Author Interviews, Education, JAMA / 20.07.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Cassandra Kelleher, MD Surgical Director, Fetal Care Program Surgical Director, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Physician Investigator (Cl) Surgery, Mass General Research Institute Associate Professor of Surgery Harvard Medical School MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Physicians practicing in academic hospitals have unique responsibilities. They are not only expected to treat patients, but also to conduct research to improve treatments for future patients, and to train future physicians. Diverse healthcare teams have better patient outcomes and lower healthcare costs. Women physicians, for example, are more likely to practice patient-centered care, and through their teaching and research work at academic medical centers, they help to disseminate and normalize novel approaches to practicing medicine. For these reasons, gender diversity in academic medicine is important for the quality of healthcare in the future. (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, JAMA, Pediatrics / 17.07.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Jonathan Davis, MD, Chief of Newborn Medicine Tufts Medical Center and   Jill Maron, MD, MPH Chief of Pediatrics Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The Genomic Medicine for Ill Neonates and Infants (GEMINI) trial was designed to be the first comparative study to explore the diagnostic yield, clinical utility and time to diagnosis between whole genomic sequencing (WGS) and a targeted genomic sequencing panel specifically designed to detect gene disorders that present in early life. GEMINI was a US based study that enrolled 400 hospitalized infants, along with their available parents, suspected of having an undiagnosed genetic diagnosis. Every participant underwent testing on each platform simultaneously, allowing us to better understand the limitations and advantages of each approach. (more…)
Anesthesiology, Author Interviews, Cannabis, JAMA, Opiods, Surgical Research, University Texas / 10.07.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Paul Potnuru, MD Assistant Professor Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine The John P. and Kathrine G. McGovern Medical School The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston UTHealth MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The use of cannabis is on the rise in the United States, as it becomes increasingly legally accepted and is viewed as harmless. Furthermore, the potency of cannabis is steadily increasing over time. There is some evidence from previous studies that compared to non-users, cannabis users require more anesthetics, have higher pain after surgery that requires more opioids, and have an increased risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Given this context of increased usage and potential risks during surgery, we conducted a study to examine the impact of cannabis use on patients undergoing surgery. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hepatitis - Liver Disease, JAMA, Statins / 07.07.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Carolin Victoria Schneider, MD Physician-Scientist at RWTH Aachen Former Postdoctoral Fellow at UPenn, Rader Lab MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Our study was prompted by the ongoing global health crisis related to liver disease, which claims over 2 million lives annually. We noted the emerging literature suggesting the hepatoprotective properties of statins, which include anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and immunomodulatory effects. However, we noticed a significant gap in understanding these effects in the context of the general population, especially among individuals without a history of known liver disease. Together with our excellent first author Mara Vell, I embarked on a journey aimed to fill this significant knowledge gap. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE / 07.07.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dorothy A. Fink, MD Deputy Assistant Secretary for Women's Health Director, Office on Women's Health US Department of Health & Human Services Rockville, MD MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Delivery-related mortality in U.S. hospitals has decreased for all racial and ethnic groups, age groups, and modes of delivery while the prevalence of severe maternal mortality (SMM) increased for all patients, with higher rates for racial and ethnic minority patients of any age. This study specifically looked at inpatient delivery-related outcomes and found a 57% decrease from 2008-2021. The decreasing mortality rates within the inpatient delivery setting demonstrated as statistically significant and a welcome finding for all women. This study also looked with greater granularity at the impact of race, ethnicity, and age. Mortality for American Indian women decreased 92%, Asian women decreased 73%, Black women decreased 76%, Hispanic women decreased 60%, Pacific Islander women decreased 79%, and White women decreased 40% during the study period. (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, JAMA, Mental Health Research, NYU, USPSTF / 27.06.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gbenga Ogedegbe, MD, MPH Dr. Adolph & Margaret Berger Professor of Population Health Director, Division of Health & Behavior Director Center for Healthful Behavior Change Department of Population Health NYU Langone Health NYU School of Medicine Member of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Depression and anxiety disorders are common mental health conditions affecting the lives of many adults in the U.S. The Task Force cares deeply about the health of people nationwide, so we reviewed the latest evidence on how best to support the mental health of adults in primary care. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Response:  The evidence shows us that all adults should be screened for depression and those under 65 should also be screened for anxiety. These recommendations apply to everyone without signs or symptoms of depression or anxiety. We also strongly encourage anyone who has signs of depression or anxiety to talk with their clinician so that they can get the care they need. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, Health Care Systems, Heart Disease, JAMA / 26.06.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dan P. Ly, MD, PhD, MPP Physician and an Assistant Professor Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Cognitive biases, or ways of thinking that may deviate from rationality, are thought to influence physician decision-making, but there has been little large-scale evidence of their existence clinically. There is some large-scale evidence of the availability heuristic, under which the likelihood of an event is affected by how easily it comes to mind, but there’s little large scale evidence of other cognitive biases affecting physicians.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Cannabis, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 26.06.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alex P. Miller, PhD TranSTAR T32 Postdoctoral Fellow Department of Psychiatry Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis, MO   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Adolescent cannabis use is increasing in the United States. Prior research suggests that people who start using cannabis earlier are more likely to engage in problematic use and also experience greater mental health challenges and socioeconomic disadvantages overall. For example, children who begin using cannabis early are more likely to have behavioral problems and disorders and are more less likely to complete school. In our study, we used data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, which is following nearly 12,000 kids across the nation to track behavior and brain development as well as health from middle childhood to young adulthood. We looked at what factors are associated with the initiation of cannabis use by age 12-14. (more…)
ASCO, Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Genetic Research, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Stanford / 06.06.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Allison W. Kurian, M.D., M.Sc. Professor of Medicine and of Epidemiology and Population Health Associate Chief, Division of Oncology Co-Leader, Population Sciences Program, Stanford Cancer Institute Director, Women’s Clinical Cancer Genetics Program Stanford University School of Medicine Stanford, CA 94305-5405 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What types of cancers were in the study? Response: Genetic testing for cancer risk is increasingly important after a cancer diagnosis, to inform use of targeted therapies, secondary cancer prevention approaches and cascade genetic testing of family members. However, very little is known about how genetic testing is used after a cancer diagnosis at the population level. We leveraged a very large population-based data resource, the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registries of the states of California and Georgia, and linked data from these registries to clinical genetic testing results provided by the four major laboratories that provide such testing. We used this linked registry-genetic testing dataset to study adults (age >=20 years) diagnosed with all types of cancer in the states of Georgia and California from 2013-2019. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Biomarkers, JAMA, MRI / 22.05.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ruben Smith MD, PhD Associate professor at Clinical Memory Research Division of Neurology Lund University   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Since a few years it has become possible to visualize tau pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) using positron emission tomography (PET). The tau-PET radiotracer Flortaucipir (Tauvid) was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as an AD diagnostic tool. Since PET imaging is costly and exposes the patient to radioactivity we wanted to study the added clinical value of tau-PET in the diagnostic work-up of patients with cognitive symptoms, before widespread implementation in clinical practice. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, UCLA / 20.05.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Julia Cave Arbanas Project Manager and     John N. Mafi, MD, MPH Associate Professor of Medicine General Internal Medicine & Health Services Research David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLAJohn N. Mafi, MD, MPH Associate Professor of Medicine General Internal Medicine & Health Services Research David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What is lecanemab used for and how well does it work? Response: Lecanemab is a treatment for mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia that was approved in January 2023 as part of the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) accelerated approval program. The results from a recent phase 3 clinical trial show a modest clinical benefit: the rate of cognitive decline by 27% in an 18-month study involving participants experiencing the early stage of Alzheimer’s, with an 0.45-point absolute difference in cognitive testing scores. However, due to the risk of brain swelling and bleeding (also known as amyloid-related imaging abnormalities), treatment with lecanemab involves frequent MRIs and neurology or geriatrics appointments to monitor for these abnormalities, which can be life threatening. So far, three patient deaths have potentially been tied to lecanemab. It is likely that the FDA will grant is lecanemab traditional approval later this year, prompting Medicare to reconsider its current coverage restrictions and potentially enabling widespread use. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dermatology, JAMA / 15.05.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Matthew Zirwas, MD Founder, Bexley Dermatology Research Clinic Bexley, OH 43209 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? How does Roflumilast differ from other treatments for seb derm? Response: Seborrheic dermatitis affects up to 5% of the population globally and can have major impacts on quality of life. Treatment regimens are often complicated given the association of seborrheic dermatitis to hair bearing areas of the body, requiring multiple treatments for different parts of the body. Our phase 2 study aimed to understand the efficacy and safety of once-daily roflumilast foam 0.3% in adults with seborrheic dermatitis on their scalp, face and trunk. Roflumilast foam is a selective and highly potent phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibition that is being studied for a range of inflammatory skin conditions. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, JAMA, NYU, USPSTF / 09.05.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gbenga Ogedegbe, MD, MPH Dr. Adolph & Margaret Berger Professor of Population Health Director, Division of Health & Behavior Director Center for Healthful Behavior Change Department of Population Health NYU Langone Health NYU School of Medicine Member of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection that is spread through the air from one person to another and usually affects the lungs. It’s a significant public health concern in the U.S. People can be infected with TB bacteria but not have any symptoms or be contagious, which is known as a latent TB infection or LTBI. If LTBI is left untreated, it can progress to active TB, which can cause serious health problems and become contagious. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, JAMA, Mediterranean Diet, Mental Health Research / 08.05.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yuan Changzheng ScD, MSc, B.M. Research Professor Doctoral supervisor, School of Medicine Zhejiang University School of Public Health Adjunct assistant professor Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The prevention of all-cause dementia is important as it poses substantial burdens on healthcare systems and threatens the well-being of older adults, and lack of effective treatments makes its prevention crucial. The Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diet is a hybrid of the Mediterranean diet and the DASH diet, and it emphasizes natural plant-based foods, limited intake of certain animal foods and foods high in saturated fat and encourages consumption of berries and green leafy vegetables rich in vitamins and antioxidants. The MIND diet has previously been associated with lower risk of Alzheimer's disease and slower cognitive decline but few studies have examined its association with all-cause dementia or AD with inconclusive results. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Cancer Research, JAMA, MRSA, Radiation Therapy / 06.05.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Beth McLellan, M.D. Chief, Division of Dermatology Montefiore Medical Center Albert Einstein College of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? How is the decolonization initiated and maintained? Response: We were interested in exploring whether bacteria on the skin plays a role in radiation dermatitis like it does in other skin diseases that cause a breakdown in the skin barrier. We used a bacterial decolonization regimen that includes chlorhexidine 2% cleanser for the body and mupirocin 2% ointment to the inside of the nose for 5 consecutive days before starting radiation therapy and repeated for an additional 5 days every other week for the duration of radiation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Health Care Systems, JAMA, Technology, UCSD / 01.05.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Zechariah Zhu, B.S. Affiliate Scientist with the Qualcomm Institute at UC San Diego and study co-author First author: John W. Ayers, PhD, MA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: In today’s day and age (especially after the COVID-19 pandemic), an increasing number of people are turning to virtual options for healthcare. Most notably, there was a 1.6-fold increase in electronic patient messages, which significantly increased the burden on physicians, with a record-high proportion of physicians (62%) reporting burnout symptoms. On the other hand, we also see the rise of AI technologies like ChatGPT—an AI chatbot assistant that has taken the world by storm recently with its ability to provide lengthy response essays to many questions it is asked. Our objective for this study, then, was to evaluate the ability of ChatGPT to provide quality and empathetic responses to patient questions. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 25.04.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mahdi Fallah, MD, PhD Study and Group Leader Risk Adapted Prevention (RAD) Group Division of Preventive Oncology National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT) German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Germany   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Breast cancer is a significant public health problem, being the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in women in the US. Breast cancer screening from age 50 has been associated with a reduction in mortality and is recommended by the US Preventive Services Task Force. However, there is a significant disparity in mortality rates between Black and White individuals, with Black women having a higher death rate, especially before age 50. The current one-size-fits-all policy for breast cancer screening may not be equitable or optimal, and risk-adapted starting ages of screening based on known risk factors, such as race and ethnicity, may be recommended to optimize the benefit of screening. Our study aimed to provide evidence for a risk-adapted starting age of screening by race and ethnicity. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA, NCI, Ovarian Cancer / 21.04.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lauren Hurwitz, PhD Postdoctoral Fellow Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics National Cancer Institute MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Prior studies have demonstrated that frequent (i.e., daily or near daily) use of aspirin is associated with a lower risk of developing ovarian cancer. We sought to determine if this risk reduction is also observed for individuals with greater genetic susceptibility to ovarian cancer, who may benefit more from preventive interventions. Our study found that individuals who took aspirin frequently had a lower risk of ovarian cancer, regardless of whether they had higher or lower genetic susceptibility to ovarian cancer. (more…)
ADHD, Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, University of Michigan / 18.04.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sean Esteban McCabe, PhD Director, Center for the Study of Drugs, Alcohol, Smoking and Health Department of Health Behavior and Biological Sciences University of Michigan School of Nursing Ann Arbor, MI MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Prescription stimulant therapy for ADHD helps millions of people, including in my own family, and students, friends and colleagues. It's critical to balance the need for access to these medications while reducing the risk for misuse. This is more important than ever now because there have been recent increases in the prescribing of stimulant therapy for ADHD. There is a need to understand the prevalence of stimulant therapy for ADHD and prescription stimulant misuse in U.S. middle and high schools. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Gender Differences, JAMA, Menopause / 03.04.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rachel Buckley, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Neurology Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: While a fair amount of studies have focused on the effects of menopause and hormone therapy on risk of dementia, far fewer studies have tested their association with the biology of Alzheimer’s disease, namely amyloid and tau. This is critical to know given that it still remains unclear what might be the driving mechanism of the menopause transition on risk for dementia. This is what our study set out to investigate. This study is one of the first to report a link between women’s age at menopause and tau in the brain, which we measured with positron emission tomography neuroimaging. We found that in multiple areas of the brain that tend to be most likely to show higher tau in women than men, women with earlier age at menopause and elevated levels of amyloid showed higher levels of tau than those who reported an average age at menopause (~50 years in the United States). Women who reported premature menopause (<40 years at menopause onset) exhibited a much higher risk of tau in the brain. This supports the notion that longer exposure to estrogen throughout life might be protective against Alzheimer’s disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, JAMA / 29.03.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kelly Potter, PhD, RN, CNE T32 Postdoctoral Scholar CRISMA Center, Department of Critical Care Medicine University of Pittsburgh MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: While it is well-recognized that survivors of critical illness often experience persistent problems with mental, cognitive, and physical health, very little is known about how these problems (collectively known as post-intensive care syndrome (PICS)) affect resumption of meaningful activities, such as driving. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Genetic Research, JAMA, Personalized Medicine, Vanderbilt / 18.03.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jonathan Mosley, MD, PhD Associate Professor Division of Clinical Pharmacology Departments of Internal Medicine and Biomedical Informatics Vanderbilt University Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Prostate cancer is an important source of morbidity and mortality among men. Earlier detection of disease is essential to reduce these adverse outcomes. Prostate cancer is heritable, and many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with disease risk have been identified. Thus, there is considerable interest in using tools such as polygenic risk scores, which measure the burden of genetic risk variants an individual carries, to identify men at elevated risk of disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Cancer Research, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 09.03.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Hyuna Sung, PHDHyuna Sung, PHD Senior Principal Scientist, Cancer Surveillance Research American Cancer Society Kennesaw, GA 30144
  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 10% to 20% of all breast cancer diagnoses in the US. This subtype of breast cancer tends to spread faster and has fewer treatment options. In the US, Black women are about two-fold more likely than White women to develop TNBC. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA, Statins / 09.03.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Myeong-Ki Hong, MD PhD Professor of Cardiology Yonsei University College of Medicine Severance Cardiovascular Hospital Seoul, Korea MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The background of this study was to compare the long-term clinical outcomes between the two distinct strategies regarding statin intensity in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). One is to titrate statin intensity to meet a target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level (treat-to-target strategy), the other is to maintain high-intensity statin without a target goal (high-intensity statin strategy). (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 08.03.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anna Roca PhD MRC Unit The Gambia at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Fajara, The Gambia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Context specific interventions are needed to decrease the high burden of severe neonatal morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Severe bacterial infections are a main cause of neonatal mortality in the continent. Oral intra-partum azithromycin is a cheap intervention easily scalable. Before embarking on this trial, we conducted a proof-of-concept trial that showed the intervention reduced maternal and neonatal bacterial carriage of the most prevalent bacteria causing neonatal sepsis in the continent. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gender Differences, JAMA, Surgical Research / 03.03.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mario FL Gaudino, MD, PhD, MSCE, FEBCTS, FACC, FAHA Stephen and Suzanne Weiss Professor in Cardiothoracic Surgery (II) Assistant Dean for Clinical Trials Professor of Clinical Epidemiology and Health Services Research at Weill Cornell Graduate School Director of the Joint Clinical Trials Office (JCTO) Director of Translational and Clinical Research, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery Chair Coronary Artery Task Force, European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Weill Cornell Medicine | NewYork – Presbyterian Hospital Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: It is well-documented that women undergoing CABG have higher mortality and morbidity when compared with men. They are referred to surgery later than men, with more cardiovascular risk factors than men, and present more frequently with heart failure or in non-elective settings. However, overall CABG outcomes have improved over time, and so we sought to evaluate national trends in outcomes specifically in women. (more…)
Author Interviews, Herpes Viruses, JAMA, STD, USPSTF / 23.02.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: James Stevermer, M.D., M.S.P.H. Vice chair for clinical affairs Professor of family and community medicine University of Missouri Medical director of MU Health Care Family Medicine–Callaway Physicians, Dr. Stevermer joined the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force in January 2021.     MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) that unfortunately has no cure and cannot accurately be detected in people who do not have signs of the condition. The current screening tests have limitations and there is a high chance that test results will say a person has the condition when they do not. In addition, the available treatments are focused on managing symptoms and preventing the condition from reoccurring. As a result, the Task Force concluded that the harms of screening outweigh the benefits. (more…)