith

Gary Smith, MD, DrPH
Director, Center for Injury Research and Policy
Nationwide Children’s Hospital
Columbus, OH

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Lawn mowers continue to be an important source of serious pediatric morbidity in the United States (US) with initial treatment of pediatric lawn mower-related injuries costing about $90 million annually. The long-term physical, psychological, and financial effects of these traumatic injuries can be devastating for those injured and for their families.

This study comprehensively analyzes data over a 25-year period using a nationally representative database to evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics, including mechanism of injury, of lawn mower-related injuries to children in the US. It also provides a discussion of relevant injury prevention strategies.

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Fore! Most Common Golf Injuries Result From Getting Hit By Club or Ball

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Gary Smith, MD, DrPH</strong> Director, Center for Injury Research and Policy Nationwide Children’s Hospital Columbus, OH

Dr. Smith

Gary Smith, MD, DrPH
Director, Center for Injury Research and Policy
Nationwide Children’s Hospital
Columbus, OH

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Golf is enjoyed worldwide as a leisure activity and competitive sport. While golf is viewed as a low-risk sport, acute traumatic and overuse injuries do occur. Previous studies have generally focused on the clinical aspects of golf-related injuries. Few studies examine injuries that occurred during practice at home or school, or due to conditions or hazards on a golf course.

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Vena Cava Filter Use in Trauma and Rates of Pulmonary Embolism, 2003-2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Alan Cook, MD, FACS
Director, Trauma Research Program
Chandler Regional Medical Center
Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery
University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix
Chandler, AZ 85224 and
Frederick B. Rogers MD, MS, FACS
Trauma Surgeon
Lancaster General Health/Penn Medicine
Adjunct Professor of Surgery University of Pennsylvania College of Medicine
Department of Surgery

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The morbidity and mortality from pulmonary emboli (PE) are considerable. They range in severity from a problem amenable to outpatient medical management to fatal. Trauma patients are often ineligible for chemoprophylaxis due to the risk for life-threatening bleeding.

Yet traumatic injury can increase a person’s likelihood of having a pulmonary embolus via an array of mechanical and humoral pathways. The vena cava filter (VCF) offered the possibility of PE prophylaxis for patients otherwise vulnerable to PE risk. Use of VCF grew and the rate of use increased even more after the introduction of the retrievable VCF. Our study sought to determine if any temporal variation in VCF use has occurred and investigate if an contemporaneous change in the diagnosis of PE has taken place.

We used three databases to allow a telescoping window of observation from a single state, Pennsylvania (PTOS), to a convenience of sample of trauma centers across the country (NTDB), and finally a national, population-based sample of all hospital discharges in the US (NIS).

A temporal trend was observed in all three datasets with differing magnitudes and time points of change. The variation of vena cava filter use was most pronounced in the PTOS and least dramatic in the NIS, The rate of PE was essentially unchanged during the same period.

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Stop Using Cotton Tip Applicators in Kids’ Ears

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Kris Jatana, MD FAAP Pediatric Otolaryngologist Nationwide Children’s Hospital

Dr. Jatana

Kris Jatana, MD FAAP
Pediatric Otolaryngologist
Nationwide Children’s Hospital

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This study looked at a 21-year period – 1990 through 2010 – and focused on children younger than 18 years of age treated in U.S. hospital emergency departments for cotton tip applicator-related ear injuries. About 263,000 children were injured during the study period, which comes out to approximately 1000 injuries seen in emergency departments every month or 34 per day.

The majority of injuries occurred when cotton tip applicators were used to clean a child’s ear canal (73%), and most of those injuries occurred when a child was using a cotton tip applicator on their own (77%), or their parent was using the device (16%) to clean the ear canal. About two out of every three patients were younger than 8 years of age, and patients aged 0-3 years accounted for 40% of all injuries.

Surprisingly, the highest rate of injury was in children 0-3 years old. The most common injuries were foreign body sensation (30%), perforated ear drum (25%) and soft tissue injury (23%).

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Regions With Strict Gun Control Laws Have Lower Rates of Pediatric Gun Injuries

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Monika Goyal, M.D., M.S.C.E. Assistant Professor of Pediatrics & Emergency Medicine Director of Research, Division of Emergency Medicine Attending Physician Children’s National Health System The George Washington University

Dr. Monika Goyal

Monika Goyal, M.D., M.S.C.E.
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics & Emergency Medicine
Director of Research, Division of Emergency Medicine and Attending Physician
Children’s National Health System
The George Washington University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: As pediatric emergency clinicians, unfortunately, many of us have cared for a number of children who have been victims of gun violence. We wanted to investigate whether gun laws may make a difference in the rates of firearm-related morbidity and mortality in children. We specifically were interested in emergency department visits because they relate directly to the care we provide to pediatric patients.

Our main findings from our five-year study were that children are affected by gun violence nationally and, specifically, we saw regional differences in emergency department visits made by children who were victims of firearm violence.

Overall, firearm-related visits by patients 21 and younger to emergency departments remained consistent over time at a rate of 65 per every 100,000 visits until 2013, when they decreased slightly to 51 per 100,000 visits.

We also found that regions with more strict gun laws had lower rates of emergency department visits by children for gun violence compared with those regions with less stringent laws. We used the Brady Score, which looks at various state gun laws and assigns a score, to measure strictness. Then, based on state-level scores, we created regional composite scores.

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Rate of Law Enforcement Associated Injuries Has Remained Stable Over Time

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Elinore J. Kaufman, MD, MSHP

Department of Surgery, New York
Presbyterian Hospital Weill Cornell Medicine
New York, New York

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Deaths of civilians in contact with police have recently gained national public and policy attention. However, we know very little about nonfatal injuries, which far outnumber deaths.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Nonfatal injuries are much more pervasive than law enforcement-associated deaths, and rates have remained stable over several years, at approximately 51,000 emergency department visits and hospitalizations each year.

These injuries primarily affect young men, and mental illness is a common theme. As a physician, my goal is always to get to zero preventable injuries.

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Majority of Americans Believes Guns Should Not Be Allowed In Public Spaces

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Julia Wolfson, PhD MPP Assistant Professor Department of Health Management and Policy University of Michigan School of Public Health Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Dr. Julia Wolfson

Julia Wolfson, PhD MPP
Assistant Professor
Department of Health Management and Policy
University of Michigan School of Public Health
Ann Arbor, MI 48109

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Gun violence is a serious public health problem that in 2015, the most recent year for which data is available, was responsible for more than 36,000 deaths. High profile shootings in public places such as schools, nightclubs and airports have focused national attention on the threat of gun violence in public places. Many states have recently passed new laws that expand the public places where people can legally carry guns either openly or concealed on their person.

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Deliberate Self-harm Associated With Violent Criminality

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Hanna Sahlin MSc, Lic psychologist, Lic psychotherapist Specialist in clinical psychology PhD-student Departement of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet National Self-harm project Centre for Psychiatry Research, CPF Stockholm, Sweden

Hanna Sahlin

Hanna Sahlin
MSc, Lic psychologist, Lic psychotherapist
Specialist in clinical psychology
PhD-student
Departement of Clinical Neuroscience
Karolinska Institutet
National Self-harm project
Centre for Psychiatry Research, CPF
Stockholm, Sweden

What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This study is the result of wanting to find a more conclusive answer to whether individuals who engage in non-fatal deliberate self-harm are more prone to aggression towards others. There has long been a debate on whether aggression to oneself and aggression towards others co-occur, but the studies that have been conducted thus far have been on smaller samples or with clinical or forensic cohorts. Also, the studies have had great variability regarding the definition of both “deliberate self-harm” and “violence”. Thus, it has been difficult to establish an ”overall” effect size for this association, or to draw firmer conclusions on how and if this association plays out in the general population.

We had the opportunity to study this association in several large nationwide population-based registries including all Swedish citizens, and with high specificity regarding the ingoing variables of interest – i.e., non-fatal deliberate self-harm (as registered in the National Patient Register) and violent crime convictions (as registered in the National Crime Register).

We found a five times increased crude risk (hazard) of being convicted of a violent crime if one had received self-harm associated clinical care, and vice-versa, that there was an equally increased risk of self-harm if one had been convicted of a violent crime. After controlling for relevant psychiatric comorbidities and socio-economic status, an almost doubled risk of violent crime conviction remained among self-harming men and women compared to individuals not exposed to self-harm. It is important to notice that our study did not find any evidence suggesting that self-harm behaviours cause violent criminality. Therefore, we conclude that the engagement in violence towards oneself and towards others share an underlying vulnerability to impulsive and aggressive behaviours.

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Gunshot Injuries Cost US Taxpayers Billions

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Sarabeth Spitzer

MD Candidate | MS2
Stanford University School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: While firearm homicides make headlines, they cause many more injuries than deaths.[1] No one had performed any recent analysis on the costs of hospitalizations for firearm-related injuries. Stanford is a Level One trauma center, and we care for patients injured by firearms. We wanted to know how much it costs the health system to treat these patients.

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Autism Increases Risk of Death From Injury, Especially Drowning

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Joseph Guan

MPH Candidate in Epidemiology, Certificate in Chronic Diseases Epidemiology
Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The prevalence of autism has been increasing especially in the past two decades. With an estimate of more than 3.5 million people living with autism in the US, approximately 500,000 of them are children under 15 years old. Current studies show that males are approximately four times as likely than females to be diagnosed with autism. There is also evidence that people with autism are at a heightened risk of injury. However, the research on the relationship between autism and injury is understudied.

We found that 28% of deaths in individuals with autism were due to injury, compared to 7% of deaths in the general population. Injury deaths in individuals with autism occurred at a much younger age (29.1 years) on average compared to injury deaths in the general population (54.7 years). Our study show that drowning was the leading cause of injury death among individuals with autism, followed by suffocation and asphyxiation. Children under the age of 15 years were 160 times more likely to die from drowning.

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Poor Kids More Likely To Have More Than One Chronic Health Condition

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Christian D. Pulcini, MD, MEd, MPH Pediatric Resident, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC Chair, Section on Pediatric Trainees (SOPT) American Academy of Pediatrics

Dr. Christian Pulcini

Christian D. Pulcini, MD, MEd, MPH
Pediatric Resident
Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC
Chair, Section on Pediatric Trainees (SOPT)
American Academy of Pediatrics

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Poverty influences the well-being of children and adolescents in a negative way. Poor children are often exposed to toxic health stressors, including violence, environmental toxins, and inadequate nutrition. Children in poverty with chronic health conditions also are more likely to have higher rates of secondary disorders and worse outcomes. We studied children with asthma, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), to describe the how much disease and if the children had multiple (comorbid) conditons and how these vary by poverty status.

Parents reported through the National Survey of Children’s Health that asthma and ADHD rose 18% and 44% from 2003-2011/2012, respectively, whereas the lifetime prevalence of ASD rose 32% from 2007-2011/2012 in all income levels. For asthma, the rise was most among the poor at 25.8%. For ADHD, the percent change among the poor was similar, however the rise in autism spectrum disorder was associated with being non-poor. Publicly insured children with asthma, ADHD, and ASD also had a significant higher chance (1.9×, 1.6×, 3.0×, respectively) of having higher more than one chronic condition. In addition, kids who were poor with asthma and ADHD.
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Female Career Vietnam War Veterans Report Leading Happy, Productive Lives

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jeanne Mager Stellman, PhD Professor Emerita & Special Lecturer Department of Health Policy & Management Mailman School of Public Health Columbia University York NY 10032

Dr. Jeanne Stellman

Jeanne Mager Stellman, PhD
Professor Emerita & Special Lecturer
Department of Health Policy & Management Mailman
School of Public Health Columbia University
York NY 10032

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: We examined the experiences of 1285 American women, military and civilian, who served in Vietnam during the war and responded to a mail survey conducted approximately 25 years later in which they were asked to report and reflect upon their experiences and social and health histories.

The data were collected as part of a much larger study that centered about methodological approaches to studying health effects of the military herbicides used in Vietnam. To our knowledge, this is the first study

(a) to describe the experiences of civilian women deployed to a war zone and to compare them to those of military women;

(b) to differentiate the experiences and outcomes among military women by the length of their military career service;

(c) to contextualize the general health and happiness, marital characteristics, and childbearing patterns of women deployed to Vietnam and those of their peers by comparing them to a contemporaneous nationally representative age-matched cohort, the General Social Survey (GSS).

Overall, this paper provides insight into the experiences of the understudied women who served in Vietnam, and sheds light on subgroup differences within the sample.

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Strong Alcohol Policies Linked to Fewer Young Adults Dying In Car Crashes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Scott E. Hadland, MD, MPH, MS Assistant Professor of Pediatrics | Boston University School of Medicine Urban Health & Advocacy Track Director | Boston Combined Residency Program Boston, MA 02118

Dr. Scott Hadland

Scott E. Hadland, MD, MPH, MS
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
Boston University School of Medicine
Urban Health & Advocacy Track Director | Boston Combined Residency Program
Boston, MA 02118

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Studies to date have shown that states’ alcohol laws can help prevent young people from dying in car crashes. However, studies to date have usually only looked at a single policy at once. We wanted to build on these previous studies by looking at the overall effect of multiple alcohol laws acting at once. We also wanted to look at laws not necessarily only targeting drinking and driving among young people, but also policies aimed primarily at adults over 21.

We studied deaths of young people under 21 who were killed in motor vehicle crashes across the United States between 2000 and 2013. We found that one-quarter of all young people died in a crash involving a driver who alcohol level was over the legal limit. One-half died in a crash in which the driver had any level of alcohol in their bloodstream above zero.

We also found that most young people died on evenings and weekends, which is when people are most likely to have been drinking. Importantly, almost half of all young people died in a crash in which they were the passenger, not the driver. In 80% of cases in which they were the passenger, it was actually an adult >21, not a young person, who was driving the vehicle.

We then looked at states’ alcohol laws, and found that the stronger the set of alcohol policies in a state, the lower the likelihood of young people dying in a crash that was alcohol-related. Policies included laws relating to alcohol taxes, alcohol availability and hours of sales, and graduated driver’s licensing for young people, among many others.

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Study Finds No Link Between Immigration and Crime

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Robert Adelman PhD Associate professor of sociology University at Albany, SUNY

Dr. Robert Adelman

Robert Adelman PhD
Associate professor of sociology
University at Albany, SUNY 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Our study examines Census and FBI data across four decades from 1970 to 2010. We analyze data for 200 randomly selected U.S. metropolitan areas. Our results show strong and stable evidence that for murder, robbery, burglary, and larceny as immigration increases, on average, in American metropolitan areas, crime decreases. We find no impact of immigration on aggravated assault.

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When Is It Safe To Drive After a Concussion?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Julianne Schmidt, PhD, ATC Assistant Professor Department of Kinesiology The University of Georgia Athens GA

Dr. Julianne Schmidt

Julianne Schmidt, PhD, ATC
Assistant Professor
Department of Kinesiology
The University of Georgia
Athens GA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Less than half of all people with a concussion intend to reduce their driving at any point.

Current recommendations surrounding concussion focus on when it is safe to return to sport or return to the classroom, but return to driving is usually ignored and has not been studied.
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Exposure to Violence, Psychological Distress, and Gun Carrying Among Male Adolescents

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Joan A. Reid, Ph.D., LMHC

Assistant Professor
Criminology Program DAV 266
University of South Florida St. Petersburg

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Firearm-associated homicide and suicide are leading causes of death among American youth (i.e., 10-24 years old), with disproportionately high rates observed among male youth of color. Notably, gun violence and psychological problems are often conflated in public discourse regarding gun violence and prevention. However, few studies have assessed the impact of exposure to violence, either as a witness or a victim, when exploring the association between gun-carrying behavior and psychological distress.

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Premature Midlife Deaths Increase in US Whites and Native Americans

Dr. Meredith Shiels

Dr. Meredith Shiels

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr Meredith S Shiels

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics
National Cancer Institute
Bethesda, MD

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: In most high-income countries, premature death rates have been declining, due to the overwhelming successes of public health efforts to prevent and treat chronic disease. The US is a major outlier, where death rates overall have plateaued, or even increased, as reported recently by our sister agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Of particular concern are recent reports of increasing death rates among Americans during mid-life.

To expand upon prior findings, we focused on premature death, which we defined as death occurring between the ages of 25 and 64. We examined finely detailed death certificate data for the entire U.S. population and described changes in death rates during 1999-2014 by cause of death, sex, race, ethnicity, and geography. To provide context to our findings, we compared trends in death rates in the U.S. to England and Wales and Canada.

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More Gun Violence in PG-13 Than R-Rated Films

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Daniel Romer, PhD Annenberg Public Policy Center University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Dr. Daniel Romer

Daniel Romer, PhD
Annenberg Public Policy Center
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We have been studying trends in health compromising behaviors in popular films that were released since 1950, and in 2013 we reported that films rated PG-13 had just passed the rate of portrayed gun violence shown in popular R-rated films in 2012. In this report, we updated the trends in gun violence through 2015 and found that the trend has continued. In addition, we noted the strong contribution to this trend of films with comic book heroes whose heavy use of guns omits the harmful and otherwise realistic consequences of blood and suffering.

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Mandatory Ignition Lock Laws Reduce Alcohol-Involved Fatal Crashes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Emma E. McGinty, PhD, MS Center for Injury Research and Policy and Center for Mental Health and Addiction Policy Research, Department of Health Policy and Management Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore MD 21205

Dr. Emma McGinty,

Emma E. McGinty, PhD, MS
Center for Injury Research and Policy and Center for Mental Health and Addiction Policy Research, Department of Health Policy and Management
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Baltimore MD 21205

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: All states in the US have some kind of ignition interlock lock, but until this study we didn’t know whether these laws meet their intended goal – to reduce alcohol-involved fatal crashes. Specifically, we lacked evidence on the effectiveness of two different types of interlock laws – mandatory interlock laws, which require all individuals convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol to install an interlock, and partial interlock laws, which require some segments of high-risk DUI offenders – like repeat offenders or those convicted of driving with a very high blood alcohol content – to use an interlock in order to drive legally.

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Children Can Choke to Death on Grapes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr Jamie G Cooper

Consultant in Emergency Medicine
Aberdeen Royal Infirmary
Aberdeen UK

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jamie Cooper Consultant in Emergency Medicine Aberdeen Royal Infirmary Aberdeen MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Choking in children can be fatal and regularly grapes can be the cause. We believe that public awareness of the choking hazard posed by grapes (and other similarly shaped foods, such as cherry tomatoes) is not wide spread. By publishing this article we aimed to highlight the problem to health professionals who look after children and also to the public at large in an attempt to reduce the number of future episodes. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Response: With parental consent we published the cases of three small children who suffered choking episodes as a result of whole grapes, two of whom died as a result. In each case it was not possible to dislodge the grape using first aid techniques. MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report? Response: Small children are at risk from choking because they have smaller airways, reduced ability to chew foods, underdeveloped swallowing coordination and can be easily distracted when eating. Grapes are a healthy and popular snack but are ideally suited to cause airway obstruction, particularly if inhaled whole. Small children (up to 5 years) should always be supervised by adults while eating; and grapes should be halved, or ideally quartered, before consumption. We hope that by drawing attention to this issue that consideration will be given at a political level to wider dissemination of this information so as to prevent further occurrences. MedicalResearch.com: Thank you for your contribution to the MedicalResearch.com community. Citation: BMJ The choking hazard of grapes: a plea for awareness Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions. More Medical Research Interviews on MedicalResearch.com

Grapes
Wikipedia image

Response: Choking in children can be fatal and regularly grapes can be the cause.  We believe that public awareness of the choking hazard posed by grapes (and other similarly shaped foods, such as cherry tomatoes) is not wide spread.  By publishing this article we aimed to highlight the problem to health professionals who look after children and also to the public at large in an attempt to reduce the number of future episodes.

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Key Barriers To Development of Artificial Red Blood Cells Overcome

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Allan Doctor, MD Pediatric Critical Care Medicine Professor of Pediatrics and (Associate) Biochemistry Washington University School of Medicine & Saint Louis Children’s Hospital St. Louis, Missouri

Dr. Allan Doctor

Allan Doctor, MD
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Professor of Pediatrics and (Associate) Biochemistry
Washington University School of Medicine &
Saint Louis Children’s Hospital
St. Louis, Missouri

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Our research team has developed the first nanoscale artificial cells designed to emulate vital functions of natural red blood cells. If ultimately confirmed safe for use in humans, this nanotechnology-based product, called ‘ErythroMer’, could represent a new and innovative alternative to blood transfusions that would be especially valuable in situations where stored blood is needed, but difficult to obtain or use, such as in pre-hospital or battlefield settings. The artificial cells are designed to be freeze-dried, stored for extended periods at ambient temperatures, and simply reconstituted with water for immediate use.

This year, the National Academy of Sciences estimated that 30,000 civilian trauma deaths/year are preventable and of these, two-thirds arise from hemorrhage in the pre-hospital phase of care. One key goal for our team is to advance treatment for trauma victims or soldiers in austere environments by initiating resuscitation in the field, particularly when transport is prolonged. ErythroMer could be a blood substitute that medics carry in their pack and literally take it out, add water, and inject. There are currently no simple, practical means to bring transfusion to most trauma victims outside of hospitals. Delays in resuscitation significantly impact outcomes; it is our goal to push timely, effective care to field settings.

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Heart Attacks Tripled in Disaster Area Post Katrina

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Anand M. Irimpen MD

Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine
Tulane University Medical Center
New Orleans, LA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We did this study to look at the incidence of heart attacks post Katrina. There had been no long-term data on patients having heart attacks post major disaster and hence we decided to investigate this issue.

The main findings are that there is a three-fold increase in heart attacks post Katrina compared to pre – Katrina. There was a higher incidence of hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and smoking in the post-Katrina group compared to the pre-Katrina group.

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Research Into Gun Violence Plunged Over 15 Year Period

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ted Alcorn, MHS, MA Everytown for Gun Safety Brooklyn, New York

Ted Alcorn

Ted Alcorn, MHS, MA
Everytown for Gun Safety
Brooklyn, New York

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Two decades ago, opponents of gun violence prevention recognized that they could curb the development and enactment of effective laws if they halted scientific research on which good policy would be grounded or justified. So they adopted a strategy of intimidation towards the leading federal agencies funding research on this topic and generating data on which analysis relied. Journalists that observed the pattern and scientists that lived through it often described the “chilling effect” this had on the field of gun violence prevention research.

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Neighborhood Violence Associated With Biological Stress in Children

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Katherine P. Theall, PhD Associate Professor Global Community Health and Behavioral Services Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine New Orleans, Louisiana

Dr. Katherine P. Theall

Katherine P. Theall, PhD
Associate Professor
Global Community Health and Behavioral Services
Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine
New Orleans, Louisiana

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: There are stark health disparities in the U.S. by socioeconomic position as well as between racial and ethnic groups. Many of these health disparities may have a root cause in childhood and be driven by social risk factors. The authors report each neighborhood stressor was associated with biological stress as measured by shortened telomere length and cortisol functioning. Many children are exposed to violence and a greater understanding of the effect on children’s health is critical because social environmental conditions likely contribute to health disparities. Socioeconomically disadvantaged communities have a higher exposure to violence. Limitations of the study include its lack of applicability to other demographic groups. The study also cannot establish causality.

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Childhood Trauma Associated With Greater Risk of Adult Drug Abuse

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Kelly Quinn, PhD, MPH Assistant Professor Department of Population Health NYU Langone Medical Center New York, NY 10016-6481

Dr. Kelly Quinn

Kelly Quinn, PhD, MPH
Assistant Professor
Department of Population Health
NYU Langone Medical Center
New York, NY 10016-6481

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The prescription pain reliever misuse epidemic in the United States has contributed to a dramatic increase in overdoses and overdose mortality and is linked to injection drug use. Identification of upstream drivers of drug misuse is crucial for prevention strategies. We aimed to further the knowledge of the association between traumatic experiences in childhood and drug misuse in adulthood.

Using nationally-representative data from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), we examined the associations of nine childhood traumas (neglect; emotional, physical, and sexual abuse; parent binge drinking and incarceration; and witnessing, being threatened with, and experiencing violence) with prescription pain reliever misuse and injection drug use in emerging adulthood and adulthood. Some, but not all, traumas independently predicted drug misuse. However, this analysis found that the cumulative number of traumas predicted drug misuse in a dose-response fashion. That is, relative to children reporting no trauma, increasing number of traumas in childhood was associated with higher odds of initiating drug misuse later in life.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: These findings add to evidence that the trauma load during stress-sensitive childhood has negative health consequences throughout the life course and have immediate public health significance. Prescribing patterns for prescription pain relievers must be carefully monitored in order to prevent misuse, addiction, and escalation to heroin use and drug injection. Screening for and addressing childhood trauma may be an important strategy to prevent initiation of drug use, and for drug users, trauma-informed interventions throughout the life course are important for treatment and mitigation of relapse.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study?

Response: Future research is needed to elucidate causal mechanisms, to better understand the influence of age at childhood trauma, and to clarify escalation from misusing prescription pain relievers to injecting drugs.

MedicalResearch.com: Thank you for your contribution to the MedicalResearch.com community.

Citation:

APHA 2016 abstract and publication

Associations between Childhood Traumatic Events and Adulthood Prescription Pain Pill Misuse and Injection Drug Use in the United States
Quinn, Kelly et al.
Drug & Alcohol Dependence , Volume 0 , Issue 0
Published online: October 04, 2016

Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions.

More Medical Research Interviews on MedicalResearch.com

Prescription of Psychotropic Medications Reduced Violent Reoffending After Prison Release

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Zheng Chang PhD
Dept. of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
Karolinska Institutet and
Seena Fazel MD
Department of Psychiatry Warneford Hospital
University of Oxford, Oxford, England

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: There were more than 10 million prisoners worldwide in 2015, with approximately 2.2 million in the United States alone. Despite reported decreases in violence in many countries, reoffending rates remain high. From 2005 through 2010, more than one-third of released prisoners in the United States and the United Kingdom were reconvicted of a new crime within 2 years. Most programs to reduce reoffending focus on psychosocial interventions, but their effect sizes are weak to moderate. As psychiatric and substance use disorders, which increase reoffending rates, are overrepresented among jail and prison populations.

This study investigated the main psychotropic medication classes prescribed to prisoners using longitudinal Swedish population registers and examined the association between prescription of psychotropic medication and risk of violent reoffending. We found that three classes of psychotropic medications were associated with substantial reductions in violent reoffending: antipsychotics, a 42% reduction; psychostimulants, 38%; and drugs used in addictive disorders, a 52% reduction. The magnitudes of these associations were as strong as and possibly stronger than those for widely disseminated psychological programs in prison.

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Dementia Risk Raised When Elderly Lose Home During Disaster

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Hiroyuki Hikichi, Ph.D. Research Fellow Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Boston, MA 02215

Dr. Hiroyuki Hikichi

Hiroyuki Hikichi, Ph.D.
Research Fellow
Harvard T.H. Chan School of  Public Health
Boston, MA 02215

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Recovery after major disaster poses potential risks of dementia for the elderly population, such as resettlement in unfamiliar surroundings or psychological trauma. However, no previous studies have demonstrated that experiences of disaster are associated with the deterioration of dementia symptomatology, controlling changes of  risk factors in a natural experimental setting.

We prospectively examined whether experiences of a disaster were associated with incident dementia in the aftermath of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: The main findings are that major housing damage and home destroyed were associated with cognitive decline: regression coefficient for levels of dementia symptoms = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01 to 0.23 and coefficient = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.40, respectively.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: The effect size of destroyed home is comparable to the impact of incident stroke (coefficient = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.36).

From these findings, cognitive decline should be added to the list of health risks of older survivors in the aftermath of disasters.

MedicalResearch.com: Thank you for your contribution to the MedicalResearch.com community.

Citation:

Hiroyuki Hikichi, Jun Aida, Katsunori Kondo, Toru Tsuboya, Yusuke Matsuyama, S. V. Subramanian, Ichiro Kawachi. Increased risk of dementia in the aftermath of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2016; 201607793 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1607793113

Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions.

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Mechanism of Injury Makes A Difference In Risk of Venous Thromboembolism

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Charles A. Karcutskie IV, MD, MA

Postdoctoral Research Fellow
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
Department of Surgery
Divisions of Trauma, Surgical Critical Care, and Burns

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Our research group at the Ryder Trauma Center have recently done several studies showing various differences in outcomes and risk based on mechanism of injury. Additionally, venous thromboembolism (VTE) is another topic that our group has focused on in the past several years. Because trauma patients are inherently at a higher risk for VTE due to the nature of their injury, we questioned whether the most important risk factors for VTE were different after blunt or penetrating trauma. At our institution, we assess VTE risk with the Greenfield Risk Assessment Profile, which is a list of several risk factors that each have weight toward an overall risk score. We took these risk factors and analyzed them individually based on mechanism of injury. We found that the factors that contribute to the VTE risk are different based on injury mechanism: After blunt trauma, transfusion status, neurologic status, and pelvic fracture contributed most. After penetrating trauma, vascular injury, severe abdominal injury, and age 40-59 years contributed most. This tells us that mechanism of injury may need to be incorporated into the risk assessment in order to discover the highest risk patients.

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