Author Interviews, Colon Cancer, Gastrointestinal Disease, Immunotherapy / 04.06.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Steven H. Itzkowitz, MD, FACP, FACG, AGAF Professor of Medicine and Oncological Sciences Director of the GI Fellowship Program Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: This study looked at patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who had a history of cancer in the past 5 years and asked whether the medications they received for their IBD might have affected their rates of getting future cancer (new or recurrent cancers). Because many of the medicines that are used to treat IBD can affect the immune system in various ways, there has been concern that the medicines might predispose to subsequent cancers. We found that patients who received immunosuppressive medications had a numerically increased risk of subsequent cancer, this was not statistically higher than those who had not been exposed to these medications. While previous studies have looked at this question retrospectively, this is the first report that analyzed this issue prospectively using individuals from the United States.  Moreover, this study represents a multi-institutional collaboration among gastroenterologists at most of the major NYC healthcare systems. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, Gastrointestinal Disease, Health Care Systems / 20.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Laura Targownik, MD Lead author and Clinician-Investigator Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto Departmental Division Director, Gastroenterology and Hepatology University of Toronto MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Was there a difference in the types of patients or need for surgery seen by the female/male physicians? Response: The background for this study is that there is an emerging body of literature that having a female physician leads to better patient outcomes in many health care settings, especially amongst patients undergoing surgery or being admitted to hospital.  However, this has not previously been evaluated in gastroenterology.  Female and male gastroenterologists may have different styles of practice on average, and this potentially could lead to differences in how patients engage with the health care system following an initial assessment. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Opiods / 03.02.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joshua D. Madera, MD Department of Medical Education Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine Scranton PA What is the background for this study? Response: The US population continues to be drastically impacted by the opioid epidemic, with opioid-related deaths significantly increased compared to European countries. While prescription opioid distribution has gradually declined since its peak in 2011 [1], the rate of opioid prescriptions remains increased compared to 2000. Furthermore, there is considerable interstate variability in opioid distribution across the US. Identifying patterns in this variability may guide public health efforts to reduce opioid-related harms. Therefore, the primary objective of this study [2] from Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine was to explore variations in production quotas and state-level distribution of ten prescription opioids between 2010 and 2019. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Gastrointestinal Disease, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Technology / 18.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Giovanni Traverso MD PhD Karl Van Tassel (1925) Career Development Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Koch Institute of Integrative Cancer Research Division of Gastroenterology Brigham and Women’s Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: I think its always important to acknowledge that this is a big team effort.  We have the teams from MIT, Celero Systems, West Virgnia University (WVU) and Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) all working together on this.   For this study, Celero prototyped the devices that we tested in pre-clinical (Swine) models and in a first-in-human study with the team at WVU. Our lab focuses on the development of ingestible devices for drug delivery and sensing and these have informed the development of these efforts as you can see. MedicalResearch.com: What types of vital signs are measurable in this fashion? Response: Heart rate and respiratory rate. (more…)
Author Interviews, Eli Lilly, Gastrointestinal Disease / 03.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lotus Mallbris, M.D., Ph.D., Senior Vice President of Immunology Development Eli Lilly MedicalResearch.com: Would you briefly describe the condition of Crohn's disease and who is most susceptible to this disease? Response: Crohn's disease is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can cause systemic inflammation manifested as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever and weight loss. It can lead to intestinal obstruction, fibrosis and other complications. Approximately 900,000 patients in the U.S. and 1 million patients in Europe are currently suffering from Crohn’s disease, and 70% of those have moderate to severe disease. Although the majority of patients are started on conventional therapy such as corticosteroids and immunomodulators, many will unfortunately progress to having moderate to severe disease. Furthermore, current therapies to treat Crohn’s disease often fail to achieve remission for a majority of patients, and of the patients who do achieve remission, a substantial proportion lose it within the first year. (more…)
Author Interviews, Eli Lilly, Gastrointestinal Disease, NEJM / 02.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marla C. Dubinsky, MD Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Co- director, Susan and Leonard Feinstein IBD Clinical Center Mount Sinai Health System MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you briefly describe the condition of UC? Response: Lucent 1 and Lucent 2 were the induction and maintenance registration trials studying the efficacy and safety of mirikizumab in patients 18 years and older with moderate to severely active ulcerative colitis. Mirikizumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting the p19 subunit of IL23. Lucent-3 is the open label extension arm for those meeting inclusion criteria after completing Lucent 2. This study evaluated the long term efficacy and safety of mirikizumab in patients with ulcerative colitis who completed a total of 104 weeks of active mirikizumab treatment. Ulcerative colitis is a chronic incurable inflammatory condition of colon. Common symptoms include diarrhea, blood in the stool, abdominal cramping and bowel urgency. Bowel urgency is one of the most burdensome symptoms that a patient with you could experience. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Gastrointestinal Disease / 16.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Daniel L. Worthley MBBS (Hons), PhD, MPH, FRACP, AGAF Gastroenterologist Associate Professor University of Adelaide MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Cells are revolutionising healthcare, from modern faecal microbial transplantation in the gut to CAR-T cells fighting cancers, life healing life. Some aspects of cellular care are so entrenched in medicine that they are almost overlooked for the miraculous cellular therapies that they are, such as stem cell transplantation to treat haematological malignancies and, of course, in vitro fertilization, life creating life. Modern medicine is slowly, but surely, pivoting from pills to cells. Professor Siddhartha Mukherjeee, oncologist, scientist, and author, provides a beautiful thesis of this in his book Song of the Cell and in his TED talk on the cellular revolution in medicine (https://youtu.be/qG_YmIPFO68?feature=shared). I was lucky enough to have trained with Sid as a post-doc at Columbia and this concept was really drummed into me. But, as a gastroenterologist, perhaps it was the bacterial cells, rather than the blood cells, that had most to offer in the management of bowel disorders? Around the same time, Professors Jeff Hasty, Tal Danino and Omar Din from UC San Diego had been inventing and publishing, in my opinion, the best bacterial engineering work that has ever been produced to specifically target cancer. I remember when we first reviewed their 2016 Nature paper in our lab meeting (https://www.nature.com/articles/nature18930#citeas), it was like – “We gotta meet these guys!”. Through Tal, who was by then, working at Columbia, I was introduced to Jeff and I attended his lab meeting back in 2019. That was where our project began after a lab meeting in La Jolla. Rob Cooper had presented his work on horizontal gene transfer. Everything that comes out of Jeff’s lab is both practical and reproducible but also beautiful. Beautiful in a scientific self-evident way that instantly communicates the purpose, approach and outcomes of an experiment. Rob’s presentation that day was a case-in-point. Rob was studying genes and gene transfer in bacteria (see part of Rob’s fascinating presentation here, https://youtu.be/5nBsRF-BsA8?feature=shared). Genes are the fundamental unit of heredity and gene transfer (or inheritance) the process by which genes are passed from one cell to another. Genes may be inherited vertically when one cell replicates its DNA and divides into two, now separate, cells (reproduction). Genes are the stuff, and vertical gene transfer is the process, by which you receive your mother’s laugh and your father’s eyebrows. Genes may also, however, be inherited horizontally when DNA is passed between unrelated cells, outside of parent to offspring inheritance. Horizontal gene transfer is quite common in the microbial world. Certain bacteria can salvage genes from cell-free DNA found within its environment. This sweeping up of cell-free DNA, into a cell, is called natural competence. So, competent bacteria can sample their nearby environment and, in doing so, acquire genes that may provide a selective advantage to that cell. Like cellular panning for flecks of gold in a stream. After Rob’s presentation, Jeff, Rob and I started to discuss the possibilities. If bacteria can take up DNA, and cancer is defined genetically by a change in its DNA then, theoretically, bacteria could be engineered to detect cancer. Colorectal cancer seemed a logical proof of concept as the colorectal lumen is full of microbes and, in the setting of cancer, full of tumour DNA.  When a biophysicist, a scientist and a gastroenterologist walk into a bar, after a lab meeting, this is what can happen! Professor Susi Woods and Dr Josephine Wright, superb cancer scientists from Adelaide, Australia, were quickly recruited in as essential founding members of the group. We all got to work. Australian and US grants, lots of experiments, early morning Zoom calls across the Pacific, inventing new animal models and approaches, i.e. a many year, iterative process of design-build-test-learn, that got us all to where we are now. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Immunotherapy / 17.05.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marla Dubinsky, M.D. Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine Co-director of the Susan and Leonard Feinstein IBD Clinical Center Chief of the Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai     MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? How does MIRIKIZUMAB differ from other medications for UC? Response: This is a phase 2 study to assess the PK (pharamcokinetics), safety and efficacy of mirikizumab in pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC). Mirikizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to the p19 subunit of interleukin-23, a key inflammatory mediator in inflammatory bowel disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Gastrointestinal Disease / 04.05.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Celine B. E. Busch, Research Associate Gastroenterology and Hepatology Standard PhD Candidate Dr. Jacques Bergman Professor, Gastroenterology and Hepatology Amsterdam UMC MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you describe the ReCET procedure? Response: Currently more than 400 million people worldwide have type 2 diabetes (T2D) and these numbers are rapidly increasing. At the moment there is no treatment option available that effectively treats the root cause of T2D, i.e. insulin resistance, the increasing loss of response to our body’s own insulin. T2D is generally treated with drug therapy, yet drug therapy can be expensive, requires the patient to take their drugs every day, and at best “controls” the disease without actually resolving it. Despite the availability of many T2D drugs, less than 50% of all T2D have adequately controlled blood glucose levels. The duodenum (the first part of the small bowel, immediately distal to the stomach) has proven to play a crucial role in glucose homeostasis in T2D. We know from bariatric surgery, that bypassing the duodenum by an Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass has an immediate and profound effect on T2D by improving the sensitivity to the body’s own insulin resistance. However, performing invasive bariatric surgery for many T2D is not feasible. But we can reach the duodenum easily via upper GI endoscopy. ReCET is a single endoscopic procedure, performed under deep sedation. The ReCET catheter is advanced next to the scope, and once it is placed in the duodenum the flex circuit is unfolded until it touches the full circumference of the duodenum. The flex circuit contains the electrodes that create a pulsed electric field which “electroporates” the cells. Electroporation irreversibly makes small, that cause the cell to die of natural cell death, or apoptosis. This process can be precisely titrated for its depth of damage and does not generate heat thus avoiding damage to deeper wall layers, a major hurdle for standard endoscopic ablation techniques. The ReCET procedure lasts about 60 minutes to treat a 10-15 cm segment of the duodenum. The procedure does not cause significant side-effects and patients are discharged the same day. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease / 17.03.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Richard E. Moses, D.O., J.D. Gastroenterologist, Associate Vice President, Mirikizumab Indication Lead Global Medical Affairs, Eli Lilly and Company MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you briefly describe how mirikizumab works in UC?  Response: First, this study specifically evaluated mirikizumab, a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody that selectively targets the p19 subunit of IL-23 and inhibits the IL-23 pathway. Inflammation due to over-activation of the IL-23 pathway plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of UC. Regulatory decisions for mirikizumab as a potential treatment for adults with moderately to severely active UC in the U.S., E.U and other countries around the world are expected in 2023. If approved, mirikizumab has the potential to be the only UC treatment that selectively targets the p19 subunit of IL-23. Gastroenterologists today benefit from having data from a range of endpoints, which can help them determine appropriate treatment options depending on their specific patients' needs and symptoms. In addition to clinical response and clinical remission – which are often used to determine the effectiveness of a treatment – we can also use combined endpoints like histologic-endoscopic mucosal improvement (which gauges remission and treatment effectiveness), histologic-endoscopic mucosal remission (the reduction of underlying inflammation visible endoscopically) and inflammatory biomarkers faecal calprotectin (fCal) and C-reactive protein (CRP) to inform our treatment strategies. This analysis focused on patients treated with mirikizumab from the induction study who received intravenous mirikizumab every 4 weeks until Week 12 (LUCENT-1), and patients who responded to mirikizumab during 12-week induction period who were re-randomized for the maintenance period, receiving subcutaneous mirikizumab every four weeks up to Week 40 (LUCENT-2) for 52 weeks of continuous treatment. This study explored the relationship between achieving histologic-endoscopic mucosal improvement (HEMI), histologic-endoscopic mucosal remission (HEMR) and improvement of biomarkers fCal and CRP levels at Weeks 12 and 52. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Mental Health Research / 08.02.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yuan, Zhongshang PhD Department of Biostatistics School of Public Health Shandong University Jinan, Shandong, China What is the background for this study? Response: Comorbidities and genetic correlations between gastrointestinal tract diseases and psychiatric disorders have been widely reported, with the gut-brain axis (GBA) hypothesized as a potential biological basis. However, it is unclear the degree to which the shared genetic determinants contribute to these associations underlying GBA. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Gastrointestinal Disease / 20.05.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bashar J. Qumseya, MD, MPH, FASGE Associate Professor of Medicine Chief of Endoscopy University of Florida, Gainesville  MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings? Response: Barrett’s esophagus (BE), is a premalignant condition that can lead to esophageal cancer (called esophageal adenocarcinoma). Both diseases have historically been thought of as diseases of elderly white males. While both diseases have been on the rise in the elderly population, we noted that some cancers are becoming more common at younger ages. We wanted to see if the prevalence of BE and EC are increasing at younger ages.  We aimed to assess the prevalence of BE in and EAC based on age group in a large database of over 5 million patients.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Transplantation / 19.05.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Karn Wijarnpreecha, MD, MPH Lead researcher of the study Transplant Hepatology Fellow University of Michigan MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  Response: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can develop in persons who are not overweight or obese (“lean person with NAFLD”) and approximately 10-20% of NAFLD were lean. NAFLD is a multisystem diseases that associated with cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases (diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia), or chronic kidney disease. Whether lean persons with NAFLD have lower prevalence of cirrhosis, CVD, CKD than non-lean persons with NAFLD remains inconclusive. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, BMJ, Gastrointestinal Disease, Pancreatic / 09.03.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ece Kartal, PhD Postdoctoral Fellow Saez-Rodriguez Group Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg Institute for Computational Biomedicine Heidelberg MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?    Response: Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest types of cancer: although incidence rates are relatively low (only few people develop pancreatic cancer in their lifetimes), it has a high lethality, with a five year survival rate of less than ~5%. Pancreatic cancer symptoms are generally unspecific so that the disease is usually detected very late which further  limits therapeutic options. In light of this, earlier detection of pancreatic cancer could dramatically improve prognosis, but there are currently no affordable and non-invasive tests available in the clinic. For pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC),the most common form of pancreatic cancer, it was previously found that the oral, gut and pancreatic microbiome are risk factors and may affect prognosis . (more…)
Author Interviews, Duke, Gastrointestinal Disease, Nature, Sugar / 17.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Laura Rupprecht, PhD Postdoctoral Fellow Kelly L Buchanan The Laboratory of Gut Brain Neurobiology Duke Medicine – GI Diego V. Bohórquez PhD Associate Professor in Medicine Duke Institute for Brain Sciences Durham, NC MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings? Response: In 2018, my laboratory discovered that a cell type in the gut epithelium synapses with the vagus nerve, the nerve which connects the gut and the brain. These gut cells are called neuropod cells. Neuropod cells transduce sugar within milliseconds using the neurotransmitter glutamate. Since then, we have been interested in defining how this rapid communication between neuropod cells and the brain regulates behavior. – Diego Bohórquez Over a decade ago, it was shown that the gut is the key site for discerning sugar and non-caloric sweetener. But the specific cell in the gut that underlies this effect was unknown. – Kelly Buchanan   (more…)
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, Gastrointestinal Disease / 11.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Morgan Walker Ph.D. Candidate, UNC-Chapel Hill Chemistry Redinbo Laboratory MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Where is triclosan commonly found? Response: Triclosan is a commonly found antibacterial compound present in hand soaps, toothpastes, athletic clothes, and children’s toys. A previous study by the Zhang group (corresponding author on this publication) found that antimicrobial compounds including triclosan increased inflammation (similar to that of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)) and tumor formation in the colon. These effects were observed only in mice with an intact gut microbiome, not in germ-free mice which lack a gut microbiome, suggesting that the gut microbiome is somehow responsible for the toxicity of triclosan to the gut. Our study investigates how gut bacteria promote triclosan toxicity in the gut  (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Gastrointestinal Disease, Science / 13.08.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Lizhe Zhuang PhD Dr Karol Nowicki-Osuch PhD Dr. Rebecca C. Fitzgerald MD Medical Research Council Cancer Unit, Hutchison/Medical Research Council Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge UK MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Barrett’s oesophagus affects about one out of 100 people in the UK and is thought to be a precancerous lesion of a more deadline cancer, oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Barrett’s is a condition where the squamous cells in the lower part of oesophagus are replaced by a special type of columnar cells, which look like intestine, a far distant organ, raising a question where are these columnar cells come from. Many theories have been proposed in the past decades and no agreement was reached, and many conclusions were based on mouse models which do not recap the human condition. We therefore collected fresh samples of human tissues that correspond to all the possible theories and assessed them all together using state of the art technologies.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Beth Israel Deaconess, Gastrointestinal Disease, NEJM / 01.07.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Dr. D. Schuppan, MD, PhD Professor of Medicine Director Institute of Translational Immunology University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Consultant Gastroenterologist and Hepatologist Director Celiac and Small Intestinal Disease Center Director Center for Food Intolerances and Autoimmunity Director Liver Fibrosis and Metabolism Research Research Center for Immune Therapy (FZI) Mainz Project for Chemical Allergology (MPCA) Mainz, Germany Professor of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02215 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Celiac disease (CeD) is a common intestinal inflammatory disease that affects about 1% of most wheat consuming populations worldwide. CeD is caused by the ingestion of gluten containing foods, such as wheat, spelt, rye and barley, that activate small intestinal inflammatory T cells. The only current therapy is the rigorous avoidance of even traces of gluten in the daily diet, which is difficult and a social and psychological burden. We previously identified the body’s own enzyme tissue transglutaminase (TG2) as the CeD autoantigen. Moreover, TG2 drives celiac disease pathogenesis by enzymatically modifying dietary gluten peptides that makes them more immunogenic. We therefore developed an oral small molecule (ZED1227) that specifically inhibits TG2 activity in the intestine. While this should attenuate CeD in patients exposed to dietary gluten, it was unclear if  it could prevent gluten induced intestinal inflammation and damage. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Opiods / 24.05.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Frank Peacock, MD, FACEP, FACC Professor of Emergency Medicine, Associate Chair Research Director, Department of Emergency Medicine Baylor College of Medicine Houston, Texas MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  Response: Emergency medicine (EM) physicians, like myself, are always looking for ways to improve the patient experience. Often times, we will encounter a patient in the emergency department (ED) who is presenting with one of the most common side effects of opioids, which is opioid-induced constipation (OIC). OIC impacts 40-80% of patients on long-term opioid therapy[i],[ii] and may lead to emergency room visits which are associated with a significant burden on patients and the healthcare system. We wanted to compare the impact of treating OIC patients with FDA-approved prescription medications for OIC versus the impact of not treating OIC patients with an FDA-approved prescription medication for OIC in the ED setting to better understand the impact to overall ED costs and the length of stay for a hospitalized patient. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease / 24.05.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nicholas J. Talley, MD, PhD Pro Vice-Chancellor, Global ResearchUniversity of Newcastle, Australia Adjunct Professor of Medicine Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology; Department of Medicine University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill    MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What is meant by Eosinophilic Gastritis and/or Duodenitis?  Response: Eosinophilic gastritis and/or eosinophilic duodenitis (EG/EoD) is an eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease (EGID) characterized by chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and elevated eosinophils in the stomach and/or the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). When patients have both EG and EoD, it is sometimes referred to as eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE). You may have heard of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), which is the more well understood EGID characterized by elevated eosinophils in the esophagus. Until recently, EG/EoD was thought to be very rare, but prevalence had never been assessed in a prospective, systematic manner. New research indicates that EG/EoD may be a common cause of chronic, moderate-to-severe GI symptoms. Related, millions of patients in the United States suffer with chronic GI symptoms or are diagnosed with a functional GI disorder (FGID). FGIDs are diagnoses of exclusion, and excitingly the study results we present at DDW 2021 suggest that EG/EoD may be the underlying cause of many of these patients’ chronic, moderate-to-severe GI symptoms. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 23.05.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Edward L. Barnes, MD, MPH Assistant Professor of Medicine Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology UNCHealth Care and a medical advisor to the Global Healthy Living Foundation MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Although historically inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) have been considered diseases of non-Hispanic whites, the current burden of Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in minority populations is largely unknown. I n our study, we evaluated the relative prevalence of CD and UC across racial and ethnic groups within the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet) and compared the racial/ethnic distribution of IBD in PCORnet to that of the United States (US) census data, the overall PCORnet population, and PCORnet patients with selected immune-mediated conditions. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Gastrointestinal Disease, Weight Research / 16.05.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anna Carolina Hoff, MD Lead researcher on the study Founder and Clinical Director Angioskope Brazil São José dos Campos  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Obesity is a chronic disease that has become a global pandemic, and its prevalence continues to increase. Overweight (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 27 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30kg/m2) lead to numerous clinical comorbidities, including metabolic, cardiovascular, oncologic, and mental health disorders. It is challenging to achieve significant and sustained weight loss with diet and lifestyle modification alone. Additionally, a reversal of obesity-related co-morbidities and improvement in quality of life entails a percent total body weight loss (%TBWL) of between 5-10%, which is rarely achieved with medications alone. The Endoscopic Sleeve Gastroplasty (ESG) results in a %TBWL between 14.6%-19.7% at 18-24 months,  and improvements in systolic blood pressure (SBP), HbA1c, and dyslipidemia at 12 months. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Imperial College, Probiotics, Pulmonary Disease, Weight Research / 16.05.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Benjamin Mullish PhD NIHR Academic Clinical Lecturer Department of Metabolism Digestion and Reproduction Imperial College MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Which probiotic did you use and why?  Response: We recently reported the results of a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial in which participants who were overweight or with obesity (aged between 30-65 years of age) were randomized to receive probiotics or placebo for six months.  The primary focus was on weight loss and metabolism.  The probiotic used was Lab4P, containing three different strains of Bifidobacteria and two of Lactobacilli, which have shown to be safe and efficacious for use in rodent models and earlier clinical studies. Of note, probiotics have also been shown to have other beneficial effects upon human health.  Previous studies have suggested that they may have a role in preventing upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in healthy people and children; however, this has not been explored in older people or overweight/ people with obesity, even though such groups have higher rates of URTIs. We looked back at our trial, and reviewed symptom diaries completed by participants daily during the study.  We were looking at recorded symptoms most consistent with upper respiratory tract symptoms (including cough, wheezing and headache), and explored if rates of these were different between those participants taking probiotics compared to placebo over the six month course of the study.   (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Colon Cancer, Gastrointestinal Disease, Sugar / 06.05.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jinhee Hur, PhD Research Fellow Department of Nutrition Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Boston, MA 02115 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Early-onset colorectal cancer (EO-CRC, age <50 years at diagnosis) is rapidly rising in the US since the mid-1980s, with an unclear understanding of its etiology and contributors to the rise. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) exert adverse metabolic repercussions throughout the life course, including insulin resistance and inflammation. Higher SSB intake can induce obesity, which has been linked to risk of EO-CRC. A recent experimental study also suggests that high fructose corn syrup, a primary sweetener in SSBs, may promote colon tumor growth, independent of metabolic dysregulation. In the US, SSB consumption has dramatically increased during the 2nd half of the 20th century, and adolescents and young adults have been the heaviest SSB drinkers across all age groups. Thus, we expect SSBs may be an emerging risk factor for EO-CRC and likely contribute to the rising incidence of EO-CRC. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Gastrointestinal Disease, Genetic Research / 03.05.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Judy H. Cho, MD, Dean of Translational Genetics Director of The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you briefly describe Crohn's disease? Whom does it primarily affect? Response: Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory intestinal disease, which affects ~3 million Americans a year. Its most typical age of onset ranges from 15-30 years, and many of those diagnosed also exhibit frequent abnormal healing and complications that constrict the digestive tract. The highest risk genetic mutations that increase risk for Crohn’s disease are found in the gene NOD2; these were first reported 20 years ago. Biological mechanisms by which NOD2 mutations drive Crohn’s disease, and especially fibrotic complications, have been incompletely described up until this point. Further, the reasons why many patients fail to respond to the commonly administered anti-TNF treatments also remain incompletely understood. (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Gastrointestinal Disease / 01.11.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Darbaz Adna​n, MBChB Lab Research Assistant Department of Internal Medicine - Section of Gastroenterology Rush University Medical Center Chicago, Illinois 60612 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: - We have conducted a large study of over 1000 patients at a major COVID-19 response center in Chicago at Rush University Medical Center, to assess for the frequency of initial GI symptoms (diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain) and evaluate whether these symptoms in adult COVID-19 positive could predict the disease course. Overall, 22.4% of our patients reported at least one GI symptom at the onset of their infection, with nausea/vomiting being the most common complaint. GI symptoms in COVID-19 patients were associated with worse outcomes. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Esophageal, Gastrointestinal Disease / 20.10.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: 加藤元嗣 Mototsugu KATO MD PhD 院長  独立行政法人国立病院機構函館病院 Director, National Hospital Organization Hakodate National Hospita MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The primary goal of upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic examination is to detect neoplastic lesions in the pharynx, esophagus, and stomach. However, early-stage lesions may frequently be overlooked by conventional white light endoscopy. Since the recent launch of image-enhanced endoscopy, many studies have evaluated its efficacy in diagnosing upper GI neoplasms as well. Linked color imaging (LCI )emphasizes the difference in color to make it easier to detect neoplastic lesions. The aim of this trial is to compare the performance of LCI with white light imaging in detecting upper GI tract neoplastic lesions.  (more…)