Author Interviews, JAMA, Surgical Research, Weight Research / 16.05.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Wei Bao, MD, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 and Dr. Yangbo Sun, PhD (Former postdoc research scholar at University of Iowa) Tenure-track Assistant Professor The University of Tennessee Health Science Center.   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Obesity is a rising epidemic in the United States and worldwide. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be the most effective and durable treatment for clinically morbid obesity which is difficult to reverse through traditional approaches such as lifestyle intervention. There has been long-standing uncertainty and debate regarding the value of pre-operative weight loss as a requirement for bariatric surgery. Meanwhile, one of the major indicators for surgery outcomes is 30-day mortality after surgery, which is especially important for bariatric surgery because the vast majority of the patients undergoing bariatric surgery are voluntary and if the surgery were not performed, they are not supposed to die in short term. So far, the association of pre-operative weight loss with 30-day mortality after bariatric surgery remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we examined the associations of pre-operative BMI and weight loss with 30-day mortality following bariatric surgery using a large database among ~500,000 patients who underwent bariatric surgery in the United States and Canada. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Genetic Research, JAMA / 14.05.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
  • Sung Jun Ma, MD, resident physician in Radiation Medicine at Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center (first author)
  • Oluwadamilola T. Oladeru, MD, a resident physician at Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center
MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: More than 40% of women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative early-stage breast cancer have high recurrence scores (RS) of 26-30. Optimal adjuvant systemic therapy in this subgroup remains unclear, and national guidelines currently recommend either chemoendocrine therapy or endocrine therapy alone. In addition, the difference in overall survival of a patient with a RS 26-30 versus RS >30 is unclear. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Cancer Research, Genetic Research, JAMA / 08.05.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anurag K. Singh MD Professor of Oncology Director of Radiation Research Leader, Cell Stress and Biophysical Therapy Program Associate Dean Graduate Medical Education, Research Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center Buffalo NY MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: More than 40% of women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative early stage breast cancer with high recurrence scores (RS) have RS of 26-30. Optimal adjuvant systemic therapy in this subgroup remains unclear, and national guideline currently recommends either chemoendocrine therapy or endocrine therapy alone. In addition, the difference in overall survival of a patient with a RS 26-30 versus RS >30 is unclear.   (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Tobacco Research, USPSTF / 05.05.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Michael Silverstein M.D., M.P.H Professor of Pediatrics Director of the Division of General Academic Pediatrics Vice Chair of Research, Department of Pediatrics Boston University School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The number of children and teens who use tobacco products continues to be a major issue in the U.S., driven largely by an increase in e-cigarette use, which makes preventing tobacco use among young people critical to the health of our nation. To help prevent kids and teens from starting to use tobacco, the Task Force recommends clinicians provide behavioral interventions, such as education or brief counseling.   (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA / 04.05.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Emerson Y. Chen, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine, Medical Oncology Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University Portland, OR 97239 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Our research group had previously studied how oncology drugs are approved in these two previous papers listed below. One is focused on the time delay trade-off from surrogate endpoints (i.e. response rate and progression-free survival) over definite endpoints (i.e. overall survival and quality of life). The other is focused on how promising the response rate of a drug candidate have to be to be considered for oncology drug approval.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Beth Israel Deaconess, COVID -19 Coronavirus, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 01.05.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rishi WadheraMDMPPMPhil Instructor in Medicine at Harvard Medical School Cardiologist,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: With more than a million confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the United States, there is growing concern that low-income communities and racial/ethnic minorities may be disproportionately shouldering the burden of the pandemic. New York City, which is comprised of 5 boroughs (Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island) with unique demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, has emerged as the epicenter of the COVID-19 outbreak. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, JAMA, Opiods / 24.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tami L. Mark, PhD Senior Director, Behavioral Health Financing and Quality Measurement RTI International  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: There are effective medications to treat opioid use disorder. Federal and state policymakers have tried to improve access to these medications. However, medications to treat opioid use disorders are still often subject to prior authorization. Studies of other medications finds that prior authorization can reduce access. This study looked at whether removing prior authorization in Medicare Part D plans was associated with increases in the use of medications to treat opioid use disorder.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Emergency Care, Heart Disease, JAMA, UT Southwestern / 22.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rebecca Vigen, MD, MSCS Assistant Professor of Internal Medicine UT Southwestern MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Emergency department overcrowding is an urgent health priority and chest pain is a common reason for emergency department visits.  We developed a new protocol that uses high sensitivity cardiac troponin testing with a risk assessment tool that guides decisions on discharge and stress testing for patients presenting with chest pain. The protocol allows us to rule out heart attacks more quickly than the protocols utilizing an older troponin assay. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cannabis, JAMA, Pulmonary Disease / 22.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alex Hollingsworth PhD Assistant Professor O'Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs Indiana University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: I've been working with Coady Wing and Ashley Bradford on a few different studies of the effects of recreational marijuana laws on drug and alcohol use. Soon after EVALI became a major issue, the prevailing theory from the CDC and others was that EVALI was caused by the use of vitamin E acetate in illegal THC vaping products. Our group read about this and we thought about some of the things that often happen in black markets for illegal drugs. For instance, during the alcohol prohibition era, bootleg alcohol producers often made and sold alcohol products that were not that safe to drink. In more recent years, there are cases where black market sellers of illegal drugs like heroin try to increase profit margins by adding other substances, which can be harmful. We thought that maybe something like that could be happening in EVALI. Perhaps people in states where recreational marijuana is legal tended to purchase marijuana products from the legal market and the legal market was not selling any marijuana vaping products that included vitamin E acetate. (more…)
Abuse and Neglect, Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 21.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Barbara Chaiyachati, MD PhD SafePlace: The Center for Child Protection and Health Division of General Pediatrics The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Center for Pediatric Clinical Effectiveness University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Children in foster care have high rates of medical problems including chronic diseases. There is less known about the differences in mortality for children in foster care. Looking at national data from 2003 to 2016, this study finds that children (ages 1 to 18) in foster care have higher mortality compared to children in the general population and that the difference in mortality has increased over time.   (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA, Surgical Research / 14.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Katherine Moll Reitz, MD General Surgery Resident University of Pittsburgh MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Surgical interventions both save lives and improve the quality of those lives each day. However, these same interventions and the recovery thereafter are a major physiologic stressor. Younger, more resilient patients tend to recover faster, with fewer postoperative complications when compared to older, frailer patients undergoing the same surgical treatments. Therefore, investigators at University of Pittsburgh and UPMC have begun focusing on prehabilitation in order to optimize at risk patients preoperatively. Just as an athlete would train for an upcoming event, prehabilitation (including smoking cessation, healthy eating, and physical activity increases) prepares or trains patients for their surgical intervention and can improve their postoperative outcomes. Currently, there is no medication available to aid in this training process, improving patients’ response to the physiologic stress of surgery. Therefore, we are interested in exploring potential safe, well tolerated medical therapies which can optimize patients as pharmacologic prehabilitation. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, JAMA, Ophthalmology, Pediatrics / 13.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Natasha Nayak Kolomeyer, MD Glaucoma Service, Wills Eye Hospital Co-authors: Eric J. Shiuey, MS Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University Anton M. Kolomeyer, MD, PhD Scheie Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: I still remember the 6-year-old boy that was brought in to our emergency room on July 4th with a ruptured globe (severe eye trauma) due to fireworks; he permanently lost vision in that eye despite surgery. This is not a rare occurrence especially around certain holidays. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 10.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Alfredo Tagarro MD PhD Pediatrician - Hospital Universitario Infanta Sofía Clinical Research - Fundación Investigación Hospital Assistant Professor - Universidad Europea de Madrid Madrid MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Madrid is being hit hard by the disease. Almost all doctors, including pediatricians, are dedicated to attending COVID-19 patients, essencially adults. However, there are some moderate and severe cases among children. In Madrid, clinical pediatricians from 30 hospitals joined their efforts to report and analyze pediatric patients with COVID-19.   (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Kidney Disease, Medicare / 10.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lead and Senior coauthors contributing to this interview: Abby Hoffman, BA is a Pre-Doctoral Fellow in Population Health Sciences at Duke University and a PhD Candidate in Health Policy and Management University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Virginia Wang, PhD, MSPH is an Associate Professor in the Department of Population Health Sciences, Associate Director of the Center for Health Innovation and Outcomes Research, and Core Faculty in the Margolis Center for Health Policy at Duke University and Investigator at the Durham VA HSR&D Center of Innovation to Accelerate Discovery and Practice Transformation (ADAPT).   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: It is well established that healthcare providers are sensitive to changes in price, though their behavioral response varies. Dialysis facilities are particularly responsive to changes in Medicare reimbursement. Many dialysis patients are eligible for Medicare regardless of age, but dialysis facilities generally receive significantly higher reimbursement from private insurers than from Medicare. In 2011, Medicare implemented a new prospective bundled payment for dialysis that was expected to decrease Medicare payment and reduce overall revenues flowing into facilities. Then the Affordable Care Act (ACA) rules against refusing to insure patients for preexisting conditions and the 2014 ACA Marketplace provided an additional avenue for patients to purchase private insurance. As a result of these policies, dialysis facilities had a strong motivation and opportunity to increase the share of patients with private insurance coverage. We were interested in understanding whether dialysis facilities were shifting their payer mix away from Medicare, possibly in response to these policy changes.  (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, JAMA, Johns Hopkins, Pediatrics / 07.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Johnathon P. Ehsani, PhD Assistant Professor Johns Hopkins School of Public Health MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Car crashes are the leading cause of death and disability for young people. So, what can parents do during the learner stage of licensing to reduce their teenagers’ crash risk during independent driving? The learner stage is a brief window of opportunity to influence the safety of their teenager. This is when teenagers are required to practice driving under the supervision of a licensed adult – typically mom or dad. Once teenagers get their license to start driving on their own, their crash risk increases - but parents have fewer chances to intervene at that point.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Baylor College of Medicine Houston, COVID -19 Coronavirus, JAMA, Stanford / 07.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Melissa Bondy, PhD Chair, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health Stanford University  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Faculty researchers in Stanford’s Department of Epidemiology & Population Health and collaborators from Baylor College of Medicine and Stanford’s Department of Dermatology developed an online survey aimed at rapidly assessing public concerns about the COVID-19 crisis. This survey, which was posted on 3 social media platforms (Twitter, Facebook, and Nextdoor) on March 14, 2020, collected invaluable data about COVID-19, including symptoms, concerns, and individual actions taken by respondents. Twitter and Facebook posts were sharable to facilitate snowball sampling. The survey was comprised of 21 (multiple-choice, single-choice, numeric, and open-ended) questions, which were designed to collect data concerning respondent demographics and recent cold and flu-like illnesses (if any), as well as information about participants’ concerns and any lifestyle changes that occurred as a result of the COVID-19 crisis. All questions were optional, so response rates were variable.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, Opiods / 01.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Aparna Soni PhD, Assistant Professor Department of Public Administration and Policy School of Public Affairs American University Washington, DC MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The United States is in the midst of an opioid epidemic. Opioids are responsible for nearly 50,000 deaths per year and present a substantial financial burden on hospitals. The rate of opioids-related hospital events has tripled since 2005. We are particularly concerned about rising hospitalizations because they may stem from a lack of access to treatment for individuals with opioid use disorder. Medication-assisted treatment is effective in treating opioid use disorder but can be unaffordable for people without health insurance. (more…)
AstraZeneca, Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease, JAMA / 01.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: John J. V. McMurray,  MD FRCP FESC FACC FAHA FRSE FMedSci British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre University of Glasgow Glasgow, United Kingdom  Kieran F Docherty DAPA-HF investigator British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow     MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: DAPA-HF was a double-blind randomized controlled trial comparing dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily with placebo in 4744 patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The primary outcome was a composite of time to occurrence of a worsening heart failure event (principally heart failure hospitalization) or cardiovascular death, whichever came first. Dapagliflozin reduced the primary outcome by 26% and reduced the risk of each of heart failure hospitalization and cardiovascular death individually, as well as overall mortality. Patient symptoms were also improved. The aim of the present report was to examine the effect of dapagliflozin separately in patients with and without type 2 diabetes at baseline (45/55% split in the trial). The reason for this was that dapagliflozin was originally introduced as a glucose-lowering medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We find that dapagliflozin was equally beneficial in patients with and without diabetes and was as well tolerated in patients without diabetes as in those with diabetes. More remarkably, among the patients without diabetes, dapagliflozin was as effective in participants with a completely normal glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) as in those with prediabetes. In patients with a normal HbA1c, dapagliflozin did not lead to any reduction in HbA1c, but did improve clinical outcomes.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Erectile Dysfunction, JAMA, Karolinski Institute / 23.03.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alexander Stridh, MSc Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institute Solna, Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: ​We wanted to investigate how large the effect size is in the placebo arm of clinical trials with PDE5Is for erectile dysfunction. The major findings in this study is that there is a placebo response in general in ED, though it is hard to tell if this is a genuine placebo effect rather than normal fluctuations in symptom severity among patients. Another interesting finding was that the placebo response seems largely more important when the cause of ED is mainly due to psychogenic factors, as in post traumatic stress disorder. Lastly there was an important finding that there was no difference between placebo and active drug with daily treatment of PDE5Is  for long term recovery of erectile function after prostate cancer treatment, a practice which is common in some places and seems to be questionable.  (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Opiods, Pediatrics / 23.03.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Leah Nelson, MD MS Addiction Medicine Fellow University of New Mexico MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: With the progression of the opioid epidemic over the past decade, more women of reproductive age are seeking treatment for addiction. Many more pregnant women are prescribed methadone and buprenorphine, two opioid medications that prevent relapse and overdose. Maternal use of mediations for opioid use disorder is recommended because it lowers the risk to the fetus from uncontrolled drug use and also allows the mother to engage with prenatal care and social work. Subsequently, the number of infants born after prenatal exposure to opioids is increasing. Several previous studies have shown measurable differences in the cognitive scores of children after prenatal opioid exposure. However, much of the previous work was done on convenience samples (easy to recruit rather than rigorously matched for comparability) and the demographic characteristics of both mothers and children in the exposed and unexposed groups varied widely on important factors such as maternal education, socioeconomics, employment, tobacco use, and infant gender. Each of these factors has been demonstrated to impact early childhood development in the absence of opioid exposure. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, JAMA, Mental Health Research / 20.03.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jiajin Yuan, Ph.D Professor of Psychology Director, The Laboratory for Affect Cognition and Regulation, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Impulsivity is a critical symptom of methamphetamine addiction, and this symptom plays an important role in compulsive, unresistable drug-seeking behavioral and is thus detrimental to the rehabilitation. Impulsivity in drug addiction also contributes to disruption of people's goal pursuit/goal maintenance, and aggressive/violent behaviors after drug use. Also, lack of suitable intervention for addiction-related impulsivity is known to be a risky factor for the drug reuse after successful rehabilitation. Thus, rehabilitaton targeted at impulsivity in methamphetamine addicts is important to comprehensive rehabilitation of the drug addiction and also to successful return to social life after rehabilitation (more…)
Author Interviews, Dental Research, JAMA, Pain Research / 19.03.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Romesh P. Nalliah BDS, MHCM Associate Dean for Patient Services Clinical Professor Institute for Healthcare Policy & Innovation Michigan Institute for Data Science Director, Synergy Program MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We designed and conducted this study because there is a paucity of knowledge related to opioid prescribing for acute dental pain. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, JAMA, Orthopedics, Pediatrics / 17.03.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yun-Han Wang, PhD Student Karolinska Institute MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use has been linked to increased risk of fracture in adults. Despite an increasing trend in prescription of PPIs in children, there is scarce evidence regarding this safety concern in pediatric patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 16.03.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ashlesha Datar, PhD Senior Economist Director of Program on Children & Families USC Dornsife Center for Economic and Social Research (CESR) University of Southern California  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Prior research, including our own work, has suggested that there might be some kind of social contagion or social transmission in obesity. So we wanted to explore that avenue further. In the present study, we showed teens in military families a set of human body figures with varying body sizes and asked them to choose the figure that best captured their ideal body size. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA / 13.03.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alyson Haslam, PhD Nutritional Epidemiologist Center for Indigenous Health Research and Policy Oklahoma State University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Checkpoint inhibitor drugs for the treatment of cancers have received a lot of attention in recent years because of their ability to induce responses in certain tumors. To quantify the eligibility and response of these drugs in the US population, we published an article about a year ago (https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2732329). Since that publication, there were several confirmatory studies that failed to show a benefit in important outcomes such as overall survival or progression-free survival, and the US FDA made some revisions to certain checkpoint inhibitor drug labels. This prompted us to re-evaluate the eligibility of these drugs. (more…)
Author Interviews, Colon Cancer, JAMA, Weight Research / 13.03.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Laurent Bailly MD, PhD Département de Santé Publique, CHU Nice, Hôpital Archet 1. Niveau1 NICE France  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Obesity is known to increase cancer incidence and notably colorectal cancer incidence. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment of obesity however the association of this surgery with the colorectal cancer remained controversial. We used the French National Health Insurance Information System to conduct a nationwide retrospective cohort study, between 2009 and 2018, of patients hospitalized in France with a diagnosis of obesity. We followed more than 1 million obese individuals aged 50 to 75 years and free of colorectal cancer at baseline, some of them did undergo bariatric surgery and others did not. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hepatitis - Liver Disease, JAMA, USPSTF / 12.03.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Michael Barry MD Director of the Informed Medical Decisions Program Health Decision Sciences Center at Massachusetts General Hospital Physician at Massachusetts General Hospital Professor of Medicine,Harvard Medical School MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Hepatitis C affects more people today than ever before, many of whom are younger. If left untreated, it can cause serious, lifelong health problems due to liver damage. The good news is that hepatitis C infection is both preventable and treatable, with recent evidence showing that new treatments for adults are highly effective. Knowing this, we’ve broadened our guidelines to recommend screening for hepatitis C in all adults between the ages of 18 and 79. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, NIH, Social Issues / 12.03.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Adan Z. Becerra PhD Senior Epidemiologist for the  NIH Social and Scientific Systems Washington, District Of Columbia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Previous studies have shown that disparities in insurance coverage by immigration status exist in the United States such that immigrants compared to nonimmigrants are less likely to have insurance. However, most studies have been cross sectional with few studies investigating long term trajectories of insurance coverage over time. We addressed this gap in the literature by following a cohort of adults for 24 years from before until after reaching Medicare age-eligibility. (more…)