Over the Counter Pain Meds May Worsen C. difficile Gut Infections

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David M. Aronoff, MD, FIDSA, FAAM Professor & Addison B. Scoville Jr. Chair in Medicine Director, Division of Infectious Diseases Department of Medicine Vanderbilt University Medical Center     MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  Response: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of antibiotic-associated colitis and diarrhea and a leading cause of hospital-acquired infection. It is caused by the toxin-producing, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium Clostridium difficile. Antibiotic use is a major risk factor for CDI but epidemiological studies suggest that other factors, some modifiable, some not, can also increase the risk for CDI. Older age is an example of a non-modifiable risk factor for CDI. Some epidemiological studies suggested that taking the prostaglandin synthesis inhibiting drugs called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) might also increase the risk for CDI. NSAIDs include medications such as ibuprofen, naproxen, indomethacin, and others. Because NSAID use is so common, if it is a risk factor for the acquisition of, or severity of, CDI, that would be important because that would be a modifiable risk factor. We therefore sought to determine the impact of NSAID exposure on CDI severity in a mouse model of antibiotic-associated CDI. We also sought evidence for possible mechanisms whereby NSAIDs might increase the risk for CDI.   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?   Response: Exposure of mice to indomethacin (an NSAID) for two days prior to infection with Clostridium difficile in antibiotic-exposed mice increased the severity of disease and this was associated with severe inflammation, changes to the bacterial populations in the colon and increased damage to the protective epithelial lining of the colon.    MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?  Response: Our studies provide evidence in a mouse model of CDI that support human epidemiological studies linking NSAID use with CDI.       MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?  Response: Studies in humans are needed to see if NSAID use is indeed a causal risk factor for CDI acquisition or severity.      MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add?  Response: This work was funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America. Dr. Aronoff has served as Consultant for Synthetic Biologics, Inc, Biocidium, NAEJA-RGM and BLC-USA on projects unrelated to this study. He also has research funding from Pfizer unrelated to this study.      Citation: Damian Maseda, Joseph P. Zackular, Bruno Trindade, Leslie Kirk, Jennifer Lising Roxas, Lisa M. Rogers, Mary K. Washington, Liping Du, Tatsuki Koyama, V. K. Viswanathan, Gayatri Vedantam, Patrick D. Schloss, Leslie J. Crofford, Eric P. Skaar, David M. Aronoff. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Alter the Microbiota and Exacerbate Clostridium difficile Colitis while Dysregulating the Inflammatory Response. mBio, 2019; 10 (1) DOI: 10.1128/mBio.02282-18      <span class="last-modified-timestamp">Jan 9, 2019 @ 3:25 pm</span>    The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

Dr. Aronoff

David M. Aronoff, MD, FIDSA, FAAM
Professor & Addison B. Scoville Jr. Chair in Medicine
Director, Division of Infectious Diseases
Department of Medicine
Vanderbilt University Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of antibiotic-associated colitis and diarrhea and a leading cause of hospital-acquired infection. It is caused by the toxin-producing, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium Clostridium difficile. Antibiotic use is a major risk factor for CDI but epidemiological studies suggest that other factors, some modifiable, some not, can also increase the risk for CDI. Older age is an example of a non-modifiable risk factor for CDI. Some epidemiological studies suggested that taking the prostaglandin synthesis inhibiting drugs called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) might also increase the risk for CDI. NSAIDs include medications such as ibuprofen, naproxen, indomethacin, and others. Because NSAID use is so common, if it is a risk factor for the acquisition of, or severity of, CDI, that would be important because that would be a modifiable risk factor.

We therefore sought to determine the impact of NSAID exposure on CDI severity in a mouse model of antibiotic-associated CDI. We also sought evidence for possible mechanisms whereby NSAIDs might increase the risk for CDI.

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Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Non-Surgical Options Compared

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Michael Schneider DC, PhD Associate Professor School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences  University of Pittsburgh

Dr. Schneider

Dr. Michael Schneider DC, PhD
Associate Professor
School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences
University of Pittsburgh

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is one of the fastest growing problems in the country due to its aging population. One third of Medicare users have the condition, and it is the number one reason for spine surgery in this population. Existing research evaluates the benefits of nonsurgical treatment options compared to surgery, but there was no existing research that compared the available nonsurgical options to each other to determine the best course of treatment for each patient.

We studied three nonsurgical treatments for LSS: medical management with medications and/or epidural injections, individualized care with a physical therapist or chiropractor, and group exercise. We assessed each of these treatment methods with a questionnaire, a walking distance test, and a physical activity monitor. 

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Link Between Number of Migraines and Diabetes Risk

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Guy Fagherazzi, MSc, PhD, HDR Senior Research Scientist in Digital & Diabetes Epidemiology Center of Research in Epidemiology and Population Health  Inserm, Paris-South Paris-Saclay University

Dr. Guy Fagherazzi

Guy Fagherazzi, MSc, PhD, HDR
Senior Research Scientist in Digital & Diabetes Epidemiology
Center of Research in Epidemiology and Population Health
Inserm, Paris-South Paris-Saclay University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response:  Migraine has further been associated with increased risk of overall and specific cardiovascular disease events.

Because migraine has also been associated with factors related with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, an association between migraine and diabetes has been hypothesized.

We observed a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in women with active migraine.

We also show a linear decrease of migraine prevalence long before and a plateau long after type 2 diabetes diagnosis. 

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Pulsed Radiofrequency For Acute Back Pain and Sciatica

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Probe being applied to nerve root. Credit: Radiological Society of North America

Probe being applied to nerve root.
Credit: Radiological Society of North America

Alessandro Napoli MD PhD
Department of Radiological, Oncological and Pathological Sciences
Sapienza University of Rome 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Disc Herniation in the lumbar region can create intense pain in the lower back and along the leg as a result of nerve compression. People suffering disc herniation may either experience a spontaneous relief from the pain or requiring further medical actions in order to improve quality of life and going back to work and daily activities. When the pain is not responding to usual conservative care (both physical and pharmacological therapy) surgery is often considered a valid option.However, most of the people (despite the intense pain) would possibly avoid surgery. For this reason, Interventional percutaneous therapies such as intraforaminal injection of steroid have become more popular. Pulsed radiofrequency is a percutaneous therapy that may have the potential to rapidly relief the pain in a long lasting way by means of single 10 minutes procedure. We decided to undertook a randomized clinical trial to test the clinical benefit of pulsed radiofrequency therapy using intraforaminal injection as a control group. in both groups percutaneous approach was guided under precise guidance of CT images.

Pulsed radiofrequency group patients experience a faster and more durable pain control during the 1 year period follow up. Incidence of retreatment or cross-over was significantly higher in the injection only group.

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Pilates Enabled Patients with Musculo-Skeletal Symptoms to Function Better

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Ms Lynne Gaskell MSc
University of Salford
Manchester UK

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Musculoskeletal Pain as a result of common problems affecting the back, neck, shoulder, knee and multi-site pain is an increasing cause of reduced function and quality of life, and ever increasing demands on healthcare, Prognosis is often poor with many people reporting persistent symptoms after consulting their primary care practitioner. The likelihood of persistent and recurrent clinical symptoms may accentuate the physical, psychological, and social impacts of musculoskeletal pain particularly with the middle aged and elderly populations. Pilates is an exercise approach that has become increasingly popular in recent years and includes over fifty different exercises to improve flexibility, balance, core strength, core stability. It can therefore can be individualised for people with different needs, preferences, musculoskeletal conditions, ages and abilities. Aligning exercise to patient’s functional needs has been linked to long-term exercise adherence. Many physiotherapists such as sydney physio solutions have started to specialise in this as a form of treatment, click here for more info on pilates and the many benefits they can have on your physical health.

This study investigated the personal experiences and perceptions of the impact of Pilates on the day-to-day lives of adults with a myriad of chronic MSK conditions following a 12 week Pilates Exercise Programme.The results were organised into five main themes: 1. Physical Improvements strength, core stability, flexibility and balance. 2. Pilates Promotes an Active Lifestyle and improved performance at work and / or hobbies. 3. Psychosocial benefits and improved confidence, 4. Increased Autonomy in Managing their own Musculoskeletal Condition and 5. Motivation to continue with exercise.

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NSAID Eyedrop + Eye Patch Better at Reducing Pain After Intravitreal Injection

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ronald Gentile, MD Professor of Ophthalmology Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York

Dr. Gentile

Ronald Gentile, MD
Professor of Ophthalmology
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
New York

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Intravitreal injections have revolutionized the treatment of some of the most common retinal diseases that cause blindness. These diseases include wet age related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Intravitreal injections are the most common eye procedure in the world. Pain after an intravitreal injection negatively impacts the patient’s experience. We set out a to find a way to improve the patient’s experience by improving the pain they feel after the intravitreal injection.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? 

Response: The main finding was that the NSAID we used, Nepafanac 0.3% suspension, and pressure patching resulted in lower pain scores when compared to the tear drop placebo at both 6 and 24 hours after the intravitreal injection. The NSAID had a greater effect on lowering the pain score and was found statistically significance. Even though the eyepatch was associated with lower pain scores than placebo, the difference did not reach statistical significance. 

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Readers should understand that patients not only have a fear going blind, they also fear the pain of the treatment. Physicians should place more emphasis on the patients experience and try to decrease or eliminate any pain a patient may have from the intravitreal injections. It would be expected that this should help patient compliance, especially for those patient who need regular intravitreal injections. 

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: Future research should focus on the patients experience and find ways to eliminate any pain a patient may have before, during, and after the intravitreal injections. 

MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add?

Response: Yes. Patient satisfaction and the patient experience is something that all ophthalmologists and all doctors need to put on the top of their priority list. Physicians have the greatest ability and insight into this. Having the greatest medicines in the world cant help if a patients fear of pain prevents them from being compliant.

I have no disclosures.

Citation: AAO 2018 abstract

Pain Control Following Intravitreal Injection Using Topical Nepefanac 0.3% or Pressure Patching: A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial

Nov 2, 2018 @ 6:24 pm 

The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

 

Patient Expect Opioids for Pain Control after Surgery

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
"Surgery" by Army Medicine is licensed under CC BY 2.0Dr. Nirmal B. Shah
Anesthesia Resident PGY-IV (CA-III)
Thomas Jefferson University Hospital

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: With the ongoing opioid epidemic, we believe it is important to understand patients’ perceptions of pain medications and pain control after surgery. We believe patients’ expectations and perceptions regarding perioperative pain medications has not been well understood. We were hoping to understand patients’ knowledge, concerns, and biases of pain medication along with information to optimize acute pain management.

The goal of this survey study was to understand patient expectations regarding pain medications including opioids and non- opioids.  In the United States, over 100 million surgical procedures are performed every year. Nearly 80% of these patients will experience post-operative pain. Adequate treatment of post-operative pain has been shown to improve clinical and economic outcomes, thus there has been an increased effort towards improving post-operative pain control.

Through our research, we demonstrated that patients expect to experience postoperative pain after a surgical procedure and expect to be prescribed a pain medication. Patients believe that opioid medications will be most effective in treating postoperative pain compared to non-opioid medications, which could be contributing to the opioid epidemic.

503 patients presenting for elective surgery at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia, PA were sampled during this survey. 76% of patients expected to be prescribed an opioid pain medication at discharge, 47% of patients expected to be prescribed acetaminophen (Tylenol) pain medication at discharge, while 30% of patients expected to be prescribed an NSAID (Motrin) pain medication at discharge. 94% of patients expecting to receive an opioid pain medication believe it would be effective in controlling their post-operative pain. This difference was not observed in patients expecting prescriptions for non-opioid pain medications. Overall, patients expect to experience pain after surgery and be prescribed analgesics they perceived to be most effective, opioids. Continue reading

Program Can Help Parents Manage Kids’ Pain from Vaccines

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Anna Taddio BScPhm PhD Professor at the Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy University of Toronto and Senior Associate Scientis The Hospital for Sick Children 

Dr. Taddio

Dr. Anna Taddio BScPhm PhD
Professor at the Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy
University of Toronto and Senior Associate Scientis
The Hospital for Sick Children 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In our prior research, parents have reported they are not educated about how to soothe their infants during painful procedures like vaccinations and that they want to know how they can help. Parents also reported that concerns about their infant’s pain affects their decision-making around vaccination. We therefore set out to target parents for education about how to soothe their infants.

We picked the hospital setting because almost all parents are in the hospital for some period of time following the birth of an infant and already routinely receive education about healthy baby topics. Providing information about pain management was easy to add. We found that about 1 out of 10 parents that were given this information acted on it. 

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: No parent wants to see their child in pain and a parents’ desire to reduce pain is supported when we provide them with evidence-based strategies to use. These strategies are easy to use, and not only decrease unnecessary infant suffering, they also help parents. Parents are less anxious about their children getting vaccinations. Attending to infant distress is also important for healthy infant development. Targeting parents at the time of birth also ensures that parents will use and advocate for better pain care for their children across different  medical settings and throughout the lifespan.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: We need to find ways to reach more parents so that they can use this information to help their children. We also need to follow parents over time and teach them about the strategies that are helpful for children of different ages. Finally, we need to study how better pain management practices impacts on vaccination rates.

Citation:

Effectiveness of a hospital-based postnatal parent education intervention about pain management during infant vaccination: a randomized controlled trial Anna Taddio BScPhm PhD, Vibhuti Shah MD, Lucie Bucci MA, Noni E. MacDonald MD, Horace Wong MSc, Derek Stephens MSc

CMAJ 2018 October 22;190:E1245-52. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.180175

Oct 22, 2018 @ 9:53 pm

The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

Genetic Locus Linked to Migraine Risk in African American Children

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
"DNA model" by Caroline Davis2010 is licensed under CC BY 2.0Hakon Hakonarson, MD, PhD
Corresponding Author
Xiao Chang, PhD
Lead Author
The Center for Applied Genomics
Children’s Hospital Philadelphia
PhiladelphiaPennsylvania

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Migraine is a genetic disorder characterized by recurrent and intense headaches often accompanied by visual disturbances. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) are a powerful hypothesis-free tool for investigating the genetic architecture of human disease. Currently, multiple GWASs have been conducted on European adults with migraine that have successfully identified several migraine susceptibility genes involved in neuronal and vascular functions.

Considering the prevalence of migraines varies across ethnicities, the genetic risk factors may be different in patients of African ancestries and European ancestries. In addition, if migraine presents at an early age (childhood), it may reflect elevated biological predisposition from genetic factors or increased susceptibility to environmental risk factors.

We performed the first GWAS to investigate the susceptibility genes associated with migraine in African-American children. The main out come was that common variants at the 5q33.1 locus in the human genome are associated with migraine risk in African-American children. The genetic underpinnings at this locus responsible for this finding are less relevant in patients of European ancestry.  Continue reading

Fibromyalgia: Scan Reveals Increased Brain Activation in Pain, Emotion and Affect Areas

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Daniel S. Albrecht, Ph.D.

Research Fellow, Department of Radiology
Harvard Medical School

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Can you briefly describe what is meant by fibromyalgia?

Response: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a poorly understood chronic condition characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, memory deficits and attention difficulties, among other symptoms. FM affects an estimated 4 million adults in the U.S., but despite this prevalence, effective therapies for treating FM are lacking.

This combined MR/PET image highlights areas of the brain in which patients with fibromyalgia were found to have increased glial activation, compared with unaffected control volunteers. Credit: Marco Loggia, PhD, Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital

This combined MR/PET image highlights areas of the brain in which patients with fibromyalgia were found to have increased glial activation, compared with unaffected control volunteers.
Credit: Marco Loggia, PhD, Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital

Part of the reason for the paucity of effective therapeutics is insufficient knowledge of the underlying mechanisms contributing to FM. Previous work from co-senior author of the current manuscript, Eva Kosek, MD, PhD, and collaborators at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden found elevated inflammatory molecules in the cerebrospinal fluid of FM patients, which could be reflective of brain neuroinflammation in these patients. However, no study had directly assessed the presence of neuroinflammation in the brain of FM patients.

Co-senior author of the study, Marco Loggia, PhD, and collaborators showed in a 2015 Brain publication that individuals with chronic low back pain (cLBP) exhibit evidence of brain neuroinflammation, specifically activation of glial cells. Our team utilized simultaneous MR/PET imaging to image brain levels of the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), which is widely used as a marker of glial activation due to vast upregulation of TSPO in glial cells, e.g. microglia and astrocytes, in preclinical models of inflammation and neurological disease. Dr. Loggia sought to extend these finding in cLBP to FM, hypothesizing that activation of glial cells may also be associated with FM pathology. To this end, we used the same TSPO PET tracer to image 20 FM patients and 16 healthy controls.

During a conference where I was presenting preliminary results of the fibromyalgia study, Dr. Loggia met with Dr. Kosek and discovered that, across the Atlantic, her group was performing a very similar study, imaging 11 FM patients and 11 controls with the same TSPO PET compound. They decided to form a collaboration, and logistic talks began to determine the best strategy to combine and analyze the separate datasets. In addition to PET imaging with the TSPO tracer, which is suggested to reflect activated microglia and astrocytes, Dr. Kosek’s group also collected PET scans using a tracer thought to bind specifically to astrocytes rather than microglia. This tracer was used in order to discern the relative contributions of microglia and astrocytes to any observed differences in TSPO PET signal.

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Need For Better Treatments For Chronic Nerve Pain After Trauma Remains Serious Problem

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

John Douglas Markman, M.D. Director, Translational Pain Research Program Department of Neurosurgery Associate Professor University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry

Dr. Markman

John Douglas Markman, M.D.
Director, Translational Pain Research Program
Department of Neurosurgery
Professor
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Peripheral nerve injury after trauma and surgery is a leading cause of chronic pain and disability. These pain syndromes are often considered to have an underlying neuropathic mechanism because there is altered sensory processing (e.g., numbness, allodynia) at the site of trauma or surgical incision that localizes to the anatomic distribution of a peripheral nerve. A previous eight-week randomized clinical trial demonstrated efficacy for pregabalin in patients with chronic post-traumatic or -surgical pain.(10) The longer duration of treatment of this study was designed to meet the regulatory standard for a chronic pain indication in the US, 12 weeks of treatment at maintenance or fixed dosing.

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Cannabinoid Drugs May Slightly Increase Pain Threshold

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Cannabis” by Don Goofy is licensed under CC BY 2.0Martin De Vita, MS

Doctoral Candidate
Clinical Psychology Department
Syracuse University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Despite widely held beliefs that cannabis is effective for pain relief, experimental trials have produced mixed results. As result, the analgesic properties of cannabinoid drugs have remained poorly understood. We aimed to clarify these findings by extracting data from every available experimental pain study and analyzing the results as a whole. We found that numerous aspects of pain were being influenced in different ways. We found that cannabinoid drugs did not significantly reduce the intensity of experimental pain, but they did produce small-sized reductions in pain unpleasantness. Cannabinoids produced significant analgesic effects on pain threshold and tolerance. There was no significant effect of cannabinoids on mechanical hyperalgesia. Continue reading

Patient-Reported Symptom Relief Following Medical Cannabis Consumption

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jacob M. Vigil, PhD
Department of Psychology
University of New Mexico

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

 

Response: For the past several years we have been using observational research designs as a means to overcome some of the logistical and legal barriers for conducting patient outcomes medical cannabis research. In partnership with the software developers of the Releaf App which currently is the largest repository of user-entered information on the consumption and effects of cannabis use in the United States, we have been able to measure how patients choose to consume cannabis and the effects of those choices in real-time.  Since its release in 2016, the commercially developed Releaf App has been the only publicly available, incentive-free patient educational software program designed for recording how individual cannabis usage sessions correspond to immediate changes in symptom intensity levels and experienced side effects.

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Invasive Procedures For Chronic Pain Have Not Been Proven to Work

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Wayne B. Jonas, MD Clinical Professor of Family Medicine Uniformed Services University and at Georgetown University School of Medicine

Dr. Jonas

Wayne B. Jonas, MD
Clinical Professor of Family Medicine
Uniformed Services University and at
Georgetown University School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The search for non-drug approaches to chronic pain is a major recommendation in many recent guidelines for both pain management and reduction in the use of opioids. Surgical and invasive procedures are non-drug approaches often used for pain conditions like back pain and arthritis, so good evidence is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of these procedures. Properly done randomized, placebo controlled trials are the best way (the gold standard) to get that evidence, so we did a thorough evaluation of such research, using standard systematic review and meta-analysis methods.

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Surgeons Likely Overprescribing Opioids After Rhinoplasty

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

David A. Shaye, M.D., FACS Instructor in Otolaryngology Harvard Medical School 

Dr. Shaye

David A. Shaye, M.D., FACS
Instructor in Otolaryngology
Harvard Medical School 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Cosmetic and functional rhinoplasty (nasal surgery) is the most common procedure we perform and traditionally post operative pain medication includes opioids.

In light of the recent opioid epidemic, we wished to investigate if patients pain was being treated over-treated by surgeons.

Of 173 Rhinoplasties that we performed, the majority of patients received post operative opioid tablets (an average of 28 tablets).  However 11% of patients did not fill these prescriptions at all, and only 2 of the 178 patients required refills.

We believe patients experienced less pain than surgeons anticipated.

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Mobile Devices Support Clinical Trials of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Richard L Kravitz, MD, MSPH Professor, General Internal Medicine Director, UC Center Sacramento

Dr. Kravitz

Richard L Kravitz, MD, MSPH
Professor, General Internal Medicine
Director, UC Center Sacramento

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response:  The study was designed to address tso problems. The first is that many patients with chronic pain struggling to find a workable regimen.

The second is more general. Patient sometimes I hesitate to participate in clinical research because they right away do not see the relevance I directly to them selves. And have one trials are away I’m addressing both problems.  Continue reading

ORILISSA™ (elagolix) Now Approved for Management of Moderate to Severe Pain Associated with Endometriosis

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Dawn Carlson MD MPH Vice President, General Medicine Development AbbVie 

Dr. Carlson

Dr. Dawn Carlson MD MPH
Vice President, General Medicine Development
AbbVie 

MedicalResearch.com: Please provide some background on this announcement. Would you briefly explain what endometriosis is? Whom does it affect and how does it interfere with quality of life?

Response: Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecologic disorders in the U.S that affects an estimated one in 10 women of reproductive age. It occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus starts growing outside of the uterus, where it doesn’t belong.

The symptoms of endometriosis, including pain with menstrual periods and between periods, and with sexual intercourse, can be debilitating and significantly impact day-to-day activities of women’s lives, personally and professionally. Unfortunately, women with endometriosis can suffer for up to 10 years and visit multiple physicians before receiving a proper diagnosis. Unresolved endometriosis pain results in higher healthcare costs from emergency department visits and repeat surgeries.  Continue reading

Ketamine vs Opioids for Acute Pain in the Emergency Department

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Evan Schwarz, MD FACEP, FACMT Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine Medical Toxicology Fellowship Director Section Chief Medical Toxicology Advisory Dean in the Office of Student Affairs Division of Emergency Medicine Washington University School of Medicine

Dr. Schwarz

Evan Schwarz, MD FACEP, FACMT
Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine
Medical Toxicology Fellowship Director
Section Chief Medical Toxicology
Advisory Dean in the Office of Student Affairs
Division of Emergency Medicine
Washington University School of Medicine 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Ketamine is being increasingly used in the emergency department (ED) for a variety of conditions, including as an analgesic. While its usage continues to increase, there are limited studies evaluating ketamine as an analgesic in the emergency department.

Most of the studies evaluating ketamine utilized it as an adjunct to an opioid, however, multiple recommendations on blogs and other websites recommend ketamine as a single agent. The purpose of the meta-analysis was to compare the analgesic effect of ketamine compared to an opioid in adult patients presenting with acute pain to the ED.

In this study, we found that ketamine was non-inferior to opioids. We also found that the number of severe adverse events to be similar between both groups.

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Migraine Management Crucial For Treatment of Tinnitus

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Day 50: Headache” by kizzzbeth is licensed under CC BY 2.0Jen-Tsung Lai, MD
Department of Otolaryngology
Kuang-Tien General Hospital
Shalu, Taichung, Taiwan

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Cochlear Migraine( CM ) is a new proposed diagnosis in 2018. CM could present as fluctuating hearing loss or sudden hearing loss that provoked the tinnitus.

Furthermore , CM with underlying hypersensitive brain might cause the tinnitus switch out of function.  

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report? 

Response: Cochlear Migraine (could be one of the key code for chronic tinnitus. Similar to vestibular migraine (VM ) in vertigo diagnosis, Cochlear Migraine is a very important cause of tinnitus and heating loss.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work? 

Response: The clinical implication : the migraine management is crucial for tinnitus treatment. 

Citation:

Hwang J, Tsai S, Liu T, Chen Y, Lai J. Association of Tinnitus and Other Cochlear Disorders With a History of Migraines. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Published online July 12, 2018. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2018.0939

The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

Acupuncture For Pain in Breast Cancer Patients on Aromatase Inhibitors

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dawn Hershman, MD, MS, FASCO Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology Leader, Breast Cancer Program Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center Columbia University Medical Center

Dr. Hershman

Dawn Hershman, MD, MS, FASCO
Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology
Leader, Breast Cancer Program
Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center
Columbia University Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Aromatase inhibitors are effective in reducing the risk of recurrence in hormone sensitive breast cancer, however they commonly cause joint pain and stiffness that can lead to early discontinuation of treatment. We know that women who stop early do not get the same benefits as those who continue for the full duration.

Acupuncture has been shown to improve a variety of pain syndromes. We conducted a large multicenter trial among women with joint pain on aromatase inhibitors and randomized patients to true acupuncture, sham acupuncture and a waitlist control arm.

We found that acupuncture resulted in more pain reduction than the other 2 control groups. Measuring pain can be challenging in clinical trials. We now know that a meaningful reduction for a patient is 2 points on a 10 point scale. We found that nearly 60 percent of women in the true acupuncture group experienced at least a 2-point reduction in pain, versus 33 percent of the sham acupuncture group and 31 percent of the controls. These results where highly statistically significant.  Continue reading

More Weight Loss Linked To Greater Decrease in Knee Arthritis Pain

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Wake Forest professor of Health and Exercise Science Steve Messier, Friday, June 15, 2018.

Prof. Messier

Professor Steve Messier
Director of the J.B. Snow Biomechanics Laboratory
J.B Snow Biomechanics Laboratory
Wake Forest University

MedicalResearch.com: Why did you undertake this study?

Response: This was a secondary analysis of the Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) clinical trial originally published in JAMA in 2013, Volume 310, Number 12, pages 11263-1273.

We were interested to see if losing 20% of your body weight had any additional benefits compared to a 10% weight loss that we previously have shown to be beneficial.

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Gabapentin and Pregabalin Should Be Used Cautiously in Hemodialysis Patients

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Julie H. Ishida MD Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology University of California, San Francisco and San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Dr. Ishida

Dr. Julie H. Ishida MD
Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology
University of California, San Francisco and
San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Gabapentin and pregabalin are used for the management of symptoms such as neuropathic pain, itching, and restless leg syndrome in patients receiving hemodialysis. However, hemodialysis patients may be particularly vulnerable to adverse events related to these agents, which are cleared by the kidney, but there is limited data evaluating their risk in this population.

Gabapentin and pregabalin use were associated with risk for altered mental status, fall, and fracture, and in some cases, even at doses that would be considered safe for use in this population.  Continue reading

Zosano Developing Dermal Patch to Quickly Relieve Migraine Pain

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Zosano Pharma
Dr. Peter Schmidt, MD, MSc

Senior Director, medical Affairs and Clinical Development
Zosano Pharma

 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This was a post-hoc analysis of Zosano’s pivotal efficacy trial using its adhesive dermally-applied microarray (ADAM) zolmitriptan formulation, M207. The trial found that M207 was effective versus placebo for the co-primary endpoints of pain freedom and most bothersome symptom (MBS) freedom, both at two hours. The MBS endpoint was just ratified as a new endpoint in the FDA’s February 2018 guidance for acute migraine trials. The stated aim of this new endpoint is “…to better align the study outcome with the symptom(s) of primary importance to patients…” This is logical, as a given migraine patient may not experience all four previous symptom endpoints (pain, photophobia, phonophobia, nausea). Continue reading

Cigna Creates Online Initiative To Drive Patient-Provider Conversations Regarding Pain and Opioid Prescriptions

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Stuart Lustig, M.D., M.P.H National Medical Executive for Behavioral Health Cigna

Dr. Lustig

Dr. Stuart Lustig, M.D., M.P.H
National Medical Executive for Behavioral Health
Cigna

Dr. Lustig discusses Cigna’s efforts to curb the opioid epidemic.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for the Applying American Society of Addiction Medicine Performance Measures in Commercial Health Insurance and Services Data study?

Response: In 2016 Cigna announced a collaboration with the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) to improve treatment for people suffering from substance use disorders and establish performance measures and best practices for addiction treatment. Mining anonymized data from Cigna’s administrative data, Brandeis University researchers have validated a new way to hone in on trouble spots where substance use disorder treatment for opioid, alcohol and other drug dependence is suboptimal, like the way police departments use computers to identify high crime areas in need of greater scrutiny and attention.

The technique uses ASAM-defined performance measures to assess substance use disorder treatment patterns, giving researchers the ability to sort through administrative data and measure to the extent to which patients being treated for opioid or alcohol use disorder are receiving and using evidenced-based medications proven to be effective in improving outcomes and retention in treatment. It also measures whether those patients received support during substance withdrawal – a critical factor in the success of addiction treatment plans. The performance measures were first tested on the Veterans’ Health Administration in 2016 and now, on data from Cigna.

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Does Chiropractic Care Benefit Low Back Pain?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Back Pain” by betterhealthosteopathy is licensed under PDM 3.0Christine Goertz DC, PhD

Vice Chancellor for Research and Health Policy
Palmer College of Chiropractic

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Low back pain in the leading cause of physical disability worldwide, with up to 80% of US adults seeking care for this debilitating condition at some point in their lives. Low-back pain is also one of the most common causes of disability in U.S. military personnel.

Although a number of studies have previously evaluated chiropractic care for low back pain, the vast majority had small sample sizes and did not study chiropractic as part of a multi-disciplinary approach to care in real world settings, including the military.

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