Addiction, Author Interviews, Opiods / 29.12.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alden MiletoAlden Mileto, BA Department of Medical Education Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine Scranton, PA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The drug buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist, originally developed in the 1960s as an alternative to the stronger full opioid mu receptor agonists like morphine. Today, the drug is sometimes used for pain, but is more often used as a treatment for Opioid Use Disorder (OUD). Since the 2002 federal approval for buprenorphine use in treatment of OUD, there has been an increase in buprenorphine prescription across all states. However recent studies have showed a disproportionate increase in buprenorphine prescriptions to rural/ less populated areas in comparison to urban/densely populated areas. The objective of this study [1] was to analyze the trends in buprenorphine distribution, overall and by three-digit zip codes, in Pennsylvania from 2010-2020. (more…)
Addiction / 27.12.2022

Addiction is a serious problem that affects millions of people across the world. If you or someone you love is struggling with addiction, it’s important to know that there is hope. Drug rehabilitation centers provide individuals with the resources they need to break free from addiction and start living a healthier, more productive life.

What Is Drug Rehab?

Drug rehab centers are treatment facilities that specialize in helping individuals overcome their addictions. These centers offer individualized treatments plans and support services designed to help individuals learn how to manage their cravings for drugs or alcohol and develop healthy coping skills that will allow them to resist temptation in the future. Additionally, drug rehab centers also provide educational programs and therapy sessions to help patients gain a better understanding of their addiction and how it has impacted their lives. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews / 19.12.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lyle Isaacs, Professor      University of Maryland                                               Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryCollege Park, MD 20742 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The Isaacs laboratory has a long-standing interest in molecular containers compounds and their molecular recognition properties toward chemically and biologically important targets.  Molecular containers include well known pharmaceutical excipients that help dissolve and deliver drugs (e.g. sulfobutyl-beta-cyclodextrin (SBE-b-CD)) and even sequester active pharmaceutical ingredients (e.g. Sugammadex reverses the effects of neuromuscular blockers). Our lab has previously studied a class of molecular containers called cucurbiturils and found that they bind tightly (nanomolar Kd) to hydrophobic cations in aqueous solution.  Recently, we translated our knowledge of tight binding to design and synthesize a novel tight binding molecular container known as Pillar[6]MaxQ and showed that it has superior binding affinity toward hydrophobic cations.[reference = Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2020, 59, 13313] (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, JAMA, Mental Health Research, Race/Ethnic Diversity, University of Pennsylvania / 15.12.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rebecca Arden Harris, MD, MSc Assistant Professor of Family Medicine and Community Health at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania Senior Fellow, Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The impact of the nationwide overdose epidemic on Black women has received little attention from policy-makers, researchers, or the press. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Response:  Over the 7-year study period, preventable overdose deaths among Black women resulted in nearly 0.75 million years of life lost (YLL). Women aged 25-34 have suffered a rising proportion of this burden. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Pain Research / 01.12.2022

  MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lavinia Harrison Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine Scranton, PA  18509 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:   The opioid meperidine (Demerol) was widely prescribed in the United States (US) as an analgesic to treat moderate to severe pain. Meperidine was the most used opioid in the US in 1987 and was considered safer than other opioids during acute pancreatitis. Over the past two decades, meperidine has shifted from being frequently prescribed to being used only when patients are experiencing atypical reactions to opioids (e.g., morphine and hydromorphone); to removal from the World Health Organization's essential medication list and receiving strong warnings against its use from many professional organizations including the American Geriatrics Society. The unfortunate Libby Zion (1965-1984) case increased concerns about serotonin syndrome with meperidine. According to a prior pharmacoepidemiology report, the distribution of meperidine in the United States decreased by 95% between 2001 and 2019 [1]. The aim of the study was to include updated information (2020 and 2021) as well as examine the changes among Medicaid patients [2]. (more…)
Addiction, Alcohol, Author Interviews, Cannabis, Education, JAMA, Pediatrics, Social Issues, UCLA / 06.10.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mitchell Wong, MD PhD Professor of Medicine Executive Vice Chair for Research Training Department of Medicine Executive Co-Director, Specialty Training and Advanced Research (STAR) Program Director, UCLA CTSI KL2 Program UCLA Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research Los Angeles, CA 90024 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: It is estimated that social factors like poverty, education, and housing have a large impact on health. Yet, there are few interventions that exist to directly address those issues.  Schools are a promising solution since society already invests heavily in education and schools are an everyday part of most children’s lives. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Methamphetamine / 02.09.2022

Methamphetamine is a highly addictive stimulant drug that is often used recreationally. It is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy. The drug is highly addictive and should be used only under the supervision of a healthcare provider. Meth mouth is a slang term used to describe the dental problems resulting from methamphetamine abuse. The long-term use of methamphetamine can lead to meth mouth due to the detrimental effects the drug has on oral health. What Are the Signs of Meth Mouth? The signs of meth mouth can vary depending on the severity of the condition. However, some common signs and symptoms of meth mouth include:
  • Severe tooth decay
  • Tooth loss
  • Missing teeth
  • Broken teeth
  • Cracked teeth
  • Yellow or brown stains on teeth
  • Gum disease
  • Dry mouth
  • Bad breath
  • Meth sores
(more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews / 30.07.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bryan Roth, MD, PhD Michael Hooker Distinguished Professor Pharmacology Director, NIMH Psychoactive Drug Screening Program Eshelman School of Pharmacy Gavin P. Schmitz Department of Pharmacology University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine Chapel Hill, North Carolina   Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, North Carolina MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings?  Response: There is undoubtably a lot of enthusiasm for psychedelics as therapeutic tools right now both in research and more broadly; however, there are still so many questions that need to be answered. It has been established that SNPs are clinically relevant when considering how patients may respond to various atypical antipsychotic drugs, so we wanted to see if they also could impact psychedelic assisted treatment strategies. What we found is that genetics do matter; namely, our results indicate that patients with different genes will react differently to psychedelics. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Opiods / 07.06.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Colleen G. Jordan, MBS Department of Medical Education Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Opioid addiction and misuse remain a prevalent issue in the United States (U.S.). There have been more than one-million drug overdoses in the U.S. since 1999 [1], largely driven by opioids, which exacerbate the strain on resources in hospitals, treatment centers, first responders, patients, and their families. The existing pharmacotherapies for opioid use disorder (OUD) are not working. Naloxone is a competitive mu opioid receptor antagonist used to reverse respiratory and CNS depression in those experiencing an opioid overdose but requires further dosing to prevent subsequent overdose. Naltrexone is a competitive mu opioid receptor antagonist, and has extended-release formulations intended to reduce relapse and promote adherence, yet patient noncompliance and retention continue to be limiting factors. Methadone is commonly used to treat opioid addiction as a replacement for illicit opiates but is itself an addictive substance which can result in overdoses [2] and can lead to withdrawal if not closely monitored by a licensed professional. Buprenorphine is currently used to treat opioid use disorder (OUD), and while it reduces illicit drug use, it is less effective than methadone for retaining patients in treatment. For these reasons, there is an urgent need for new opioid misuse interventions. The objectives of this study [3] were to understand the implications of OUD and overdose treatments and determine the strengths and shortcomings of current treatments in comparison with the novel drug candidate methocinnamox (MCAM). These were completed through an extensive literature review into the history of the opioid epidemic in the United States, opioid receptors in the brain, current pharmacological treatments, and the pharmacological properties of MCAM. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews / 17.02.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Harriet De Wit, PhD Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience University of Chicago 

MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?    Response: There are numerous reports that psychedelics like LSD, taken in very small ‘microdoses’, help boost mood, cognitive function and productivity. The practice is popular in Silicon Valley and among media figures, who report remarkable beneficial effects from regular use of these microdoses. The possible antidepressant effects of LSD are plausible from a neurobiological perspective, as the drug acts directly on serotonin receptors, the same systems where SSRI’s act.  However, the effects of microdosing have not yet been validated in controlled research. In our study, we recruited healthy men and women to ingest repeated, low doses of LSD under double blind conditions.  They attended four laboratory sessions, separated by three to four days.  They were randomly assigned to one of three groups who received the same drug on all four sessions: placebo, 13 micrograms of LSD or 26 micrograms of LSD. Subjects were not told exactly what drug they were receiving until the end of the study.  We measured their mood, emotional reactivity and cognition. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Opiods, PLoS / 04.02.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Laurence Moss MD, PhD candidate Centre for Human Drug Research (CHDR) Department of Anesthesiology Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC) Geert Jan GroeneveldMD, PhD Neurologist | Clinical Pharmacologist | Professor of Clinical Neuropharmacology CMO/CSO Centre for Human Drug Research Leiden, The Netherlands  MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?    Response: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality, and the opioid epidemic in the Unites States (but increasingly in Europe also) has been well documented and reported on by the media. The alarming rise in opioid related mortality is largely driven by the increasing use of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues, often surreptitiously mixed with heroin or other drugs such as psychostimulants or prescribed opioids. Opioid-induced respiratory depression in particular is a leading cause of opioid-related fatalities. Buprenorphine has been proven as an effective medication for the treatment of OUD. Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic partial agonist for the opioid receptor that firmly binds to these receptors and displays only partial respiratory depressive effects, meaning it does not cause the complete cessation of breathing as is the case with other potent opioids such as fentanyl. Due to its firm receptor binding, we hypothesized that at sufficient buprenorphine receptor occupancy, the effect of fentanyl on respiration would be limited, even at high fentanyl doses. This study aimed to provide proof of principle for this hypothesis, and demonstrate whether buprenorphine could reduce fentanyl-induced respiratory depression. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Addiction, Author Interviews, OBGYNE / 02.11.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jeffrey Howard, PhD Associate Professor Department of Public Health College for Health, Community and Policy University of Texas at San Antonio MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Drug and alcohol related mortality has been on the rise in the US for the past decade, which has drawn a lot of focus from researchers.  At the same time maternal mortality, deaths caused by pregnancy complications, is recognized to be higher in the US than in other developed nations. Very little has been reported about deaths among pregnant and recently pregnant women that are not caused by pregnancy complications, so my collaborators and I wanted to explore this.  We did not anticipate that drug and alcohol deaths and homicides would account for so many deaths among pregnant and recently pregnant women. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Opiods, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 10.09.2021

John A. Furst BS Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Methadone is an evidence-based pharmacotherapy for opioid detoxification, maintenance therapy, and pain management. However, accessibility of this treatment remains variable across much of the country. Methadone for the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD) is exclusively provided by federally regulated opioid treatment programs (OTPs) and has provoked significant community-based and legal controversy regarding its role in the management of this condition. This has created disparities related to the distribution and access of methadone throughout the United States (U.S.). The goal of this study1 was to highlight the most recent pharmacoepidemiologic trends associated with methadone in the face of unique restrictions at the local, state, and federal levels. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Cocaine, Pain Research / 18.08.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Youngeun Armbuster Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine Scranton, Pennsylvania MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Cocaine is classified by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) as a Schedule II drug that can be used as an anesthetic in various types of surgery by otorhinolaryngologists, as well as in diagnosing Horner syndrome. Although controlled doses of cocaine used in topical anesthetics does not cause myocardial infarction as can occur with recreational dosages, intranasal administration of cocaine is absorbed systemically and it results in vasoconstriction of the coronary arteries via stimulation of adrenergic receptors. These potential adverse effects may disincentivize health care providers from medical cocaine use. Our objective was to quantify the trends in licit cocaine distribution in the United States using DEA data and to determine the usage of medical cocaine in Medicaid and Medicare, as well as based on electronic medical records [1]. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Cocaine, Diabetes, Methamphetamine / 07.08.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joy M. Schmitz, Ph.D. Professor of Psychiatry Faillace Chair McGovern Medical School The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Director, Center for Neurobehavioral Research on Addiction (CNRA)   Scott D. Lane Ph.D. McGovern Medical School Vice Chair For Research Director Of Neurobehavioral Laboratory Center For Neurobehavioral Research On Addiction Director Of Research University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Houston, TX  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Addiction science has made considerable progress in understanding how cocaine and other addictive drugs impair the brain. Over time, cocaine can disrupt brain regions that help us think, plan, solve problems, and exert self-control. These disruptions in brain structure can be seen in neuroimaging studies that reveal impairment in the nerve fibers or white matter (WM) tracts in the central and front parts of the brain. We conducted two systematic meta-analytic reviews of the literature to document the robustness of evidence showing alterations in WM integrity of chronic stimulant users relative to healthy control subjects who did not use cocaine or other drugs of abuse (Beard et al., 2019; Suchting et al., 2020). Importantly, WM impairments negatively predict treatment outcome, meaning individuals with greater levels of WM impairment are less likely to benefit from treatment and more likely to experience deficits in attention, working memory, and impulse control. We reasoned that pharmacological interventions shown to protect WM integrity may help improve cognition and treatment outcomes in patients recovering from cocaine addiction. Pioglitazone, an approved medication for type 2 diabetes, has been shown to reduce inflammation and mediate protection after traumatic brain injury. The therapeutic potential of pioglitazone has prompted investigation of its role in neurodegenerative conditions, such as dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke. Similar to these brain diseases and injuries, pioglitazone might effectively protect the brain from the inflammatory damage created by cocaine use.  (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Opiods / 24.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? http://www.indivior.com/Response: Adults with moderate or severe opioid use disorder (OUD) were randomized to SUBLOCADE monthly injections or placebo and studied for 24 weeks. Participants receiving SUBLOCADE were given 2 monthly injections of 300 mg, followed by 4 monthly maintenance doses of 100 mg or 300 mg over the course of the study. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Columbia, JAMA / 05.02.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Elodie C. Warren, MPH Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health Graduate MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We know that the US has been experiencing an opioid crisis for the past two decades. And we know that among communities of color, rates of overdose deaths are continuing to increase, even though overall national rates decreased between 2017 and 2018. To better understand how the opioid crisis has differently affected racial/ethnic groups, we looked at how heroin treatment admissions changed over time by race/ethnicity, age, and sex. We found that there were stark differences when comparing non-Hispanic Black men and women to non-Hispanic White men and women. Importantly, our study suggests the existence of an aging cohort of Black men and women (likely including survivors of a heroin epidemic that hit urban areas more than 40 years ago) that continues to struggle with heroin addiction. This points to the need for targeted interventions in chronically underserved communities.  (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, JAMA, Opiods, UCLA / 03.12.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joseph Friedman, MD/PhD student David Geffen School of Medicine UCLA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Numerous researchers, clinicians, officials, harm reduction agencies, and people who use drugs have sounded the alarm that the COVID-19 pandemic is exacerbating the United States overdose crisis. However, data sources typically used to track overdoses in the US often have long lags that impede timely monitoring and response. For example, the CDC released preliminary overdose figures for 2019 in July 2020, and even these numbers may change. As they are available in near real-time, emergency medical services (EMS) data have increasingly been used as a source of up-to-date information to monitor epidemiological shifts during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we used data from the National EMS Information System (NEMSIS), a large registry of over 10,000 EMS agencies in 47 states that represented over 80% of all EMS activations nationally in 2020. We used the data to track shifts in overdose-related cardiac arrests observed by EMS.   (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Cleveland Clinic, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Mental Health Research / 16.09.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rong Xu PhD Center for Artificial Intelligence in Drug Discovery, School of Medicine Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Chronic use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs is associated with cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic diseases, all of which are also risk factors for COVID-19 infection and for worse outcomes.  Additionally, individuals with substance use disorders are more likely to experience social adversity such as homelessness, decreased access to health care, housing insecurity among others. Based on these, we hypothesis or predict that individuals with SUD are especially vulnerable for COVID-19 infection and adverse outcomes. In our study, we found that  individuals with substance use disorders, especially individuals with OUD and African Americans with SUD, as having increased risk for COVID-19 and its adverse outcomes  (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, USPSTF / 20.06.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Karina Davidson, PhD Senior Vice President of Research Dean of Academic Affairs Professor of Behavioral Medicine Zucker School of Medicine Hofstra University/Northwell Health Vice Chairmam US Preventive Services Task Force  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Drug use is among the most common causes of preventable death, injury, and disability in the United States, with nearly 10 percent of adults reporting unhealthy drug use. This includes the use of illegal drugs, as well as using prescription drugs in ways that are not recommended by a doctor. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Opiods / 24.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Walter Ling, MD Professor of Psychiatry Director of Integrated Substance Abuse Programs UCLA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: RECOVER™ is a real-world, observational study looking at long-term recovery in a cohort of 533 people with moderate to severe opioid use disorder (OUD) following their transition from two Phase 3 clinical trials of SUBLOCADE® (buprenorphine extended-release) injection, for subcutaneous use (CIII), into a real-world setting.1 The RECOVER study uses data from three main sources: self-administered assessments from enrolled individuals, urine drug screens (UDS) and data collected from several public sources. Recovery is examined over 24 months – the self-administered assessment and UDS results are completed by participants every three months over the course of this period. Results are being analyzed to understand the clinical, socio-economic and environmental factors associated with continuous effects of medications to treat OUD after a clinical trial.1.2 Studies such as RECOVER can help bridge the knowledge gap between the efficacy of medications as seen in the controlled clinical trial environment, and the use and effect of medications outside of a research setting and their long-term impact on patients’ health. A collaboration between Indivior and the Fralin Biomedical Institute at Virginia Tech Carilion will enable the next phase of the RECOVER study, which may provide further information to health care providers and policymakers on how to use medications to support their patients and how continuity of care can help break down barriers to evidence-based treatment.3  (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, JAMA, Opiods / 24.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tami L. Mark, PhD Senior Director, Behavioral Health Financing and Quality Measurement RTI International  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: There are effective medications to treat opioid use disorder. Federal and state policymakers have tried to improve access to these medications. However, medications to treat opioid use disorders are still often subject to prior authorization. Studies of other medications finds that prior authorization can reduce access. This study looked at whether removing prior authorization in Medicare Part D plans was associated with increases in the use of medications to treat opioid use disorder.  (more…)
Addiction, Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, NIH, Opiods / 10.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nora D. Volkow, MD Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? How does vaping, hookah use, inhaled marijuana, smoking etc impact the risk of coronavirus infection?  Could these activities account for some the risks and infections in younger individuals?   Response: Apart from older age, having underlying cardiopulmonary conditions is a known risk factor for the worst clinical course and outcomes of COVID-19, and many of those conditions are known to be caused or exacerbated by smoking. While evidence continues to emerge about how smoking might interact with COVID-19, it is a reasonable assumption that smoking could contribute to risk even in younger individuals. We still don’t know how vaping—whether of nicotine or marijuana or just flavorings—contributes to the risk of infection or illness severity with the virus that causes COVID-19, but there are a number of reasons to be concerned. We have already seen lung illnesses caused by some vaping products, and evidence suggests vaping may disrupt lung epithelial cell function, which in turn increases viral susceptibility and may put individuals at increased risk of infection with the virus that causes COVID-19 or with more severe disease outcomes. Vaping is a relatively new technology, and as such, there are many unknowns. The rapid increases in vaping by young people over the last few years make this an area of concern, and thus an area where more research is urgently needed. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Cannabis / 10.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anees Bahji, MD PGY5, Department of Psychiatry, Queen’s University M.Sc. Candidate, Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen’s University Kingston, ON, Canada MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?
  • There has been much speculation into the existence of a withdrawal syndrome involving cannabis much like withdrawal syndromes from opioids or alcohol. Our goal for this study was to estimate the prevalence of cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS) and to identify any risk factors for CWS.
  • There has been a lot of research into cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS) in the past. A big part of this review involved understanding where the CWS field is in terms of the shared understanding on its epidemiology and physiology.
  • To that end, we were not surprised to find that the prevalence of cannabis withdrawal syndrome was high. However, we found that some of the characteristics of CWS are consistent with other substance use disorders, which really serves to legitimize the decision to classify CWS and cannabis use disorders as psychiatric conditions.
(more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Cannabis / 25.03.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ryan J. McLaughlin, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Integrative Physiology & Neuroscience College of Veterinary Medicine Washington State University, Pullman, WA Ryan J. McLaughlin, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Integrative Physiology & Neuroscience College of Veterinary Medicine Washington State University, Pullman, WA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The evolving legal landscape concerning the use of cannabis has increased urgency to better understand its effects on the brain and behavior. Animal models are advantageous in this respect; however, researchers traditionally use forced injections of synthetic cannabinoids which fails to capture the complex effects of volitional cannabis consumption. In our study, we developed a novel model of cannabis self-administration using response-contingent delivery of vaporized cannabis extracts containing high concentrations of Δ9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or cannabidiol (CBD). (more…)