Work Stress Associated With Increase Risk of Atrial Fibrillation

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

atrial-fibrillation

Atrial Fibrillation-
Wikipedia

Eleonor Fransson, PhD
Associate Professor in Epidemiology
Department of Natural Sciences and Biomedicine
School of Health and Welfare
JÖNKÖPING UNIVERSITY

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Atrial fibrillation is a very common heart rhythm disorder affecting a large number of people in the population, but there is limited knowledge about risk factors for the disease. This is especially true when it comes to the role of occupational factors.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: We found that work stress measured as job strain, that is, a combination of having high psychological job demands and low control over the work situation, was associated with almost 50% increased risk of atrial fibrillation. When we combined the results from our study with two previously published studies on the same topic, we found that work stress was associated with 37% increased risk.

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Head Injuries and Concussions Common in Theater Work and Performing Arts

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jeffrey A. (Jeff) Russell, PhD, AT, FIADMS Science and Health in Artistic Performance Division of Athletic Training, School of Applied Health Sciences and Wellness Ohio University Athens, OH 45701

Dr. Jeff Russell

Jeffrey A. (Jeff) Russell, PhD, AT, FIADMS
Science and Health in Artistic Performance
Division of Athletic Training, School of Applied Health Sciences and Wellness
Ohio University
Athens, OH 45701

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

 

 

Response: Everyone knows that enormous attention is given to concussions in sports today. Those involved in performing arts experience many head impacts, too; yet, they receive neither the attention nor the specialized care for concussions that athletes do.

At Ohio University’s Clinic for Science and Health in Artistic Performance (SHAPe Clinic) that I direct, we were seeing a number of theater students suffer concussions. So, Brooke Daniell and I decided explore this trend more closely. This is the first known published research to evaluate the prevalence of head impacts in theater personnel. In the sample we studied, which comprised predominantly those involved in various aspects of theater production, the prevalence of receiving at least one head impact in a theater career was 67%. Of those who sustained at least one head impact from theater, 77% reported three or more head impacts, and 39% reported more than five impacts. More troubling, of those who said they had received a head impact that was accompanied by concussion-like symptoms, 70% indicated that they continued their work, and half of those did not report the incident to anyone.

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Focusing On Employment Early Improves Success In Veterans with PTSD

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Lori Davis, MD Research and Development Service, Tuscaloosa Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa Tuscaloosa, Alabama

Dr. Davis

Dr. Lori Davis, MD
Research and Development Service, Tuscaloosa Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center,
Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa
Tuscaloosa, Alabama

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) interfere with a person’s ability to function at work, making it harder to stay employed and establish oneself in a career.  Veterans with PTSD are uniquely challenged given their motivation to serve others, be leaders and not be generally receptive to reaching out for help.

Conventional wisdom about PTSD and employment has traditionally been to first commit to treatment, learn coping skills, manage one’s symptoms and then reintegrate into mainstream employment. However, this view is being transformed by our research that suggests a more assertive recovery-oriented approach to the treatment of PTSD that involves returning to meaningful competitive employment as soon as possible.

This study compared Evidence-based Supported Employment (also known as Individual Placement and Support or IPS) integrated within PTSD treatment teams to the treatment as usual Transitional Work model offered within the VA. This multisite trial demonstrated significantly greater effectiveness of the IPS-supported employment over stepwise, transitional work vocational rehabilitation for Veterans living with chronic PTSD.

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Irregular or Rotating Night Shifts Linked To Increased Risk of Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Night Shift - Hard@Work (5of8)” by cell105 is licensed under CC BY 2.0Dr. Céline Vetter

Assistant Professor
Department of Integrative Physiology
University of Colorado at Boulder
Boulder, CO

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Shift work, particularly night shifts, can change our social rhythms, as well as the internal biological rhythms including our sleep, and these effects could explain why shift work is linked to conditions such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, we don’t know which type of shift pattern is most strongly linked to type 2 diabetes. In addition, we know that some lifestyle factors can modify the link between a genetic predisposition to a disease and the disease itself, but we don’t know if this applies to shift work and type 2 diabetes.

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Paid Family and Childbearing Leave Policies at Top US Medical Schools Found Lacking

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Christina Mangurian, MD, MAS Associate Professor of Psychiatry Vice Chair for Diversity, Department of Psychiatry, UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences Director, UCSF Public Psychiatry Fellowship at ZSFG Core Faculty, UCSF Center for Vulnerable Populations

Dr. Mangurian

Christina Mangurian, MD, MAS
Associate Professor of Psychiatry
Vice Chair for Diversity, Department of Psychiatry
UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences
Director, UCSF Public Psychiatry Fellowship at ZSFG
Core Faculty, UCSF Center for Vulnerable Populations

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We examined paid family and childbearing leave policies at top-10 medical schools across the US. Despite recommendation from national medical societies for 12 weeks paid childbearing leave because of the benefits to both infant and mother, the average leave at these top schools of medicine was only around 8 weeks. In addition, most policies are very difficult to understand, and are at the discretion of departmental leadership – both of which put women at a disadvantage at getting leave they deserve. Additionally, family leave was only available to the parent that identifies as the “primary caregiver” at five universities, disallowing cooperative parenting.

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Majority of Dialysis Patients Unemployed

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Hemodialysis machine Wikipedia image

Hemodialysis machine
Wikipedia image

Dr. Kevin F. Erickson MD, MS
Section of Nephrology and Selzman Institute for Kidney Health
Baylor College of Medicine
Houston, TX

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: An amendment to the Social Security Act passed in 1972 made it so nearly every person who develops end-stage renal disease – or ESRD – in the U.S. becomes eligible for Medicare, regardless of their age. At the time the law was passed, the bill’s supporters argued that access to life-sustaining dialysis therapy would enable patients to continue being productive members of society through work and activities at home. While the law has succeeded in providing access to dialysis therapy for many patients who would have otherwise died from kidney failure, it has been less successful at helping patients to continue working. The rate of employment among patients with ESRD who are receiving dialysis in the U.S. is low and has continued to decrease over time, despite both financial benefits from employment and evidence suggesting that patients who are employed experience improved quality of life and sense of wellbeing.

We used a national ESRD registry to examine trends in employment between 1996 and 2013 among patients starting dialysis in the U.S. and in the six months before ESRD. Our goal was to determine whether difficulties that patients face when trying to work begin even before they develop ESRD.

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Frequent Exertion and Frequent Standing at Work Varies By Industry and Occupation Group

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Taylor M. Shockey, MPH

Title 42 Fellow
Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies
NIOSH

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Research has linked repeated exposure to occupational ergonomic hazards, such as frequent exertion and frequent standing, to injuries and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among workers.

To determine the industry and occupation groups that have the highest prevalence rates of frequent exertion at work and frequent standing at work, NIOSH researchers analyzed 2015 National Health Interview Survey data. The results showed large differences among the groups with the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting industry group having the highest prevalence of frequent exertion and standing at work (70.9%) and the construction and extraction occupation group having the highest prevalence of frequent exertion and standing at work (76.9%). These differences indicate a need for targeted interventions to reduce workplace exposure.

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Patronizing Hair and Nail Salons Linked To Increased Risk of Skin and Fungal Infections

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Lindsey Milich Rutgers School of Public Health studiesLindsey Milich

Rutgers School of Public Health studies
 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Much of the spotlight has been focused on hair and nail technicians, with the focus now shifting towards the health and safety of hair and nail salon clients. We wanted to assess perceived safety and health risks and prevalence of respiratory and dermal symptoms among hair and nail salon clients in New Jersey.

Main findings include dermal/fungal symptoms being more prevalent among clients who visited salons three or more times within the past year, compared with those with fewer reported visits. Respiratory symptom prevalence was higher among clients with fewer salon visits, indicating a “healthy client effect”; clients with these symptoms may be less likely to return.

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Night Shift Work Linked To Increased Risk of Obesity

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Sun Miaomiao

Prof. Shelly Tse
JC School of Public Health and Primary Care
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Sha Tin, Hong Kong

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Approximately 20% of the overall workforce is involving in a shift work schedule, which is equivalent to nearly 0.7 billion workers. It has been several studies and systematic reviews reported that shift work could contribute a risk to abdominal obesity, that was identified to be associated with increased mortality. However, the previous related studies derived from different industries and companies that held with various occupational settings of night shift work, and the results have been inconsistent or lack of statistical power. We believed that a better understanding of the knowledge gaps on the associations between specific obesity types and different shift work settings has important implications for occupational health practice. Our meta-analysis provided a clearer picture for the association between night shift work and overweight/ obesity with a potential gradient association, especially for the abdominal obesity.

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Pneumococcal Vaccine Rates Still Too Low Among Adults With Work-Related Asthma

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Katelynn Dodd MPH Respiratory Health Division National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morgantown WV 26505

Katelynn Dodd

Katelynn Dodd MPH
Respiratory Health Division
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Morgantown WV 26505

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Adults with asthma are at increased risk for pneumococcal infection. Adults with asthma who get pneumococcal pneumonia are at risk for additional complications including asthma exacerbation and invasive pneumococcal disease. Our results indicated that adults with work-related asthma were more likely to have received a pneumococcal vaccine than adults with non-work-related asthma—54 percent compared to 35 percent respectively; however, pneumococcal vaccination coverage among all adults with asthma, work-related or not, who have ever been employed in this study falls short of achieving the coverage public health experts recommend. Among adults with work-related asthma, pneumococcal vaccine coverage was lowest among Hispanics (36 percent), those without health insurance (39 percent), and adults aged 18 to 44 years (42 percent).

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