Ophthalmology / 21.04.2024

eyesurgery-lasix-eye-eyelashes-face-woman-63320.webpLASIK is an excellent option for people who have to wear glasses or contacts and don't want to do that anymore. Before going in for a consultation, it's good to learn as much as possible about it. Here are some answers, including ones if you have questions about LASIK cost. What is LASIK? This is an outpatient surgery where the eye doctor will use a laser to reshape the corneal tissue of an eye through a flap that is also created by the laser. It's a safe procedure since the laser won't damage other tissue or other parts of the eye. Who is a Candidate for LASIK?  While there are a lot of people who can benefit from this, there are some who aren't eligible. They include people who are under 18, those who have had multiple changes in their eyeglasses prescription, people that have extreme cases of nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism, and those who have severe dry eye. Your eye doctor will thoroughly examine your eyes and make that determination before moving ahead and scheduling the actual surgery. (more…)
Ophthalmology / 18.04.2024

Although LASIK has been around for decades, people still have to weigh the pros and cons before going ahead with the surgery. One prominent thing could dissuade people who are interested in it from getting it - the most important LASIK candidacy factors. Simply put, not everyone will be able to have the surgery. The reasons, as the link shows, include having too strong a case of nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism. eye-lasixPro: It's a Very Fast Surgery When you compare it to other surgeries involving things that play a large part of your senses, a 10-minute surgery is astonishing. You'll be surprised at how quickly things go, even when you're spending some of the time with your eyes pinned open. As a result, you'll feel relief that you're out of the operating room as soon as you are. Since your eyes will be open the entire time, too, you won't have to worry about that post-anesthesia nausea that some people have when they are put under. Con: There Are Some Possible Risks Yes, LASIK has been around for a long time, but that doesn't mean that it's completely perfect. Some people do have some side effects. Even if they didn't have dry eye before, some people can have it for roughly three months. Dry eye is when your eyes can't produce tears, which then leads to them feeling grainy. Other things include having hazy vision, nighttime glare (which can make driving at night dangerous. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Diabetes, Ophthalmology / 16.06.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ali Hafezi-Moghadam, Ph.D., M.D Director, Molecular Biomarkers Nano-Imaging Laboratory (MBNI) Associate Professor of Radiology, Harvard Medical School Brigham and Women’s Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: “It is very easy to answer many fundamental biological questions” said Richard Feynman in his 1959 address, where he also offered his simple and ingenious solution: “you just look at the thing!”[1]. As a biologist, I am familiar with the challenges surrounding looking at things in the context of life. There is no single device or technology that lets me simply see the answers to my questions. How does diabetes harm the tissues in the body? When exactly does the pathology start and which molecules and cells are involved? Trying to answer these questions, I have spent the past two decades innovating new ways of quantifying expression of molecules in the living organism [2]. At the same time to study diabetes, we needed a realistic rodent model that mirrors the human disease. In collaboration with KC Hayes[3], we first introduced the Nile grass rat (NGR, Arvicanthis niloticus), a gerbil that recapitulates the main features of the human type 2 diabetes [4]. For visualization of early changes, the eye offers a unique site. Much of my lab’s work focused on the first effects of diabetes in the retina, the site of the neurons that perceive light in the back of the eye [5], [6], [7]. In recent studies, we focused on how diabetes affects the lens in the eye of our animals [8], [9]. Diabetes is a major risk factor for cataract formation, a condition during which the lens loses its original transparency to visible light. How diabetic cataracts are formed is not well understood. A popular and prevailing theory, termed “sugar cataracts”, has been around for over half a century. According to the sugar hypothesis of cataracts, the excess levels of the sugar molecule, glucose, in the lens are transformed through the polyol pathway into the sugar-alcohol sorbitol. The resulting osmotic dysbalance leads to swelling of the fiber cells and opacity of the lens. Even though the sugar hypothesis has never been proven, it was generally accepted and remained unchallenged for a very long time. That is where our latest experimental results became relevant. (more…)
Ophthalmology / 06.10.2022

A majority of adults have imperfect vision. Some of these adults were born with poor eyesight. Others developed it as they aged. Either way, most people opt for eyeglasses or contact lenses to correct their vision. Of course, glasses or contacts might not be the most convenient or affordable approach in the long-run for some people. The next best way to improve one’s vision is to opt for LASIK eye surgery. So who, then, would be a good candidate for this method of treatment, you may ask? Below, you’ll learn if LASIK might be a great next step for you. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Ophthalmology, USPSTF / 02.06.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Katrina Donahue, M.D., M.P.H. Professor and vice chair of research Department of Family Medicine University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Dr. Donohue is a family physician and senior research fellow Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research Dr. Donahue joined the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in January 2020. MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings?  Response: Impaired vision and glaucoma are serious and common conditions facing millions of people nationwide that can affect a person’s independence and quality of life. These recommendations looked at how primary care clinicians can help people who have not noticed any problems with their vision. Unfortunately, there is not enough evidence available to make a recommendation for or against screening adults for glaucoma or older adults for impaired vision in the primary care setting. (more…)
Author Interviews, Ophthalmology, Technology / 01.04.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Scott D. Barnes, MD Chief Medical Officer STAAR Surgical https://staar.com/MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for the EVO procedure?  Would you briefly describe what is meant by myopia and how common it is? Response: EVO is a clinically-proven implantable lens that corrects common vision problems such as nearsightedness and nearsightedness with astigmatism. EVO can be the solution for people who want to get rid of their glasses or contact lenses. Myopia (or nearsightedness) is the most common ocular disorder worldwide and its incidence is increasing significantly. An estimated 30% of the world's population, or 2.6 billion people, have myopia and this number is projected to rise to 50% of the global population by the year 2050. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Ophthalmology / 08.02.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Saundra Singh M.D., Ph.D. Founder & CEO/President Singh Biotechnology https://www.singhbiotechnology.com/       MedicalResearch.com: What is the mission of Singh Biotechnology?  
  • Our mission is to develop medicine and therapeutics that dramatically improve and save the lives of people worldwide suffering from diseases, including cancer.
MedicalResearch.com: What are the advantages of the Single Domain Antibody technology?
  • The average human antibody is 150 Kd in size and works on the outside of the cell. The advantage of the single domain nanobody is that it is significantly smaller, in fact, it is one-tenth the size (approximately 15 Kd) of the human antibody. A smaller nanobody is more useful therapeutically because, unlike many cancer drugs currently on the market, it can penetrate the blood-brain barrier, the blood-retina barrier, and the cell membrane. Moreover, our SBT-100 drug has been shown to be non-toxic in animal models.
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Author Interviews, Ophthalmology, PLoS / 20.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Jugnoo S Rahi Professor of Ophthalmic Epidemiology and Honorary Consultant Ophthalmologist NIHR Senior Investigator Head, Vision and Eyes Group UCL HeadPopulation Policy and Practice Research and Teaching Department GOS ICH UCL Director, Ulverscroft Vision Research Group  GOS Institute of Child Health UCL / Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust Institute of Ophthalmology UCL / NIHR Moorfields Biomedical Research Centre Chair, Academic Committee Chair, British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit Executive Committee Royal College of Ophthalmologists  MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?    Response: We hypothesised that if changing environmental factors, in particular educational experience, are accounting for increasing frequency of myopia in the UK, a cohort effect would be discernible in changing associations with myopia, with different profiles for childhood and adult-onset forms. We investigated this using the UK Biobank Study, a unique large contemporary adult population sample whose members, born over a period of more than three decades, have undergone a detailed ophthalmic examination. This affords the opportunity to analyse ‘historical’ cohorts covering a period of important socio-demographic, economic, and educational change in the UK from which current and emerging trends may be identified and examined. Drawing on our previous proof-of-concept study, we investigated whether there were differences between childhood-onset versus adult-onset myopia in temporal trends in both frequency and severity and in associations with key environmental factors. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, JAMA, Ophthalmology / 06.12.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Cecilia S. Lee, MD, MS Associate Professor,Director, Clinical Research Department of Ophthalmology Harborview Medical Center University of Washington Seattle, WA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Cataract is a natural aging process of the eye and affects the majority of older adults who are at risk for dementia. Sensory loss, including vision and hearing, is of interest to the research community as a possible risk factor for dementia, and also as a potential point of intervention. Because cataract surgery improves visual function, we hypothesized that older people who undergo cataract surgery may have a decreased risk of developing Alzheimer disease and dementia. We used the longitudinal data from an ongoing, prospective, community based cohort, Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study. The ACT study includes over 5000 participants to date who are dementia free at recruitment and followed until they develop Alzheimer disease or dementia. We had access to their extensive medical history including comprehensive ophthalmology visit data. We investigated whether cataract surgery was associated with a decreased risk of developing Alzheimer disease and dementia.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Coffee, Ophthalmology / 04.12.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kristine Dalton PhD FAAO, FBCLA School of Optometry & Vision Science University of Waterloo Waterloo, Canada MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Dynamic visual acuity refers to the ability to detect and perceive small details in objects that are moving relative to an observer.  Dynamic visual acuity is a complex visual function, that involves a number of different aspects of vision, including detecting the target, moving the eyes appropriately to observe the target, and processing the visual information from the target in the brain to interpret what we are seeing.   What makes dynamic visual acuity so interesting to study, is that as a visual function, it appears to play an important role in a number of real-world situations, including playing sports, driving, and piloting, and it may provide us more information about how the visual system is functioning compared to the more traditional, static vision tests alone. Previous research has demonstrated that consumption of caffeine has been shown to benefit physiological, psychomotor, and cognitive performance.  More recently there has been an increased interest in studying the impacts of caffeine on the vision system, however the impact of caffeine on dynamic visual acuity has not been studied.  This study was designed to address this limitation in the literature, particularly because dynamic visual acuity appears to be such an important visual function for real-world activities.   (more…)
Author Interviews, Macular Degeneration, Ophthalmology, PNAS / 27.10.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bradley D. Gelfand PhD Center for Advanced Vision Science Department of Ophthalmology Department of Biomedical Engineering University of Virginia School of Medicine Charlottesville, VA 22908  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you briefly describe dry AMD? Response: Dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a form of AMD that affects about 11 million people in the United States, and many millions more worldwide. Dry AMD is a disease affecting the macula, the central part of our retina that is responsible for fine visual acuity tasks - things like reading, driving, and recognizing faces. Dry AMD typically develops in people in their 6th, 7th, and 8th decades of life and begins with small changes to the retina that are unlikely to affect vision at first. As the disease progresses, it can develop into more advanced stages ("wet" AMD and geographic atrophy), which can cause blindness. Unfortunately, there is no approved treatment that can prevent dry AMD or its progression to advanced blinding stages. (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, Ophthalmology / 08.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Louis Pasquale, MD, FARVO Professor of Ophthalmology Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Site Chair of the Department of Ophthalmology Mt. Sinai Hospital and Vice Chair of Translational Ophthalmology Research Mount Sinai Healthcare System  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Studies on the relation between caffeine intake and glaucoma have been contradictory, although our work suggested an adverse association amongst people with a self-reported family history of glaucoma. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Ophthalmology, Stem Cells / 07.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ian A. White, M.S., Ph.D. Founder, President & Chief Scientific Officer Neobiosis, LLC  Interdisciplinary Stem Cell Institute University of Miami MedicalResearch.com: What is the mission of Stem Cell Institute and Neobiosis?   The Interdisciplinary Stem Cell Institute at the University of Miami was established to capitalize on pioneering work in the use of adult stem cells for the repair of malfunctioning human organs. The goal of the Institute is to find new treatments for heart disease, neurological disease, bone disease, diabetes, cancer, eye diseases, and other chronic, debilitating, or incurable diseases. Neobiosis is a privately-owned biotech company dedicated to the manufacture and development of regenerative tissues, cells, and the secretome from perinatal sources. Our mission is to provide high-quality products for research and clinical trials by focusing on the science of regenerative medicine. (more…)
Exercise - Fitness, Ophthalmology / 07.05.2021

Are you a loving parent with a passion for helping your kids achieve the best that they can? It is only natural to want what is best for your family, so it is important to keep an eye on your physical and mental health to create a positive environment for your children to thrive in. As the coronavirus pandemic continues to necessitate restrictions around the world, parents everywhere are being forced to help their children learn from home. If you are starting to feel overwhelmed by the stress of the pandemic — and modern life in general — here are a few tips to help you stay positive and healthy so that you can provide your kids with the best care and attention possible.

Create a Timetable

timetable-schedule Having a reliable routine to adhere to is great way to ensure that you can keep things in perspective. You might just find that the secret benefits of a great timetable make all the difference when it comes to your daily well-being. Designating time for a break within your timetable can give you something to look forward to, while also providing a timeframe in which to achieve your current tasks. Making space for breaks can also be helpful when it comes to alleviating feelings like monotony and apathy. (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, Ophthalmology, Science / 12.03.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: eye-eyecolor-geneticsDr Pirro Hysi Senior Lecturer in Ophthalmology Kings College London MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: - Iris (eye) color is an important human trait. It is one of the main features that makes our faces unique and recognizable. Iris color is similar to other pigmentatio traits, like hair and skin color, in that it is determined by the concentration and relative ratios of the melanin pigment. Pigmentation traits are roughly determined by several of the same genes regulating pigmentation, but many other genes seem to selectively determine pigmentation in any of these tissues. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cannabis, Ophthalmology, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Social Issues / 09.11.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joshua Uhr MD Ophthalmologist Philadelphia, PA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Disparities in American society have been at the forefront of the public consciousness in recent months. As part of the larger discussion about inequality, disparities in health outcomes have received much attention. In light of the renewed recognition that these disparities are stark and widespread, we felt it important to evaluate disparities in our own field, ophthalmology. Previous studies have shown disparate outcomes for individual eye conditions, such as glaucoma, cataract, and retinal detachment. Although the common and relevant endpoint of these is visual impairment, few prior studies have examined disparities in visual impairment more broadly. Our aim was to provide an updated analysis of disparity in visual impairment among adults in the United States based on race and socioeconomic status.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Ophthalmology / 23.10.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Steven Grieco, PhD Postdoctoral Scholar Xu Lab, UCI MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: In recent years the drug ketamine, which has been used safely as a dissociative anaesthetic for decades, has gained widespread interest in the field of psychiatry for its use as an antidepressant at low doses. In 2019 the FDA finally approved a nasal spray that delivers ketamine to patients with untreatable clinical depression.  Now, such patients go to the appropriate clinical setting and receive ketamine treatments, though this is not required daily for an effective outcome. In fact, studies have found that a single low dose ketamine treatment can result in beneficial improvements in mood that last for several days or even weeks. This suggests that ketamine treatment induces significant neural plasticity in the brain. Since the mechanisms governing this ketamine-mediated neural plasticity were not known, our group studied this using the visual cortex as a model tissue. The visual cortex has perhaps the most well-characterized patterns of neural plasticity in the brain to date, and is an excellent arena in which to test hypotheses about the mechanisms of neural plasticity. In fact, the classical antidepressant fluoxetine (Prozac), which induces neural plasticity only after long-term chronic treatment, has been studied extensivley in the visual cortex as well. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Ophthalmology, Pediatrics / 11.08.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jeffrey J. Walline, OD PhD Associate Dean for Research The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210-1240  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Greater amounts of nearsightedness are related to higher risks of sight-threatening complications in adulthood, so anything we can do to slow the progression of nearsightedness in childhood can have meaningful benefits in the future. As the prevalence of nearsightedness increases worldwide and affects approximately 1/3 of the people in the United States, a treatment that provides clear vision AND slows the progression of nearsightedness can have a profound effect. (more…)
Author Interviews, Ophthalmology / 30.07.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: CARL D. REGILLO, MD, FACS Carl D. Regillo, MD, FACS Chief, Retina Service Wills Eye Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for the Phase III Archway study? Would you briefly explain what Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration means?  Genentech announced in late July the results from the Phase III Archway study evaluating Port Delivery System (PDS) with ranibizumab (PDS) in people living with neovascular or “wet” age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) which showed PDS enabled 98.4% of people to go six months between treatments, while achieving vision outcomes equivalent to those receiving monthly ranibizumab eye injections, a current standard of care. AMD is a condition that affects the part of the eye that provides sharp, central vision needed for activities like reading and is a leading cause of blindness for people age 60 and over in the U.S. Neovascular AMD is an advanced form of AMD that can cause rapid and severe vision loss. Approximately 11 million people in the United States have some form of AMD and of those, about 1.1 million have nAMD.  (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Ophthalmology, Pediatrics / 20.07.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mayu Nishimura Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences Director of Research Kindergarten Vision Screening Program  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? child-looking-vision Response: Children's visual problems are difficult to identify without formal tests but most parents do not realize the importance of early eye checks nor are they aware that well-child visits to the family doctor/pediatrician are not enough. We are researchers at McMaster University (Hamilton, ON) and SickKids Hospital (Toronto, ON) who examined if it is possible to implement a vision screening program for kindergartners in diverse Ontario communities. Below are the main findings:
  • We screened nearly 5000 kindergarten children in 15 communities and found that 11% of screened children had a visual problem, with 2/3 of the children being identified for the first time.
  • There was great support for the program from the children, parents, teachers, and optometrists.
  • Screening required 15-20 minutes per child and cost $10/child.
  • When parents received a letter permitting them to opt out of screening, 4% did so. When parents were required to return a signed letter to opt in, 30% did not.
  • Referral rates varied across schools but were higher for children in junior kindergarten (average 53%) than children in senior kindergarten (average 34%).
  • Successful treatment depends on the parents’ awareness of the importance of eye exams and glasses, and access to optometrists and glasses without worrying about costs.
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Author Interviews, Ophthalmology, Technology / 18.06.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. FanProf. FAN Zhiyong PhD University of California, Irvine HKUST School of Engineering MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: According to the report of The World Health Organization, there are over 252 million people suffering from visual impairment globally and 15 million of them are difficult to cure by conventional medical methods. However, today, even the best bionic eyes have only 200 clinical trials, less than 1 ppm of all the patients, mainly due to their poor performance and high cost. The huge gap in supply and demand triggers the study of bionic eyes with performance comparable to human eyes. One important reason for their poor performance is the mismatch in shape between the flat bionic eyes and concave sclera. To protect the soft tissue in eyes from being damaged by the bionic surface, the implanted bionic eyes have to be small. This has limited the sensing area and further the electrodes number, and finally yielded poor image sensing characters with low resolution and narrow field-of-view. In this work, we are trying to achieve high performance image sensing by biomimeticing human eyes. The high-density NWs are well aligned and embedded in a hemispherical template to serve as retina. The conformal attachment of bionic eyes with sclera enables the large sensing area and wide visual angle. In addition, each individual high-density nanowires can potentially work as an individual pixel. By addressing these challenges, our device design has huge potential to improve the image sensing performance of bionic eyes. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, JAMA, Ophthalmology, Pediatrics / 13.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Natasha Nayak Kolomeyer, MD Glaucoma Service, Wills Eye Hospital Co-authors: Eric J. Shiuey, MS Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University Anton M. Kolomeyer, MD, PhD Scheie Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: I still remember the 6-year-old boy that was brought in to our emergency room on July 4th with a ruptured globe (severe eye trauma) due to fireworks; he permanently lost vision in that eye despite surgery. This is not a rare occurrence especially around certain holidays. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Ophthalmology, Thyroid Disease / 06.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Raymond Douglas MD PhD Board Certified Oculoplastic Surgeon Beverly Hills, CA  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you briefly explain what is meant by proptosis?  How does teprotumumab work? Response: This study provides pooled efficacy data from the Phase 2 and 3 clinical trials of teprotumumab showing that the recently FDA-approved medicine effectively reduces proptosis, also known as eye bulging, in patients with Thyroid Eye Disease (TED) regardless of age, gender and smoking status. Proptosis is one of the most debilitating symptoms of TED, especially given the accompanying pain, vision impairment and emotional distress. Teprotumumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody and a targeted inhibitor of the IGF-1 receptor. In patients with Thyroid Eye Disease, the IGF-1 receptor is overexpressed on orbital tissues and when activated, causes inflammation and enlargement of ocular muscles, expansion of orbital tissue and fat and forward displacement of the eye, resulting in eye bulging. The proteins in teprotumumab target and bind to the IGF-1 receptor and inhibit its function, thereby reducing inflammation, preventing tissue expansion behind the eye, and preventing muscle and fat tissue remodeling. Based on this mechanism of action, it is believed that teprotumumab addresses the underlying biology of the disease.  (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Ophthalmology, Rheumatology / 15.12.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Robert Ritch, MD, FACS, FARVO Shelley and Steven Einhorn Distinguished Chair Professor of Ophthalmology, Surgeon Director Emeritus Chief, Glaucoma Services Emeritus The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai New York, NY 10003 Founder, Medical Director and Chairman, Scientific Advisory Board The Glaucoma Foundation  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC), long used in rheumatology is a new approach to investigation of glaucoma. Posterior to the nailbed and just anterior to the proximal nailfold is the cuticle, which has no structural elements visible to the naked eye. NFC is a non-invasive imaging modality that provides a highly magnified view of the capillaries at the nailfold of digits. It has also been used in ophthalmology to show morphological changes at the nailfold capillaries of POAG and XFG/XFS patients, helping to confirm the systemic nature of these diseases. With nailfold capillaroscopy, an extensive array of capillaries can be seen greatly enlarged on a monitor screen. Capillary loops can be imaged, stored, recorded with videoscopy, and blood flow actively imaged and measured.. The first series of papers on glaucoma were written by Prof Josef Flammer’s group at the turn of the 21st century, looking at vasospasm, blood flow in normal-tension and high-tension glaucoma, and relating ocular blood flow alterations to systemic vascular regulation and relating laser Doppler flowmetry to NFC. Studies from Korea later associated nailbed hemorrhages and loss of nailbed capillaries to the presence of optic disc hemorrhages and investigated correlation of of heart rate variability with visual field defects and nailfold capillaroscopy. Studies by our group began with the publication in 2015 of a paper by Pasquale et al (Nailfold Capillary Abnormalities in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Multisite Study. IOVS;56:7021) using NFC video microscopy, associating dilated capillaries, avascular zones, and hemorrhages with primary open-angle glaucoma. Successive manuscripts and presentations at conferences have indicated differences between capillary loop patterns in high-tension and normal-tension POAG and exfoliation syndrome/exfoliation glaucoma. Our goal in this paper was to compare nailfold peripheral blood flow in XFG, which had not previously been compared to control subjects using NFC. We explored the peripheral blood flow at the nailfold of patients with high-tension glaucoma, normal-tension glaucoma, exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) and compared it to control subjects further evaluate the possible differences between these glaucoma entities. We examined the morphology and extent of nailfold capillary loops, vascular tortuosity, blood flow, and nailfold hemorrhages. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Neurology, Ophthalmology, Pain Research / 27.11.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Priv.-Doz. Dr. med. Christoph Schankin Consultant Head University Headache Clinic Department of Neurology Inselspital, Bern University Hospital University of Bern MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Visual snow syndrome is a debilitating disorder with a continuous TV snow-like visual disturbance that persists over years. Patients have additional visual problems, such as severe afterimages, floaters or photophobia. The syndrome is associated with migraine and migraine aura, but the interaction between the two remains unclear. (more…)
Author Interviews, Ophthalmology, Thyroid Disease / 26.11.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Raymond S. Douglas, MD, PhD Ophthalmology Cedars-Sinai, Los Angeles MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The data presented at the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) annual meeting on November 11, 2019 are integrated, pooled efficacy data from the Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials of teprotumumab for the treatment of active thyroid eye disease (TED) compared to placebo. The results support prior analyses of significant reductions in inflammation, proptosis (eye bulging) and diplopia (double vision), as well as improvements in quality of life (QoL). This presentation of the pooled analyses builds on the individual positive results of the Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical studies.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Melanoma, Ophthalmology / 15.11.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Mitchell Stark, B.App.Sc (Hons), PhD NHMRC Research Fellow The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute Woolloongabba, QLD MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Uveal nevi (moles) mimic the appearance of uveal melanoma and their transformation potential cannot be definitively determined without a biopsy. Moles or naevi in the eye are common but can be difficult to monitor because changes to their shape or colouring can’t always be seen as easily as on the skin. As naevi are difficult to biopsy, they are usually “monitored” at regular intervals. If there is a melanoma in the eye, then outcomes are poor for people if their cancer spreads to the liver. This study aimed to identify a “biomarker” that could be measured in patients’ blood that could be used as an early indicator of melanoma formation (from a mole) or progression to other body sites.  (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, JAMA, Ophthalmology, Pediatrics / 03.11.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joyce Nanjinga Mbekeani, M.B.B.S. Associate Professor Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The United States has the highest incidence of gun violence, of all affluent, OECD countries. Thus, firearms are a major public health concern, ranking second among causes of pediatric trauma-related injuries that result in significant morbidity and mortality. However, most scientific reports addressing pediatric firearm-related eye injuries have evaluated non-powder (recreational) firearm injuries. Our study used the large National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) to study firearm-related eye injuries for all types of firearms from all intentions of injury. The NTDB collects de-identified submissions of trauma admissions from over 900 facilities in the US.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, JAMA, Ophthalmology / 02.11.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Jeremy A. Guggenheim School of Optometry & Vision Sciences Cardiff University, UKProfessor Jeremy A. Guggenheim School of Optometry & Vision Sciences Cardiff University, UK MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Near-sightedness (myopia) usually develops during childhood and necessitates the use of glasses or contact lenses to correct blurry distance vision. It is also a risk factor for sight-threatening disorders such as glaucoma, retinal detachment and macular degeneration. Promising treatments designed to slow the progression of myopia are becoming available. Building on previous research suggesting that some individuals are genetically predisposed to near-sightedness, we investigated whether a genetic test could identify children at risk of developing myopia.  (more…)