Majority of Murdered Women Are Killed By Current or Former Partners

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

EmikoPetrosky MD M.P.H Science Officer, National Violent Death Reporting System at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emory University Rollins School of Public Health

Dr. Petrosky

EmikoPetrosky MD M.P.H
Science Officer, National Violent Death Reporting System at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Emory University Rollins School of Public Health

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Homicide is one of the leading causes of death for women aged 44 years and younger. In 2015, 3,519 girls and women died by homicide in the United States.  It is the 5th leading cause of death for women under 45 years age (defining women as 18-44 years of age).

The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) links together data from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, and law enforcement reports, resulting in more information about the circumstances of death than what is available elsewhere.

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Dissolvable Microneedle Patches Can Be Vaccination Game Changer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr Nadine G Rouphael MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Emory University
Director of the VTEU and HIPC networks at the
Hope Clinic of the Emory Vaccine Center
Decatur GA 30030, USA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this new technology and study? What are the main findings?

Response: Different groups including a group of researchers at Georgia Tech have been working on the microneedle technology for more than 20 years. The dissolvable microneedle patches are already used in several cosmetic products and drugs. However, vaccination with microneedle patches has been studied mostly in animals.

Our phase 1 trial published this week in The Lancet showed that vaccination with the microneedle patches was safe, with no related serious adverse events reported. Local skin reactions to the patches were mostly mild itching and faint redness that lasted two to three days. No new chronic medical illnesses or influenza-like illnesses were reported with either the patch or the injection groups. Antibody responses generated by the vaccine, as measured through analysis of blood samples, were similar in the groups vaccinated using patches and those receiving intramuscular injection, and these immune responses were still present after six months. When asked after immunization, more than 70 percent of patch recipients reported they would prefer patch vaccination over injection or intranasal vaccination for future vaccinations.

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Are Your Prefrontal Neurons Oscillating? You May Be In Love

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Robert Liu, PhD Silvio O. Conte Center for Oxytocin and Social Cognition Center for Translational Social Neuroscience Department of Biology Graduate Program in Neuroscience Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

Dr. Liu

Dr. Robert Liu, PhD
Silvio O. Conte Center for Oxytocin and Social Cognition
Center for Translational Social Neuroscience
Department of Biology
Graduate Program in Neuroscience
Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This study describes for the first time some of the novel brain mechanisms underlying how social relationships are formed.  In this case we studied the formation of a pair bond in voles.  Pair bonding in voles is not exactly the same as love in humans, but we believe that pair bonding in voles likely shares many of the underlying neural mechanisms as falling in love in humans, such as developing a rewarding feeling towards your partner.

Basically, we discovered that rhythmic oscillations of groups of neurons in the prefrontal cortex, an area of the brain that is involved in decision making and executive function, can control the strength of oscillations at a different frequency in populations of neurons in the nucleus accumbens, an area that is involved in pleasure and reward, as well as addiction.  We show that the strength of that PFC-NAc control predicted how quickly animals would begin to show affectionate behavior, analogous to people who may fall in love quicker than others.  But the most intriguing thing was that when animals mated for the first time, the strength of the control of the reward system by the decision making circuit increased, and the greater the increase in that control, the faster the animal started huddling or showing affection toward its partner.  We think that this cortical control of the reward system allows for the neural encoding of the partner’s features (odors, sounds) to become stamped into the reward system, so that the partner becomes rewarding themselves.  Indeed in studies in humans, parts of the striatum, to which the nucleus accumbens belongs, become activated when men look at images of their lovers or when mothers look at images of babies.

We not only observed that during pair bond formation the cortex controls rhythmic activity within the reward system, but we actually recreated that communication using a highly innovative technique that allows us to control neural activity using light.  We expressed a light sensitive protein in the cortical neurons that project to the reward system, and then light stimulated those projections in the reward system in animals at the same frequency as normally happens during mating, but in this case the animals were not allowed to mate. By simply recreating the neural oscillatory control of the cortex of the reward area when the female was near the male, we biased how affectionately she acted towards him.

We think that the implications for this is not restricted to forming bonds or falling in love, but tells us something fundamental about how certain brain circuits communicate with each other to build social relationships, to make us feel pleasure from being with others that we like.  We believe that by understanding how social cues get instantiated into the brain’ reward system, we may ultimately be able to use this information to help people with impairments in the forming strong social relationships, such as in autism or schizophrenia.

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Functional Brain Markers Can Suggest Susceptibility to PTSD

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jennifer Stevens, PhD Director, Neuroscience of Memory, Emotion, and Stress Laboratory Instructor, Dept of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences Emory University School of Medicine

Dr. Stevens

Jennifer Stevens, PhD
Director, Neuroscience of Memory, Emotion, and Stress Laboratory
Instructor, Dept of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences
Emory University School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? 

Response: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was once thought to be a disorder of combat veterans, however, we now know that more than 60% of Americans experience a traumatic event during their lifetimes, and that this can have negative consequences for mental and physical health. Many people recover from the psychological effects of trauma without any intervention, but a significant proportion have long-lasting debilitating symptoms.

Supported by the NIH, the cutting edge of PTSD research includes new strategies for preventing the disease, rather than treating PTSD after patients have been living with symptoms for months to years. In order to prevent the disease, it is critical that we are able to quickly identify people who will be at risk for the disease following a trauma, so that preventive strategies can be deployed bedside in the emergency room or in the battlefield. In the current study, we used functional MRI to predict which individuals would recover from trauma, and which individuals would have long-lasting symptoms of PTSD.

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Virtual Reality Environments Can Advance Psychiatric Treatment and Research

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jessica Maples-Keller Emory University School of Medicine.

Jessica Maples-Keller

Jessica Maples-Keller
Emory University School of Medicine.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response:  This manuscript is a review of the use of Virtual Reality (VR) technology within psychiatric treatment. VR refers to an advanced technological communication interface in which the user is actively participated in a computer generated 3-d virtual world that includes sensory input devices used to simulate real-world interactive experiences. VR is a powerful tool for the psychiatric community, as it allows providers to create computer-generated environments in a controlled setting, which can be used to create a sense of presence and immersion in the feared environment for individuals suffering from anxiety disorders.
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Standardized EEG Reporting Helps Predict Risk of Seizures

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Andres Rodriguez Ruiz, MD</strong> Clinical Neurophysiology and Neurology Emory School of Medicine

Dr. Andres Rodriguez Ruiz

Andres Rodriguez Ruiz, MD
Clinical Neurophysiology and Neurology
Emory School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The Critical Care EEG monitoring research consortium (CCEMRC) was established with the goal of promoting collaboration and research among healthcare institutions highly involved in continuous EEG monitoring of critically ill patients. This group together with the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society (ACNS) established the standardized critical care EEG terminology that allowed uniform reporting of EEG findings in critically ill patients. As part of this effort, a database was developed for collection and clinical reporting of such EEG findings and was adopted for daily clinical use by Yale University, Emory University and Brigham and Women’s Hospital.

Prior retrospective reports have acknowledged an association between periodic discharges and seizures. However, many of these reports were small series and did not include specific characteristics of these patterns. Our goal was to ascertain whether features of periodic and rhythmic patterns such as location (generalized vs. lateralized), frequency and prevalence influenced seizure risk in a large cohort of critically ill adults.

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National Trends and Outcomes of Embryo Donation

Jennifer F. Kawwass, MD, FACOG Assistant Professor, Emory Reproductive Center Director of Third Party Reproduction, Emory Reproductive Center

Dr. Jennifer F. Kawwass

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Jennifer F. Kawwass, MD, FACOG

Assistant Professor, Emory Reproductive Center
Director of Third Party Reproduction, Emory Reproductive Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: With the increasing use of assisted reproductive technology (ART), the number of cryopreserved embryos in storage has increased, as residual viable embryos from an in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle may be frozen for future use. Each embryo maintains attributes reflective of the age of the female at time of the original oocyte retrieval. Embryo donation, a form of third-party reproduction, involves donation without compensation of previously formed embryos to another couple for implantation.

Limited published data exist detailing outcomes of donor embryo cycles. Patients and clinicians would benefit from information specific to donor embryo cycles to inform fertility treatment options, counselling, and clinical decision-making. We sought to quantify trends in donor embryo cycles in the United States, to characterize donor embryo recipients, and to report transfer, pregnancy, and birth outcomes of donor embryo transfers.

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Children With Autism Miss Social Cues of Eye Contact

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Warren Jones, PhD Director of Research, Marcus Autism Center Children's Healthcare of Atlanta CHOA Distinguished Chair in Autism Asst. Professor, Dept. of Pediatrics Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta, Georgia 30329

Dr. Warren Jones

Warren Jones, PhD
Director of Research, Marcus Autism Center
Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta
CHOA Distinguished Chair in Autism
Asst. Professor, Dept. of Pediatrics
Emory University School of Medicine
Atlanta, Georgia 30329

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: These results help clarify an important and longstanding question in autism: why do children with autism look less at other people’s eyes?

Two ideas for reduced eye contact in autism have been proposed:
– One idea is that children with autism avoid eye contact because they find it stressful and negative.
– The other idea is that children with autism look less at other people’s eyes because the social cues from the eyes are not perceived as particularly meaningful or important.

This study is important because each idea reflects a very different understanding of what autism is. And maybe even more importantly, each idea reflects a very different view about the right treatment approach to autism and to reduced eye contact in autism.

To answer this question, we used eye-tracking technology to study how 86 children with and without autism paid attention to other people’s eyes.

Children were tested when they were just two years old, at their time of initial diagnosis.

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The Health ABC Study: Simple Exercise Test Predicts Heart Failure

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Vasiliki Georgiopoulou MD MPH PhD Assistant Professor of Medicine (Cardiology) Emory University School of Medicine

Dr. Vasiliki Georgiopoulou

Vasiliki Georgiopoulou MD MPH PhD
Assistant Professor of Medicine (Cardiology)
Emory University School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Although existing evidence suggests that more exercise capacity is associated with lower risk of CV disease and death, we don’t know whether more exercise capacity would lead to lower risk for heart failure also. This would be especially important for older adults, who are the group with the highest risk to develop heart failure. We used the data of a cohort study to test this association.

The exercise capacity was evaluated by a walking test that is easy to perform – the long-distance corridor walk test. We observed that older adults who were able to complete the test had the lowest risk to develop heart failure and the lowest mortality rates, when compared with those who were not able to complete the test and those who could not do the test for medical reasons. We also observed that changes in exercise capacity 4 years later did not predict subsequent heart failure or mortality – perhaps because less fit older patients had already developed heart failure or had died.

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Majority of US Adults Have At Least One Chronic Health Condition

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Elizabeth Walker, PhD, MPH, MAT Research Assistant Professor Assistant Director of Evidence-based Learning Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education Rollins School of Public Health Emory University

Dr. Elizabeth Walker

Elizabeth Walker, PhD, MPH, MAT
Research Assistant Professor
Assistant Director of Evidence-based Learning
Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education
Rollins School of Public Health
Emory University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Previous research has shown that many adults in the United States have one or more chronic health condition; however, not much was known about multimorbidities – having multiple chronic conditions – among people with mental disorders. We used nationally representative data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health to determine the patterns of co-occurrence of mental illness, substance abuse and/or dependence, and chronic medical conditions. We also examined the association between the cumulative burden of these conditions, as well as living in poverty, and self-rated health.

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