Focusing on Eating Healthy Foods You Enjoy May Be Your Path To More Successful Dieting

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Meredith E. David
Marketing Department
Hankamer School of Business
Baylor University
Waco, TX 76798  

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In the midst of the ongoing “obesity epidemic” in the United States and many other developed nations, programs and advice abound for encouraging individuals to manage their health and well-being through changes in food consumption. One common approach resurfaces time and time again: suggesting to the would-be dieter what foods they should avoid eating (e.g., “The following 10 foods should never be eaten . . . ,”) and/or what foods they should eat (e.g., “10 foods everyone should include in a healthy diet,”). Our research investigates the commonly heralded advice given to consumers to either focus on avoiding unhealthy foods, such as cake, or approaching and consuming healthy foods, such as kale. We demonstrate important differences in the implementation of and outcomes of these approach versus avoidance strategies for meeting one’s health-related goals.

Individuals who have high self-control are generally better at reaching their goals. We investigate how individuals with varying levels of general self-control differ in the way that they apply approach and avoidance dieting strategies. Our findings, as detailed below, reveal a novel explanation of the better outcomes observed by individuals who are generally more successful in their goal pursuit. The key findings are as follows:

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Coronary Catheterization Through Wrist Reduces Access Complications and Hospital Stay

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jeffrey M. Schussler, MD, FACC, FSCAI, FSCCT, FACP Baylor Scott & White Health Care System Cardiology: Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Tx Medical Director: CVICU Hamilton Heart and Vascular Hospital Professor of Medicine: Texas A&M School of Medicine

Dr. Jeffrey Schussler

Jeffrey M. Schussler, MD, FACC, FSCAI, FSCCT, FACP
Baylor Scott & White Health Care System
Cardiology: Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Tx
Medical Director: CVICU Hamilton Heart and Vascular Hospital
Professor of Medicine: Texas A&M School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Schussler: For the past few years, there has been an increased interest in performing coronary catheterization through the wrist. This is a technique that has been done (with great success and low complication rate) in other countries for years, with adoption rates >90% in some places. The US has been slower to adopt performing catheterization from the wrist, but the rate of using this approach has grown tremendously in the last 5 years. While less than 5% of all interventions were done using radial access previously, it now appraches 30% nationally. This increased rate of adoption been spurred on by studies which have shown lower incidences of complications, as well as some mortality benefit, and in particular in those patients who are highest risk for complications.

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Oncogene May Identify Patients At Risk Of Colon Cancer Recurrence

Ajay Goel, Ph.D. Investigator/Professor Director, Center for Gastrointestinal Research Director, Center for Epigenetics, Cancer Prevention and Cancer Genomics Baylor Research Institute and Charles A. Sammons Cancer Center Baylor University Medical Center Dallas, TX 75246MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Ajay Goel, Ph.D. Investigator/Professor
Director, Center for Gastrointestinal Research
Director, Center for Epigenetics, Cancer Prevention and Cancer Genomics
Baylor Research Institute and Charles A. Sammons Cancer Center
Baylor University Medical Center
Dallas, TX 75246

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Goel: Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the most common and lethal malignancies worldwide, and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Although there are some improvements in cancer treatments, such as development of novel chemotherapeutic drugs and technical advances in invasive treatment for metastatic lesion, there is a clear need for prognostic biomarkers that can identify high-risk patients, who can benefit from intensive post-treatment surveillance protocols for early detection of recurrence.

Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are one of the largest groups of single-stranded small ncRNAs, and in the past, snoRNAs were recognized for housekeeping functions due to their roles in rRNA maturation, while causing a relatively low impact on cellular homeostasis. However, recent evidence has revealed a new and previously unrecognized role of snoRNAs in the control of cell fate and oncogenesis in various cancers.

The main finding of this study is to firstly demonstrate the clinical impact of snoRNA expression as a predictive biomarker of recurrence and poor prognosis in patients with Colorectal cancer. This study for the first time showed that higher levels of SNORA42 were associated with overall and disease-free survival, and emerged as a risk factor for the return of cancer in another part of the body. It was also correlated with high risk of recurrence and shorter survival in a smaller sample of bowel cancer patients in early stages of their disease.

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Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping in Preterm Infants May Reduce Complications and Need For Transfusions

Arpitha Chiruvolu MD FAAP Neonatologist Baylor University Medical Center Department of Neonatology Dallas, TX 75246 MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Arpitha Chiruvolu MD FAAP
Neonatologist
Baylor University Medical Center
Department of Neonatology
Dallas, TX 75246 

MedicalResearch: What is the background and main findings of the study?

Dr. Chiruvolu: There is growing evidence that delaying umbilical cord clamping (DCC) in very preterm infants may improve hemodynamic stability after birth and decrease the incidence of major neonatal morbidities such as intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and necrotizing enterocolitis. Recently, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) published a committee opinion that supported delaying umbilical cord clamping in preterm infants, with the possibility for a nearly 50% reduction in IVH. However, the practice of DCC in preterm infants has not been widely adopted, mainly due to the concern of a delay in initiating resuscitation in this vulnerable population. Furthermore, there is uncertainty regarding the magnitude of published benefits in very preterm infants, since prior trials were limited by small sample sizes, wide variability in the technique and inconsistent reporting of factors that may have contributed to clinical outcomes.

We recently implemented a delaying umbilical cord clamping quality improvement (QI) process in very preterm infants at a large delivery hospital. The objective of this cohort study was to evaluate the clinical consequences of a protocol-driven delayed umbilical cord clamping implementation in singleton infants born £ 32 weeks gestation. We hypothesized that DCC would not compromise initial resuscitation and would be associated with significant decrease in early red blood cell transfusions and IVH compared to a historic cohort.

Delayed umbilical cord clamping was performed on all the 60 eligible infants. 88 infants were identified as historic controls. Gestational age, birth weight and other demographic variables were similar between both groups. There were no differences in Apgar scores or admission temperature, but significantly fewer infants in theDelayed umbilical cord clamping cohort were intubated in delivery room, had respiratory distress syndrome or received red blood cell transfusions in the first week of life compared to the historic cohort.  A significant reduction was noted in the incidence of IVH inDelayed umbilical cord clamping cohort compared to historic control group (18.3% versus 35.2%). After adjusting for gestational age, an association was found between the incidence of IVH and Delayed umbilical cord clamping with IVH significantly lower in the DCC cohort compared to historic cohort with odds ratio of 0.36 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.84, P <0.05). There were no significant differences in mortality and other major morbidities.

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Genital Psoriasis Negatively Impacts Quality of Life and Sexual Function

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Caitriona Ryan, MD Baylor University Medical Center, DallasMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Caitriona Ryan, MD

Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas

MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Ryan: Psoriasis is a common, chronic, inflammatory disorder of the skin which has a considerable impact on social functioning and personal relationships. Genital involvement can have devastating psychosexual implications for psoriasis patients. In a study examining the stigmatization experience in psoriasis patients, involvement of the genitalia was found to be the most relevant, regardless of the overall psoriasis severity. Although sexual function is an integral component of quality of life, dermatology-specific and psoriasis-specific scales largely neglect the impact of disease on sexual health. Despite major advances in other aspects of psoriasis research, there has been little emphasis in recent times on the identification and treatment of genital psoriasis and few studies have examined predisposing risk factors, phenotypical associations or its impact on quality of life and sexual functioning.

This study was designed to examine the prevalence and nature of genital involvement in patients with psoriasis, to ascertain risk factors for the development of genital psoriasis, to determine the impact of genital disease on quality of life and sexual functioning, and to assess patient satisfaction with current topical treatments for genital psoriasis.

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Senna May Relieve Itching In Some Dialysis Patients

Mohammad Kazem Fallahzadeh Abarghouei, M.D. Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TXMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Mohammad Kazem Fallahzadeh Abarghouei, M.D.
Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX

Medical Research: What is the background for this study?

Response: Uremic pruritus (itch) is a common problem in hemodialysis patients. No effective treatment exists for uremic pruritus due to its complex pathogenesis. Systemic inflammation and elevated serum levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) are implicated in the pathogenesis of uremic pruritus. Senna is an herbal drug commonly used for treatment of constipation. Senna also has anti-inflammatory properties. We performed this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of senna on reduction of uremic pruritus and serum levels of IL-2 in hemodialysis patients.

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CABG Risk Greater For Women

Giovanni Filardo, PhD, MPH Director of Epidemiology,  Baylor Scott & White Health, Dallas, TX The Bradley Family Endowed Chair in Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Baylor University Medical Center Director of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, The Heart Hospital Baylor, Plano, TX Research Associate Professor of Statistics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TXMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Giovanni Filardo, PhD, MPH
Director of Epidemiology,  Baylor Scott & White Health, Dallas, TX
The Bradley Family Endowed Chair in Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Baylor University Medical Center
Director of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, The Heart Hospital Baylor, Plano, TX
Research Associate Professor of Statistics,
Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX

Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report?

Dr. Filardo: Studies examining outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) by gender and/or race show conflicting results.  It remains to be determined if, or how, gender and race are independent risk factors for CABG operative mortality.

Our findings suggest that women face a significantly greater risk of operative death that should be taken into account during the treatment decision-making process, but that race is not associated with CABG mortality and so should not be among the factors considered.

Citation:

Effect of Gender and Race on Operative Mortality after Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
Pollock, Benjamin et al.
American Journal of Cardiology December 17, 2014