Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Psychological Science / 24.03.2014

Craig A. Anderson, Distinguished Professor Director, Center for the Study of Violence Department of Psychology Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-3180MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Craig A. Anderson, Distinguished Professor Director, Center for the Study of Violence Department of Psychology Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-3180 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Anderson: There are three main findings from this long-term study of violent video game effects. 1. Over time, repeated play and practice of violent video games led to an relative increase in aggressive thought patterns and in physical aggression. 2. As predicted by social-cognitive theoretical models, the violent video game effect on physical aggression was directly linked to the increase in aggressive thought patterns. That is, one key reason why repeated exposure to violent video games increases aggression is because such exposure changes the way children and adolescents think about people and events that occur in their lives. In a sense, their personality changes, so that they perceive more hostility around them and come to view physically aggressive behavior as a proper solution to even minor conflicts and provocations. 3. These effects of repeated exposure to violent video games were quite general across types of people. Boys and girls, younger children and older adolescents, high aggressive and low aggressive children, all showed pretty much the same effects. In other words, no subgroup was immune to the harmful effects of violent video games. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 23.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christos S. Mantzoros, MD, DSc, PhD Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and the VA Boston HealthcareChristos S. Mantzoros, MD, DSc, PhD Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and the VA Boston Healthcare Cynthia R. Davis PhD Judge Baker Children’s Center in Boston, MA.Cynthia R. Davis PhD Judge Baker Children’s Center in Boston, MA.     MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Answer: These results highlight that chronic stressors in childhood, like child abuse and family violence, parental substance abuse, divorce and separation from a parental figure, can potentially have a long standing impact on brain structures and functioning, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.  Our work supports the notion of allostatic load, and is the first of its kind to demonstrate links between childhood adversity and central obesity later in life which leads to increased cardio metabolic risk. This study describes the role of these novel molecules in mediating metabolic dysregulation highlighting them as a novel mechanism linking childhood adversity to obesity. We have also used more sensitive assessments of childhood adversity, not typically employed in biomedical research, that incorporate the severity of adversities and their chronicity across childhood.  Assessments of this nature are better able to detect severe and chronic adversity, and are critical in the measurement of stress, its role in allostatic load and its impact on the brain.  Furthermore, the current study and others from our lab show that severe and chronic adversity in childhood is associated with metabolic dysregulation and obesity in adulthood, regardless of lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise and psychosocial factors like depression and social support. Clinicians and patients need to be aware of the fact that subjects exposed to early life adversity are at increase risk for central obesity and cardio metabolic risk. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews / 20.03.2014

Judy A. Stevens PhD National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta GA 30341MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Judy A. Stevens PhD National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta GA 30341 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Stevens: The fall death rate among persons aged 65 and older has been increasing rapidly. We used vital statistics data to examine the circumstances and contributing conditions to fall deaths. We found that of 21,649 fall deaths in 2010, the largest proportion (35%) occurred from falling on the same level, followed by falling on stairs or steps (6.5%).  From 1999 to 2010, there was a trend toward more specific reporting of falls circumstances. However, information about the circumstances of 49% of the 2010 fall deaths was not available. In 2010, 49% of fall deaths involved a head injury and 30% involved a hip fracture. The most important contributing causes to fall deaths were circulatory diseases, especially hypertension, and respiratory diseases. Factors that may partially explain the rapid increase in the fall death rate include changing trends in the death rates for underlying chronic diseases strongly associated with falls, such as reductions in cardiovascular disease deaths, as well as better reporting on death certificates of falls as the underlying cause of death. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Brain Injury, JAMA / 14.03.2014

Pashtun Shahim, MD Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology Department of Neurochemistry Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal SwedenMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pashtun Shahim, MD Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology Department of Neurochemistry Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Shahim: Sports-related concussion in professional ice hockey players is associated with acute axonal and astroglial injury. Plasma total tau, which is a highly central nervous system-specific protein, is a promising biomarker to be used both in the diagnosis of concussion and in the decision-making when an athlete can be declared fit to return to play. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Duke, JAMA, Ophthalmology / 14.03.2014

Glenn Yiu, MD, PhD Duke Ophthalmology Duke University Medical CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Glenn Yiu, MD, PhD Duke Ophthalmology Duke University Medical Center MedicalResearch.com:  What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Yiu: This paper reported a child who suffered injury to both eyes from a powerful blue laser pointer purchased via the internet from overseas. Our report reviews the scientific basis for laser injuries in eyes and the factors that may affect outcomes, such as power, wavelength, duration, and distance of exposure. Newer green and blue lasers, especially high-powered ones, may be more prone to inducing eye injuries. We summarized the clinical features of ocular laser injuries, methods of prevention, and discussed how consumer availability of high powered lasers may require careful federal regulations. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Lancet, Sexual Health / 14.02.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Naeemah Abrahams Senior Specialist Scientist:  Gender & Health Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council Extraordinary Professor:  Faculty of Community Health Sciences -School of Public Health: University of the Western Cape Associate Professor: Faculty of Health Sciences - School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences: University of Cape Town MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Abrahams: We found a global estimate of non-partner sexual violence of 7.2%  for women 15 years and older - but this estimate varied across the globe. The regions with the highest prevalence was Sub Sahara Africa Central and Southern with a prevalence was 21% in the central region and  17.4 % in the Southern region. This is nearly 3 times the global estimate . The region with the lowest prevalence was  Asia South at 3.3%. The low level could be due to a number of reasons. Firstly data from this region was very limited – from 2 countries only  and we have found that if sexual violence questions are added to other larger studies the level of disclosure is not very high. It is also  more likely that people from Asia region do not disclose the violence in research studies because of stigma and shame. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Johns Hopkins / 10.02.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with study leaders: Shalini Selvarajah MD, MPH Postdoctoral Research Fellow Center for Surgical Trials and Outcomes Research Department of Surgery Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, MD 21287  and Edward R. Hammond, MD, PhD, MPH Research Associate International Center for Spinal Cord Injury Hugo W. Moser Research Institute at Kennedy Krieger Institute Baltimore, MD 21205. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Researchers: ·    Between 2007 and 2010, the number of serious traumatic spinal cord injuries (TSCI) in the United States (U.S.) increased, doing so more rapidly among older adults (age ≥65 years) compared to younger adults (age <65 years). Injuries from falls have overtaken motor vehicle crashes as the main cause of adult TSCI. ·    Older adults are more likely to experience worse outcomes compared to younger adults even after taking into account severity and mechanism of injury, as well as other co-morbid conditions. Older adults are 4 times more likely to die in the emergency room, and if admitted to inpatient care, they are 6 times more likely to die as inpatients compared to younger adults. ·    Emergency room charges for treatment of acute TSCI among adults increased 20% from $3,342 per encounter in 2007 to $4,024 per encounter in 2010 even after accounting for the cost of inflation. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Cannabis / 03.02.2014

Joanne E. Brady SM Senior Staff Associate Department of Anesthesiology Doctoral Candidate in Epidemiology Columbia University Medical Center New York, NY 10032MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joanne E. Brady SM Senior Staff Associate Department of Anesthesiology Doctoral Candidate in Epidemiology Columbia University Medical Center New York, NY 10032 Department of Epidemiology, Columbia’s Mailman School of Public Health MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The prevalence of non-alcohol drugs detected in fatally injured drivers in the U.S. increased from 17% in 1999 to 28% in 2010.  The increases are largely driven by the tripling in the prevalence of cannabis. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Brain Injury, Wake Forest / 31.01.2014

Steven Rowson, Ph.D. Research Assistant Professor Virginia Tech Wake Forest UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Steven Rowson, Ph.D. Research Assistant Professor Virginia Tech Wake Forest University   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rowson: We found that there were large differences in concussion risk between football helmet types.  This is the first study to address this question while controlling for the number of times each helmet type was impacted. This allowed us to compare apples to apples.  For example, we're not comparing starters who frequently get hit in one helmet type to second string players who don't get hit as much. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews / 30.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Andrew Anglemyer, PhD, MPH; Clinical Pharmacy and Global Health Sciences University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, CAAndrew Anglemyer, PhD, MPH; Clinical Pharmacy and Global Health Sciences University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, CA MedicalResearch.com:  What are the main findings of the study?  Dr. Anglemyer: Over all, you are more than 3 times more likely to commit suicide if you have access to a firearm than if you do not.  And,  among men only, they are nearly 4 times more likely to commit suicide if they have access to a firearm than if they do not. Additionally, over all, you are 2 times more likely to be a victim of homicide if you have access to a firearm than if you do not. We also found that females have a higher likelihood of being a victim of homicide, than males when considering firearm access.  And we know from empirical data that the majority of female victims knew their assailant—which, to us, suggests that they were victims of domestic violence. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, NEJM / 02.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sheila G. Klauer, Ph.D Virginia Tech Transportation Institute MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr.Klauer: We found that novice drivers are especially at risk of crash/near-crash involvement when engaging in secondary tasks that take their eyes off of the forward roadway.  This includes tasks with wireless devices such as texting, dialing, and reaching for the device as well as reaching for any object, eating, and looking at objects along the roadway.  We also found that the prevalence of engaging in these high risk tasks increases over time which concerns traffic safety researchers.  This is particularly concerning with the proliferation of highly capable smart phones where teens can do not only texting but also sending pictures, watching video, skype, etc. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 18.11.2013

Brad J. Bushman, PhD Professor of Communication and Psychology, Margaret Hall and Robert Randal Rinehart Chair of Mass Communication School of Communication, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, NetherlandsGun Violence Trends in Movies Brad J. Bushman, PhD Professor of Communication and Psychology, Margaret Hall and Robert Randal Rinehart Chair of Mass Communication The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bushman: Gun violence in PG-13 movies has tripled since 1985, the year the PG-13 rating was introduced. When the PG-13 rating was introduced, PG-13 films had about as much gun violence as G and PG films. Now PG-13 films have significantly more gun violence than R-rated films. (more…)