Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, JAMA / 22.02.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Benjamin N. Breyer, MD, MAS Department of Urology Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics University of California, San Francisco Adrian M. Fernandez, MD Department of Urology University of California, San Francisco MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: This is a cross-sectional study utilizing data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) to identify injuries and hospitalizations related to electric bicycles accidents in the United States from 2017-2022.  The NEISS database collates injury data associated with products, including electric bicycles, and samples a nationally representative selection of emergency departments. National estimates of e-bicycle injuries and hospitalizations were derived using estimates accounting for NEISS complex survey design. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hearing Loss, JAMA, Pediatrics, USPSTF / 28.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Li Li, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H Walter M. Seward Professor Chair of Family Medicine Director of population health University of Virginia School of Medicine Editor-in-chief of The BMJ Family Medicine Dr. Li joined the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in January 2021   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Speech and language delays and disorders can be challenging for children and their families and can lead to difficulties with reading and writing as children grow up. The Task Force looked at the evidence on screening for speech and language delays and, unfortunately, there is not enough evidence to tell us whether or not it is helpful to screen all children 5 years old and younger for speech and language delays and disorders. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Aging, Author Interviews, Cannabis, JAMA / 19.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Patricia Di Ciano, PhD Scientist, Institute for Mental Health Policy Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology University of Toronto Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute Collaborative Program in Neuroscience MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: It is now fairly well established that cannabis has a detrimental effect on driving. The most consistently reported effect of cannabis on driving is to increase ‘weaving’ on the road. We know that cannabis use is on the rise in people over 65 years of age. In fact, over the past few years cannabis use is increasing the most in this age group. Despite this, there are few studies of the effects of cannabis on people over 65; most studies have been conducted on younger adults. We know that there are important age-related changes in the way the body works that may alter the impact of cannabis on the body. Also, older adults may have more experience with cannabis and this can change the effects of cannabis. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Nutrition, Sugar / 12.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Scott Kaplan PhD Assistant Professor of Economics United States Naval Academy Annapolis, MD 21402 Scott Kaplan PhD Assistant Professor of Economics United States Naval Academy Annapolis, MD 21402   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Sugar-sweetened beverages (colloquially known as SSBs), which include sodas, fruit drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks, and sweetened coffee drinks, are the leading source of added sugars in the American diet, according to the CDC. They are associated with serious negative health outcomes, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, heart disease, kidney disease, non-alcoholic liver disease, gum disease, tooth decay, and other conditions. As a result, several cities across the US have implemented sugar-sweetened beverage excise (per ounce) taxes, generally ranging from 1-2 cents per ounce. Most existing studies evaluating the impact of SSB taxes on SSB volume purchased and prices focus on a single city; this study is among the first to provide a composite estimate of the impact of local SSB taxes on purchases and prices of SSBs using retail scanner data from five cities across the US that implemented SSB taxes between January 1, 2017 and January 1, 2018. The five taxed cities we examine are Philadelphia, San Francisco, Oakland, Boulder, and Seattle.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, Kidney Disease, Medicare / 11.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kalli Koukounas, MPH Ph.D. Student, Health Services Research Brown University School of Public Health Providence, RI MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:  On Jan. 1st, 2021, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented the End-Stage Renal Disease Treatment Choices (ETC) Model, one of the largest randomized tests of pay-for-performance incentives ever conducted in the US. The goal of the model was to enhance the use of home dialysis and kidney transplant or waitlisting among kidney failure patients in traditional Medicare. The model randomly assigned approximately 30% of US dialysis facilities and nephrologists to receive financial incentives, ranging from bonuses of 4% to penalties of 5%, based on their patients’ use of home dialysis and kidney transplant/waitlisiting. The payment adjustments apply to all Medicare-based reimbursement for dialysis services. Prior research has demonstrated that dialysis facilities that disproportionately serve populations with high social risk have lower use of home dialysis and kidney transplant, raising concerns that these sites may fare poorly in the payment model. Using data released by CMS, we examined the first year of ETC model performance and financial penalties across dialysis facilities, stratified by the measured social risk of the facilities’ incident patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Autism, JAMA, Pediatrics, Technology / 08.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Karen F. Heffler, MD Researcher, Autism Spectrum Disorder Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry Drexel University College of Medicine Philadelphia, PA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? children-watching-tv-pexels-photo-4740522 Response: Atypical sensory processing is common in neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting approximately 60% of children with ADHD and up to 90% of children with autism. Sensory symptoms are associated with hyperactivity, restricted/repetitive behavior, irritability, behavioral problems, and emotional dysregulation. Sensory-related meltdowns and symptoms can be very disruptive to family-life, interfere with family participation in community events and are associated with increased caregiver stress. Prior to this study there was little understanding of potential risk factors for atypical sensory processing. The researchers used data from the National Children’s Study to determine the association between early-life screen time and sensory processing outcomes among toddlers. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Kidney Disease, Salt-Sodium / 03.01.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lu Qi, MD, PhD, FAHA Interim Chair, Department of Epidemiolog HCA Regents Distinguished Chair and Professor Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine Director, Tulane University Obesity Research Center Director, Tulane Personalized Health Institute New Orleans, LA 70112 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Adding salt to foods is a behavior reflecting long-term preference to salty diets. High sodium intake is a major risk factor for chronic kidney disease. In our previous studies, we have found that adding salt to foods at the table is related to various disorders including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and mortality.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Dental Research, JAMA, Respiratory / 18.12.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael Klompas MD, MPH, FIDSA, FSHEA Hospital Epidemiologist Brigham and Women’s Hospital Professor of Medicine and Population Medicine Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Can teeth be safely brush in patients who are comatose, intubated or have NG tubes? Response: Pneumonia is thought to occur when secretions from the mouth get into the lungs.  Since there are many microbes in the mouth, there’s a risk that secretions from the mouth that get into the lungs will lead to pneumonia.  Toothbrushing may lower this risk by decreasing the quantity of microbes in the mouth. It is indeed safe and appropriate to brush the teeth of someone who is comatose, intubated, or who has an NG tube.  Indeed, our study found that the benefits of toothbrushing were clearest for patients receiving mechanical ventilation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Case Western, Colon Cancer, JAMA / 07.12.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nathan A. Berger, M.D. Distinguished University ProfessorHanna-Payne Professor of Experimental MedicineProfessor of Medicine, Biochemistry, Oncology and GeneticsDirector, Center for Science, Health and SocietyCase Western Reserve University School of Medicine   Rong Xu, PhD Professor, Biomedical Informatics Director, Center for Artificial Intelligence in Drug Discovery Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine     MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: 75% of the US Population has overweight or obesity and 15% has Type 2 Diabetes. Both overweight/obesity and diabetes promote increased incidence and worse prognosis of colorectal cancer. The new GLP1RA drug class are rapidly becoming the most effective treatment for both diabetes and overweight/obesity. By controlling diabetes and overweight/obesity, we hypothesized that the GLP1RAs might be effective at reducing incidence of colorectal cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, Pharmacology / 17.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lisa-Marie Smale, PharmD
PhD Candidate Clinical Pharmacy
Radboud University Medical Center
Department of Pharmacy
Nijmegen, the Netherlands Lisa-Marie Smale, PharmDPhD Candidate Clinical PharmacyRadboud University Medical CenterDepartment of PharmacyNijmegen, the Netherlands   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Cancer drugs are not always fully used by patients, while these drugs are mostly expensive and environmentally damaging, both in production and (waste) disposal. Therefore we investigated whether unused drugs of patients can be collected, verified of quality by a pharmacy, to be redispensed to other patients instead of being disposed of. We were interested whether such an approach ultimately leads to lower environmental impacts and costs. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dermatology, JAMA, Surgical Research / 16.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Peter C. Minneci, MD Chair of Surgery at Nemours Children’s Health Delaware Valley MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  Would you briefly explain the symptoms/course of pilonidal disease?  Response: Pilonidal disease is relatively common and affects up to 1% of the population starting in adolescence and up until young adulthood. Pilonidal disease occurs when cysts or sinuses form between the buttocks. It is believed to be an inflammatory reaction to hair or debris that gets caught in the crease of the buttocks. Risk factors for the condition include a sedentary lifestyle, hygiene and obesity. Pilonidal disease can be intermittent or chronic and recurs about 33% of the time, with 80% of recurrences taking place within a year of initial treatment. These recurrences contribute to a high degree of psychosocial stress in patients, who often miss school or sports and may avoid social activities. Pilonidal cysts may become infected, in which case patients must take antibiotics or undergo surgery.   Standard treatment for pilonidal disease involves removal of hair with razors or creams, as well as recommendations such as keeping the area clean. In recent years, some practitioners have begun using laser epilation as an additional strategy to prevent recurrence by providing more durable hair removal. However, it’s important to point out that this is not covered by insurance. In addition, as a provider, I have found that my patients that do have the means to pay often don’t comply with the number of sessions needed to fully remove the hair due to many different factors including pain and discomfort during the procedure.   (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Genetic Research, JAMA, Stanford / 07.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael E. Belloy, PhD Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences Stanford University, Stanford, California MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Apolipoprotein E (APOE)*2 and APOE*4 are, respectively, the strongest protective and risk-increasing, genetic variants for late-onset Alzheimer disease. As such, one’s APOE genotype is highly relevant towards clinical trial design and Alzheimer’s disease research. However, most insights so far are focused on the associations of these APOE genotypes with Alzheimer’s disease risk in non-Hispanic white individuals. One important aspect of our work is that we really increased sample sizes for non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and East Asian individuals, so that we now have better understanding of the associations of APOE genotypes with Alzheimer’s disease risk in these groups. In complement, we also did the largest investigation to date on the role of ancestry on the associations of APOE genotypes with Alzheimer’s disease risk. The scale of our study was thus a critical factor in generating novel insights. (more…)
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, JAMA, McGill, Mental Health Research / 06.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Niki Hosseini-Kamkar PhD Postdoc, McGill University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Our primary question was: Do adults with a history of childhood trauma have altered brain responses to psychological challenges? Previous evidence indicated that this can occur in laboratory animals, but it has been unclear whether it occurs in humans. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Exercise - Fitness, JAMA / 01.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Peter A. Harmer, PhD, MPH, AT-Ret, FACSM Senior Associate Research Scientist Oregon Research Institute MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Decline in various aspects of cognitive function, such as memory, executive function, and multitasking ability is common as we age. The rate and extent of decline varies among older adults but approximately 20% of those aged 65+ will experience clinically relevant mild cognitive impairment, which places them at increased risk of progressing to Alzheimer’s disease or related dementias. It is also associated with decreased mobility, increased risk of falls and impaired capacity for complex activities of daily living. Research has shown that physical and mental activity may attenuate the decline and that combined physical/mental challenges may be more effective than either alone but up to this point there has been little quality clinical evidence. Building on previous successful studies with our established tai ji quan therapy, we developed a cognitively-enhanced training tai ji quan protocol to determine its effectiveness in enhancing global cognition and dual-task walking compared to our standard tai ji quan program and a stretching program in adults 65+ with mild cognitive impairment or self-reported memory concerns. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA, Lung Cancer, NIH, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Stanford / 01.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Summer S Han, PhD Associate Professor Quantitative Sciences Unit Stanford Center for Biomedical Informatics Research (BMIR) Department of Neurosurgery and Department of Medicine Department of Epidemiology & Population Health (by Courtesy) Stanford University School of Medicine Dr. Eunji Choi PhD Instructor, Neurosurgery Department: Adult Neurosurgery Stanford University School of Medicine   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?
  • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, killing about 127,000 people annually, but it can be treatable if detected early.
  • Low-dose computed tomography, or CT scan, has been shown to significantly reduce the number of lung cancer deaths. But because the radiation delivered by the scans can be harmful (they use on average about 10 times the radiation of standard X-rays), only those people at relatively high risk for lung cancer should be screened. The two biggest risk factors for lung cancer are exposure to tobacco smoke and age. Current national guidelines that rely on age and smoking exposure to recommend people for lung cancer screening are disproportionally failing minority populations including African Americans, according to a new study led by researchers at Stanford Medicine.
  • In 2021, the national guidelines by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) issued revised recommendation guidelines on lung cancer screening, lowering the start age from 55-year to 50-year and the smoking pack-year criterion from 30 to 20, compared to the 2013 USPSTF criteria. In comparison to the 2013 criteria, the new modifications have been shown to lessen racial disparities in screening eligibility between African Americans and Whites. However, potential disparities across other major racial groups in the U.S., such as Latinos, remains poorly examined.
  • Meanwhile, risk prediction model assesses a person’s risk score of developing an illness, such as lung cancer.
(more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, JAMA, Pediatrics / 26.10.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Neeraj Sood, PhD Verna and Peter Dauterive Hall University Park Campus University of Southern California Los Angeles, CA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We conducted this study to inform school COVID-19 policies. The main findings are that the median duration of infectivity after a positive COVID-19 test in children is 3 days. The median duration of infectivity does not vary with vaccination.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Emory, Infections, JAMA, MRSA / 10.10.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. John Jernigan, MD MS Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine Division of Infectious Diseases Emory University School of Medicine Branch Chief Epidemiology, Research and Innovations Branch CDC Center for Disease Control MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Staphylococcus aureus commonly causes infections in ICUs. One approach to preventing these infections is using nasal mupirocin plus chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing for ICU patients. This practice is known to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and all-cause. bloodstream infections.  This practice has been broadly adopted in ICUs in the US, but adoption of mupirocin as a universal topical antibiotic has been slowed by concerns for engendering mupirocin resistance. This cluster-randomized trial in adult ICUs was conducted to assess whether universal nasal antiseptic povidone-iodine (iodophor), to which minimal S. aureus resistance is expected, was an acceptable alternative to universal nasal mupirocin for reducing S. aureus and MRSA clinical cultures in the setting of daily CHG bathing. Those who received chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing with mupirocin had an 18% reduction in risk of Staphylococcus aureus clinical cultures and a 15% reduction in risk of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clinical cultures compared to patients who received CHG bathing with intranasal iodophor.  These results show that using mupirocin for nasal decolonization may be preferred over iodophor because it is more effective at preventing S. aureus infections. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, JAMA, OBGYNE, Surgical Research / 04.10.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gabriele Martelli, MD Breast Unit, Surgery Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori Milan, Italy MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Approximately 8% of breast cancer cases are associated with pathogenic germline variants of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Women with a pathogenic BRCA1 variant have lifetime risks of breast or ovarian cancer of 45% to 80% and 30% to 60%, respectively. Women with a pathogenic BRCA2 variant have lifetime risks of breast or ovarian cancer of 35% to 60% and 10% to 25%, respectively. BRCA1 breast cancer is often more aggressive than sporadic disease, while BRCA2 breast cancer is often of similar aggressivity to sporadic disease. However, few studies have investigated outcomes of breast-conserving surgery, prophylactic mastectomy, or prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy in patients with BRCA1/2 breast cancer. We conducted a cohort study to assess outcomes of breast-conserving surgery vs mastectomy, prophylactic mastectomy vs no prophylactic mastectomy, and prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy vs no prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy in patients with BRCA1/2 breast cancer. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, ADHD, Author Interviews, Columbia, JAMA / 04.10.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Guohua Li, MD, DrPH Finster Professor of Epidemiology and Anesthesiology Columbia University Irving Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? How was the ADHD diagnosis determined? Response: The reported prevalence of ADHD in children and young adults in the United States has more than doubled since the 1990s because of improved diagnosis.  Currently, ADHD affects about 13 percent of children under 18 years of age and eight percent of adults under 45 years of age.  Little is known about the prevalence of ADHD in older adults although it is estimated that ADHD symptoms may persist throughout the lifespan in about one-third of children diagnosed with the disorder.  Diagnostic criteria for adulthood ADHD include having five or more relevant symptoms, adverse impact on social, academic, and occupational activities,  and onset of symptoms before age 12. In this study, ADHD status is determined based on an affirmative response to the question of whether the participant had ever had ADHD or had ever been told by a doctor or other health professional that he or she had ADHD. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, JAMA, OBGYNE, USPSTF / 26.09.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Esa M. Davis, M.D., M.P.H , F.A.A.F.P Professor of Medicine and Family and Community Medicine Associate Vice President of Community Health and Senior Associate Dean of pPopulation Health and Community Medicine University of Maryland School of Medicine Dr. Davis joined the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in January 2021 Esa M. Davis, M.D., M.P.H , F.A.A.F.P Professor of Medicine and Family and Community Medicine Associate Vice President of Community Health and Senior Associate Dean of pPopulation Health and Community Medicine University of Maryland School of Medicine Dr. Davis joined the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in January 2021 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia, are among the leading causes of serious complications and death for pregnant people in the United States. Pregnant women and pregnant people of all genders should have their blood pressure measured at each prenatal visit to help find and prevent serious health issues related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.  (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 03.09.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Robert Eves Research Associate at Universität Bielefeld Honorary research fellow at the University of Warwick Guest researcher at DIW Berlin MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: When an infant is born their birthweight percentile is often calculated. This indicates how big the infant is relative to other infants born at the same gestational age (weeks of pregnancy). In long-term follow-up of at-risk infants, being born below the 10th percentile has been considered a risk factor for later cognitive development. However, we thought that this above or below the 10th percentile cut-off was unlikely to reflect the true association between birthweight percentiles and later cognitive development. First of all, we thought that it was unlikely that there would be a dramatic difference between someone born at the 9th vs. 11th percentile. Secondly, we wanted to determine if there was a point when birthweight percentiles could get too large (i.e is there a Goldilocks effect, maybe you should not be too small but not too big either) (more…)
Author Interviews, HIV, JAMA, STD, USPSTF / 01.09.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: James Stevermer, M.D., M.S.P.H.Vice chair for clinical affairs Professor of family and community medicine University of Missouri Medical director of MU Health Care Family Medicine–Callaway Physicians, Dr. Stevermer joined the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force in January 2021. MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: HIV continues to be a significant public health issue. The good news is that PrEP is a safe, highly effective way to help prevent HIV in people at increased risk. There are now two ways people can take PrEP – as a pill or as a shot. We encourage healthcare professionals to have a conversation with their patients about their individual risk for HIV and determine if they should consider taking whichever form of PrEP would work best for them. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gender Differences, JAMA, Surgical Research, Vanderbilt / 30.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christopher Wallis, MD, PhD Assistant Professor of Urology Department of Surgery University of Toronto and Urologic Oncologist Mount Sinai Hospital   MedicalResearch.com:  Could you give a little context - what was the question you were looking at?
  • We have been studying how the primary treating surgeons sociocultural characteristics impact the recovery of patients they are looking after.
  • Specifically, we have been studying the effect of surgeon sex on outcomes such as death, complications and readmission after common and complex surgeries. These are outcomes that are important to patients and the health system.
  • Previously, we showed that patients with a female surgeon had better short term (30 day) outcomes than similar patients having surgery with a man. This study asked the question of whether the sex of a patient’s surgeon affects patients’ longer term outcomes at 90 days and 1 year, after surgery.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Columbia, Gender Differences, JAMA, OBGYNE, Surgical Research / 24.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jason D. Wright, MD, FACOG, FACS Sol Goldman Associate Professor Chief, Division of Gynecologic Oncology Vice Chair of Academic Affairs, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons New York, New York 10032 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: There is growing recognition that gender-affirming surgery (GAS) is safe and that the procedures are associated with favorable long term outcomes. Prior work has explored the use of inpatient procedures and shown that the rates of GAS have risen, but there is little contemporaneous data to examine more recent inpatient and outpatient use of GAS. This is particularly important as changes in insurance regulations may have increased access for these procedures. We examined temporal trends in performance of inpatient and outpatient GAS and examined age-specific trends in the types of procedures performed over time. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, USPSTF / 09.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:x Wanda K. Nicholson, M.D., M.P.H., M.B.A. Senior Associate Dean for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Professor of Prevention and Community Health Milken Institute School of Public Health George Washington University Vice chair of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Neural tube defects are when a baby’s spinal cord or brain don’t develop properly during pregnancy, which can cause serious complications including disability and death. The good news is that taking folic acid supplements before and during early pregnancy is proven to help prevent this from happening. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, JAMA, Pediatrics / 08.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tammy M. Brady, MD, PhD  (she/her/hers) Vice Chair for Clinical Research, Dept of Pediatrics Associate Director, Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Nephrology Medical Director, Pediatric Hypertension Program Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD 21287     MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Accurate BP measurement is key to identification and treatment of hypertension which serves ultimately to prevent cardiovascular disease.  Our study describes substantial measurement error that can occur in a common office and home BP measurement scenario: use of a regular cuff size for all individuals regardless of arm size.  Many office triage measurements occur without individualized cuff selection and most home BP devices come with one cuff size – and our study shows that using a regular cuff size for people who have larger arms – those who require a large adult cuff or an extra-large adult cuff – can lead to blood pressure readings that are almost 5 and 20 mmHg greater than their actual BP, respectively.  Those require a small adult cuff can have BP readings that are almost 4 mmHg lower than their actual BP. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Ovarian Cancer / 04.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Zai LabRafael Amado, M.D. President, head of Global Oncology Research and Development Zai Lab MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Zai lab is focused on discovering and developing innovative therapies that will help address medical conditions where there are serious unmet needs. Advanced ovarian cancer, with a low survival and high recurrence rate, is a key focus of our oncology R&D research. In addition to our own discovery program, as part of our open innovation model we partner with companies to license drugs for patients in China and co-develop therapies to address leading causes of cancer death. We currently have a license and collaboration agreement with GSK for the development and commercialization of ZEJULA (niraparib) in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau. PRIME was a follow-on study to a previously conducted study called PRIMA, which demonstrated clinical benefit of niraparib in newly diagnosed patients with advanced ovarian cancer regardless of biomarker status. The PRIMA study enrolled a population at high risk of recurrence. Thirty-five percent of patients in PRIMA received an individualized starting dose (ISD) of niraparib based on their baseline weight and platelet count. To further evaluate the efficacy and safety of niraparib with an ISD in a broad population, we decided to conduct the PRIME study. We wanted to explore further whether we could decrease toxicity using an ISD and how it would affect clinical outcomes. The Phase 3 PRIME study was conducted at 29 hospitals in mainland China. PRIME was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of niraparib at an ISD as first-line maintenance therapy in a broad range of patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer. All patients in PRIME received an ISD based on their baseline body weight and platelet count. (more…)
Author Interviews, Education, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Yale / 01.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mytien Nguyen, MS Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine New Haven, Connecticut MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Physician-scientists are critical for innovative translational research. Combined MD-PhD training programs are essential for developing physician-scientists. Although racial and ethnic diversity of MD-PhD matriculants has increased over the past decade, little is known about how attrition rates differ by race and ethnicity. (more…)
Aging, Author Interviews, Geriatrics, Hearing Loss, JAMA / 31.07.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:   Nicholas S. Reed, AuD PhD Assistant Professor | Department of Epidemiology Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health     MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: To date, national estimates of hearing loss have often been based on self-report, which is a fine metric in its own right but underestimates the prevalence of hearing loss against criterion standard measures, and most studies with criterion-level hearing measures are limited to relatively younger samples of older adults. For example, some previous nationally representative samples don't allow reporting age data over 80 years because there aren't enough participants in that age group. It is not surprising given that it is difficult to design nationally representative studies that truly allow older adults (80+ years) to participate and measuring hearing can be onerous. However, understanding the prevalence of hearing loss in this age group is vital for public health and policy planning efforts to address hearing loss at the national level.  (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Lipids, Pediatrics, USPSTF / 26.07.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Li Li, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H Walter M. Seward Professor Chair of Family Medicine Director of population health University of Virginia School of Medicine Editor-in-chief of The BMJ Family Medicine Dr. Li joined the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in January 2021 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The Task Force reviewed the latest available evidence to evaluate whether screening all children and adolescents who are 20 years old or younger for high cholesterol improves their heart health into adulthood. At this time, there is not enough evidence to determine whether or not screening all kids is beneficial, so we are calling for additional research on the effectiveness of screening and treatment of high cholesterol in kids and teens. (more…)