No Link Found Inhaled Steroids and Bone Fractures in Asthmatic Children

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Asthma” by Michael Havens is licensed under CC BY 2.0Teresa To, PhD
Biostatistics, Design and Analysis
Scientific Director
The Hospital for Sick Children
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto
Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We studied asthma prescription drug use in Ontario children aged 2 to 18 years with physician diagnosed asthma between 2003 and 2014.

We found that:

  1. Currently in Ontario, nearly 50% of children with asthma did not fill a prescription for an inhaled corticosteroid during the study period, despite these medications being considered the gold-standard for asthma management.
  2. Our findings did not show clinically important association between inhaled corticosteroids and fracture among children with asthma.
  3. However, systemic corticosteroids (oral or injection) are associated with higher fracture risk in children with asthma (17% higher risk).

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Zoledronic Acid Cost-Effective In Preventing Skeletal Events in Patients With Bone Metatstases

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr-Charles L Shapiro.jpg

Dr. Shapiro

Charles L.Shapiro MD
Professor of Medicine
Director of Translational Breast Cancer Research
Director of Cancer Survivorship
Division of Hematology/Oncology
Tisch Cancer Institute
New York, NY

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The new 2017 ASCO guidelines for the use bone-modifying in individuals with bone metastases recently endorsed every 3-month zoledronic, because of high level evidence from three randomized trials, including our trial (published in Jama in Jan 2017, first author Himelstein et al) that giving zoledronic acid every 3-months was non-inferior to the standard of monthly zoledronic. The guidelines also concluded that there was not one preferred bone modifying agent of the other, despite the fact the comparing monthly zoledronic to monthly denosumab in women with bone metastases, denosumab delayed the time to first skeletal-related event (pathological fractures, necessity for radiation or surgery, and spinal cord compression) and subsequent events by 23% (or in absolute terms about 3 months) . Zoledronic acid became generic in 2013, whereas monthly denosumab is still patented until 2022-25.

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African Americans Do Worse After Joint Replacements, But Only In Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Susan M. Goodman, MD Director of the Integrative Rheumatology and Orthopedics Center of Excellence Hospital for Special Surgery

Dr. Goodman

Susan M. Goodman, MD
Director of the Integrative Rheumatology and Orthopedics Center of Excellence
Hospital for Special Surgery 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We have previously reported that African Americans who have poorer health outcomes, may be disproportionately impacted by community factors. For African Americans undergoing knee replacement, no difference in pain and function was seen compared to whites in communities with little poverty, while in poor communities, African Americans had poorer outcomes. We wondered if this was generally true or if this only applied to knee replacements.

We found similar results; African Americans in richer neighborhoods have comparable outcomes to whites, but as poverty increases- in this study measured as percent with Medicaid coverage- outcomes worsen in a step wise fashion.

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Exercise, Vision Testing and Osteoporosis Evaluation Are Keys To Fall Prevention

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Andrea C. Tricco PhD, MSc Scientist and Lead of the Knowledge Synthesis Team Associate Professor Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto Associate Editor Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, BMC Medical Research Methodology, Systematic Reviews

Dr. Tricco

Andrea C. Tricco PhD, MSc
Scientist and Lead of the Knowledge Synthesis Team
Associate Professor Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto
Associate Editor Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, BMC Medical Research Methodology, Systematic Reviews

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Falls are the leading cause of injury among older adults and account for $2 billion in direct health-care costs annually ($31 billion in costs to Medicare in the United States in 2012). We aimed to determine which types of fall-prevention programs may be effective for reducing falls in older people.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: Exercise, along with vision assessment and treatment, as well as an assessment and possible modification of a person’s living environment, reduced the risk of injurious falls by 23% compared to usual care.

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Is RICE Best After Injury? Study Suggests Rest Prolongs Recovery

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Monika Bayer PhD. Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen Bispebjerg Hospital Denmark

Dr. Bayer

Monika Bayer PhD.
Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen
Bispebjerg Hospital
Denmark

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Acute muscle strain injuries display a major clinical problem with a high incidence rate for both professional and amateur athletes and are associated with substantial risk for recurrence. Common clinical practice advices to follow the RICE (Rest – Ice – Compression – Elevation) principle after strain injuries but it has not been investigated whether patients really benefit from a period of rest or whether an early of loading following the injury would improve recovery.

In this study, amateur athletes were divided into two groups: one group started rehabilitation two days after the trauma, the other group waited for one week and began rehabilitation after nine days. All athletes had a clear structural defect of the muscle-connective tissue unit following explosive movements. We found that protraction of rehabilitation onset caused a three-week delay in pain-free recovery. In all athletes included, only one suffered from a re-injury.

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Hip and Knee Replacements More Common In Patients With Transthryretin Cardiac Amyloidosis

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Mathew Maurer, Medical Director The Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Center NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Medical Center.

Dr. Maurer

Dr. Mathew Maurer, Medical Director
The Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Center
NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Medical Center.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Transthryretin cardiac amyloidosis (TTR-CA) is an underdiagnosed type of cardiomyopathy in which TTR (transthyretin, also known as prealbumin), a protein that forms amyloid fibrils, deposits in the heart. The deposits cause thickening of the ventricular wall and diastolic as well as systolic dysfunction. It is usually discovered around age 75 and presents more commonly in men than in women. With advances in non-invasive diagnostic modalities and growing awareness, TTR-CA is being diagnosed increasingly more frequently. Additionally, there are several emerging treatments that are under active investigation. Most of these therapies prevent disease progression and don’t address the amyloid already deposited in the heart. Accordingly, it is imperative that we diagnose TTR-CA before patients develop significant amyloid heart disease. However, this presents a great challenge since there are few known clinical predictors that might alert even the most astute physician that a patient is at such risk. With identification of predictors that may appropriately raise the index of clinical suspicion, clinicians may begin to pick up more subtle (and perhaps not yet clinically significant) forms of TTR-CA and initiate treatment before significant damage occurs.

The few known clinical predictors of TTR-CA include bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and lumbar spinal stenosis, and numerous studies found TTR on biopsies and autopsies of other musculoskeletal sites, particularly in hip and knee joints. (Just last week, and also discussed here on MedicalResearch.com, biceps tendon rupture was also shown to occur more frequently in TTR-CA!) We suspected that patients who ultimately develop TTR-CA may first develop clinically significant hip and knee disease, enough to even warrant a hip (THA) or knee (TKA) replacement.

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Ruptured Biceps Tendon and Wild-type Transthyretin Amyloidosis

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Avinainder Singh, M.B.B.S. Research Fellow Cardiovascular Medicine Brigham & Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School Boston, MA

Dr. Singh

Avinainder Singh, M.B.B.S.
Research Fellow
Cardiovascular Medicine
Brigham & Women’s Hospital
Harvard Medical School
Boston, MA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Amyloidosis due to aberrant folding of proteins. These misfolded proteins can deposit in various parts of the body and lead to organ dysfunction. The two most common types of amyloidosis affecting the heart include transthyretin and light chain amyloidosis. Transthyretin is a protein produced by the liver which supports the transport of thyroxine and retinol.

Wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRwt, previously known as senile amyloidosis) occurs due to deposition of misfolded fibrils derived from transthyretin and primarily affects elderly men. Once considered a rare disease, it is now reported to be responsible for nearly 13% of heart failure with preserved ejected fraction and increased wall thickness.

Rupture of the biceps tendon is a rare occurrence in the general population (<1 per 1000). We noticed a ruptured biceps tendon in several patients with wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis and performed this study to further evaluate this finding in a group of patients with wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis and in a control group of age-matched patients with non-amyloid heart failure.

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New Approach Could Lead To Osteoporosis Drugs With Fewer Side Effects

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dieter Bromme, Ph.D. Professor and Canada Research Chair The University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry  Vancouver, BC

Dr. Bromme

Dieter Bromme, Ph.D.
Professor and Canada Research Chair
The University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry
Vancouver, BC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Every three seconds somebody will fracture a bone because of osteoporosis. Several treatments are available to slow down bone loss but all of them have shortcomings ranging from poor bone quality to various side effects. Thus new treatment strategies and novel drug targets are needed that promise efficacy without significant adverse reactions.

One of the novel promising targets was cathepsin K, a protease solely responsible for the degradation of our organic bone matrix. Major efforts and funds were spent by the pharmaceutical industry to develop potent and selective cathepsin K inhibitors. These inhibitors were highly effective in preserving bone in clinical trials. Despite the good news, cathepsin K inhibitors were never approved because of various non-skeletal side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects are not caused by off-target effects (drugs react with undesired targets) but by on-target effects. Most drugs that target enzymes are active site-directed compounds and thus will stop the entire activity of the target enzyme. If the target is a multifunctional enzyme, safety problems are preprogrammed. Based on our studies to understand the molecular mechanism of collagen degradation by cathepsin K, we developed the concept of ectosteric enzyme inhibition, which allowed us to identify highly selective collagenase inhibitors of this protease.

In our study, we used a red sage-derived small molecule that selectively blocked the collagenase activity of cathepsin K and thus consequently bone degradation in an osteoporosis mouse model without affecting other known functions of the protease. The crucial difference might be that the red sage inhibitor did not block the cathepsin K-mediated degradation of TGF-ß1, a growth factor involved in fibrotic pathologies described in the clinical trials. TGF-ß1 degradation is blocked by these inhibitors and thus accumulates in tissues, causing fibrosis.

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Acupuncture and Electrotherapy Following Knee Replacement May Limit Opioid Use

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Tina Hernandez-Boussard, PhD MPH, MS Associate Professor of Medicine, Biomedical Data Science, and Surgery Stanford School of Medicine Stanford, CA 94305-5479

Dr. Hernandez-Boussard

Tina Hernandez-Boussard, PhD MPH, MS
Associate Professor of Medicine, Biomedical Data Science, and Surgery
Stanford School of Medicine
Stanford, CA 94305-5479

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Opioid addiction is a national crisis.  As surgery is thought to be a gateway to opioid misuse, opioid-sparing approaches for pain management following surgery are a top priority.

We conducted a meta-analysis of 39 randomized clinical trials of common non-pharmalogical interventions used for postoperative pain management.

We found that acupuncture and electrotherapy following total knee replacement reduced or delayed patients’ opioid use.

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Long Acting Local Anesthetic Reduced Need For Opioids After Knee Replacement

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Michael A. Mont, MD Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Cleveland Clinic Cleveland, OH

Dr. Mont

Michael A. Mont, MD
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
Cleveland Clinic
Cleveland, OH 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a major hurdle for both the patients and the orthopaedists. Many analgesic modalities are currently in use, and can be used alone or in combination in order to augment their effect. Addition of local anesthetic analgesia has been shown to improve pain control and reduce opioid consumption during postoperative period. However, the effects of this analgesia tend to dissipate with time, with the longest duration of action (bupivacaine) of approximately 12 hours. Therefore, long acting local anesthetic (liposomal bupivacaine) has been developed in order to expand the duration of effectiveness of pain relief for up to 96 hours. Many studies evaluated the effectiveness of this anesthetic and demonstrated contradictory results, however, they did not use the same methods and infiltration technique. Therefore, we conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study at 16 hospitals using optimal infiltration techniques. Our study demonstrated significant improvement in pain, decreased opioid consumption, increased time to first opioid rescue, more opioid free patients in liposomal bupivacaine cohort. In addition, there were no unexpected safety concerns.

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Fewer Fractures With Fosamax (Alendronate) For Patients on Steroids

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

2009 Presspicture, Mattias Lorentzon for free publication. (Photographer: Magnus Gotander,Bilduppdraget,Sweden)

Prof. Lorentzon

Mattias Lorentzon, PhD
Professor, Senior Physician
Head of Geriatric Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy
Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal
Mölndal, Sweden

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: It was previously known that alendronate reduces the risk of vertebral fractures in patients using oral glucocorticoids, but there were no studies regarding hip fractures, which are the most severe osteoporotic fractures, often resulting in disability and mortality.

We found that older patients prescribed alendronate after starting medium to high doses of oral prednisolone had a much lower risk of hip fracture than patients not taking alendronate.

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Young Athletes Who Specialize In Single Sport May Raise Risk of Overuse Injury

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Jacqueline Pasulka, OMS II
Des Moines University College of Osteopathic Medicine , Des Moines , IA
Division of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Sports Medicine, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago , Chicago , IL

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In this study young athletes were recruited from both sports medicine and general practice clinics and were asked to complete surveys reporting on their sports participation, training patterns, and any sports-related injuries they had over the previous six months. We focused this study on the subset of athletes who met the criteria for being a single-sport specialized athlete based on their reported participation in only one sport and training for eight months or more during the year for that sport. Athletes participating in individual sports were more likely to be single-sport specialized than their team sport peers, and they also reported an earlier age at which they began specializing in their sport. Additionally, injury types differed among these two groups as single-sport specialized athletes in individual sport athletes had a greater proportion of overuse injuries, while single-sport specialized athletes in team sport athletes had a greater proportion of acute injuries.

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Pharmaceutical Grade Chondroitin Sulfate As First-Line Treatment of Osteoarthritis

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jean-Yves Reginster M.D.,PH.D. Professor of Epidemiology, Public Health and Health Economics Head of the Bone and Cartilage Metabolism Unit University of Liège

Dr. Reginster

Jean-Yves Reginster M.D.,PH.D.
Professor of Epidemiology, Public Health and Health Economics
Head of the Bone and Cartilage Metabolism Unit
University of Liège

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Whereas several recommendations, issued by scientific societies, recommend to use Symptom-Modifying Slow Acting Drugs (SYSADOAs) for the symptomatic and structural management of osteoarthritis, no medication is currently registered, in this particular indication, by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) or by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

This study is the first study, conducted, with a SYSADOA which fully complies with the requirements of the EMA for the assessment of drugs to be used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, i.e. a six-month duration, two co-primary endpoints (pain and function) and a three-arm design, with a placebo and an active comparator. The main findings are that pharmaceutical grade chondroitin sulfate provides an improvement in pain and function, which is greater than placebo and not distinguishable from celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug currently licensed for the symptomatic management of osteoarthritis.

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RepliCel Developing Autologous Cell Therapies For Skin, Hair and Tendon Regeneration

MedicalResearch.com with:

Lee Buckler, CEO
RepliCel Life Sciences

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this your company, RepliCel.com?

Response: RepliCel Life Sciences is a Canadian regenerative medicine company based in Vancouver, British Columbia that was founded in 2006. The company focuses on the development of cell therapies using a patient’s own cells (autologous cell therapy). It is developing treatments targeted at healing chronic tendon injuries that have failed to heal properly, hair restoration, and the treatment of damaged and aged skin.

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Low Magnesium May Be Linked To Increased Risk of Hip Fractures

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Setor Kunutsor Ba(Legon), MBChB(Legon), MA(Cantab), PhD(Cantab) Research Fellow Musculoskeletal Research Unit University of Bristol

Dr. Kunutsor

Dr Setor Kunutsor Ba(Legon), MBChB(Legon), MA(Cantab), PhD(Cantab)
Research Fellow
Musculoskeletal Research Unit
University of Bristol

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Bone fractures are one of the leading causes of disability and ill health especially among the ageing population and are a burden to health care systems. There is established evidence that calcium and vitamin D play an important role in bone health.

Magnesium is an essential trace element, being the second most abundant intracellular cation after potassium and the fourth most abundant cation in the body. It serves several important functions in the body, which include protein synthesis, nucleic acid synthesis, enzymatic reactions, and has also been shown to be cardio-protective. It is also an important component of bone, with majority (67 percent) of total body magnesium known to be found in the bone tissue. There have been suggestions from both human and animal experiments that magnesium may have a beneficial effect on bone health; however, its relationship with fractures is not very certain.

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Evaluation of Athletic Hip Injuries

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Christopher M. Larson, M.D. Minnesota Orthopedic Sports Medicine Institute Twin Cities Orthopedics Edina, MN

Dr. Christopher Larson

Christopher M. Larson, M.D.
Minnesota Orthopedic Sports Medicine Institute
Twin Cities Orthopedics
Edina, MN  

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Until recently Athletic Hip and Pelvis disorders and the appropriate treatment strategies have not received the same attention as other sports related disorders.  There is significant overlap between intra-articular and extra-articular hip disorders that make this a challenging area of sports medicine from a diagnosis and treatment standpoint.

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Radiation Exposure in the Pediatric Patient: What Every Orthopaedist Should Know

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Ayesha Rahman, MD

Chief Orthopaedic Surgery Resident
NYU Langone Medical Center.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Children are more vulnerable and susceptible to lifetime adverse events from radiation exposure, caused by imaging . We reviewed literature and found certain pediatric orthopaedic patients are at greater risk for radiation exposure, namely those who have surgery for hip dysplasia, scoliosis, and leg length discrepancy, as they are among those most likely to undergo CT imaging. After reviewing all types of imaging studies performed in orthopedics and how much radiation is involved in each test, we developed several recommendations that pediatric orthopaedic surgeons should follow.

Among those recommendations are: utilize low-dose CT protocols or technology that uses less imaging (like EOS), limit CT scans of the spine and pelvis, know that female patients are more susceptible to adverse risk and plan accordingly, and follow the the “as low as reasonably achievable,”principle to limit exposure to parts of the body that are necessary for diagnosis.

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Knee Replacement Would Be More Cost Effective If Limited To Those With Severe Symptoms

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Bart S Ferket, MD, PhD Assistant Professor, Population Health Science and Policy Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Dr. Bart Ferket

Bart S Ferket, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor, Population Health Science and Policy
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The annual rate of total knee replacement in the US has doubled since 2000, and especially in those aged 45-65 utilization of this procedure has increased. The increase in practice cannot fully be explained by an increase in the prevalence of osteoarthritis and population growth, and has been partly attributed to expansion to people with less severe symptoms. The total number of procedures performed each year now exceeds 640,000. The evidence for the benefit of total knee replacement has been based on studies without a comparison group of no total knee replacement, and so far only one randomized clinical trial has been published. Although the published literature shows large improvements of pain, physical functioning and overall quality of life following the procedure, patients included in these studies generally had severe preoperative symptoms. A number of studies have suggested, however, that up to a third of recipients of total knee replacement show no benefit, and that those with poor physical functioning before surgery may show larger improvements. Therefore, the current US patient population undergoing total knee replacement might show less significant improvement in symptoms on average as compared with a hypothetical scenario in which eligibility is limited to those with more severe symptoms.   Continue reading

Dabigatran is Associated With a Lower Risk of Osteoporotic Fractures Compared to Warfarin

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Wallis CY Lau BSc

Centre for Safe Medication Practice and Research
Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy
Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine
The University of Hong Kong

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) oral anticoagulant used for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), a common heart rhythm disorder. It works by interfering with vitamin K-dependent reactions in the process of blood clot formation. As these reactions also play a role in bone mineralization, there is concern that warfarin use may be linked with osteoporotic fracture. Despite the concerns for fracture risk, warfarin had been an inevitable treatment choice for over 50 years as there were no other alternatives available.

Dabigatran is the first non-VKA oral anticoagulant (NOAC) approved for use in patients with NVAF. Recently, an animal study reported that use of dabigatran is associated with a better bone safety profile compared to warfarin in rats, suggesting a potential for a lower risk of osteoporotic fractures over warfarin. However, the actual risk of osteoporotic fractures with dabigatran use in human remains unclear. Therefore, we conducted a population-based cohort study to compare the risk of osteoporotic fractures in patients with NVAF treated with dabigatran and warfarin.

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Psoriasis Patients At Higher Risk for Multiple Pathological Fractures

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Jonathan L. Silverberg MD PhD MPH

Assistant Professor in Dermatology
Medical Social Sciences and Preventive Medicine
Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois

Dr. Jonathan L. Silverberg MD PhD MPH Assistant Professor in Dermatology Medical Social Sciences and Preventive Medicine Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois

Dr. Jonathan Silverberg

Response: Psoriasis is associated with a number of potential risk factors for developing osteoporosis and pathological fractures, including including low vitamin D, chronic inflammation, higher rates of cigarette smoking and systemic corticosteroid usage. We hypothesized that adults with psoriasis have higher rates of osteoporosis and pathological fractures.

We examined data from the 2002-2012 National Inpatient Sample, which contains a representative 20% sample of all hospitalizations in the United States. We found that psoriasis was associated with higher odds of osteopenia, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, ankylosing spondylitis, and pathological fractures. In particular, psoriasis was associated with vertebral, pelvic, femoral and tibial/fibular fractures. The associations between psoriasis and pathological fractures were more pronounced in women than men.

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Regular, Long-term Resistance Training or Jump-Training Increases Bone Mass

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Pamela S. Hinton, Ph.D. Associate Professor & Director of Graduate Studies Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology Columbia MO 65211

Dr. Hinton

Pamela S. Hinton, Ph.D.
Associate Professor & Director of Graduate Studies
Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology
Columbia MO 65211

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This study builds on our previous work showing that weight-bearing, high-impact physical activity throughout the lifespan is associated with greater bone mass in men.  We previously conducted a 12-month randomized trial of the effectiveness of resistance training versus jump training to increase bone mass in men with low bone density of the hip or lumbar spine.

The current study is a follow up study investigating how exercise might work to increase bone mass.

The main findings are that exercise reduced circulating levels of a bone protein that inhibits bone formation (sclerostin) and increased levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a hormone with osteogenic effects.

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Patients Can Expect To Return To Normal Function Relatively Quickly After Knee Arthroscopy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Patients Can Expect To Return To Normal Function Relatively Quickly After Knee Arthroscopy MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alexis Colvin, MD Associate Professor, Orthopaedics Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai James N. Gladstone, MD Co-Chief, Sports Medicine Service, The Mount Sinai Hospital Associate Professor, Orthopaedics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Knee arthroscopy is one of the most commonly performed procedures in the U.S. There is minimal literature on when patients can expect to return to daily activity. We sought to help patients understand when they could expect to return to a number of basic activities, specifically in an urban environment where patients need to be mobile early. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Response: Our findings included: • Patients are off narcotics within 7 days, • Patients stop use of a cane/crutches at 8 days • Patients can drive after 14 days • Patients can go up subway stairs at 20 days • Patients sit on a toilet comfortably at 14 days • Patients return to work at 15 days MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report? Response: Patients can expect to return to relatively normal function within a short amount of time. MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? Response: We will also be looking at what other factors, such as age, BMI, medical co-morbidities, etc. can also influence how fast patients recover from this very common surgery. MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add? Response: MedicalResearch.com: Thank you for your contribution to the MedicalResearch.com community. Citation: 2017 AAOS abstract Return to Daily Life After Meniscectomy Alexis C. Colvin, MD, New York, NY James Dieterich, BA, New York, NY James N. Gladstone, MD, New York, NY Diana Patterson, MD, New York, NY Arthroscopic meniscectomy is a frequently performed procedure, but minimal guidelines exist for counseling patients on functionality during the recovery period or time to return to daily activities. http://www.aaos.org/uploadedFiles/2017%20Final%20Program_compressed.pdf Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions. More Medical Research Interviews on MedicalResearch.com

Dr. Colvin

Alexis Colvin, MD
Associate Professor, Orthopaedics
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

James N. Gladstone, MD Co-Chief, Sports Medicine Service, The Mount Sinai Hospital Associate Professor, Orthopaedics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Dr. Gladstone

James N. Gladstone, MD
Co-Chief, Sports Medicine Service, The Mount Sinai Hospital
Associate Professor, Orthopaedics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Knee arthroscopy is one of the most commonly performed procedures in the U.S. There is minimal literature on when patients can expect to return to daily activity.

We sought to help patients understand when they could expect to return to a number of basic activities, specifically in an urban environment where patients need to be mobile early.

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Tennis Elbow: Is the Problem the Joint or the Tendon?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Michael Hausman, MD Chief, Hand and Upper Extremity Surgery, Mount Sinai Health System; Professor, Orthopaedics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Dr. Michael Hausman

Michael Hausman, MD
Chief, Hand and Upper Extremity Surgery
Mount Sinai Health System
Professor, Orthopaedics
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?


Response
: Lateral epicondylitis has traditionally been thought of as a tendon problem, but tendon pathology has not been well documented. Our study supports our hypothesis that the problem lies within the elbow joint, rather than in the tendon outside the joint.

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The Opioid Epidemic and Orthopaedic Pain Management

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Hammoud

Dr. Sommer Hammoud

Dr. Sommer Hammoud MD
ABOS Board Certified Assistant Professor of Orthopedic Surgery
Thomas Jefferson University 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The background for this exhibit stemmed from the growing problem of prescription opioid abuse in the United States.  As we saw this issue developing, we aimed to investigate the history behind this epidemic, what information we have now to fight it, and what information we need in the future to improve care our patients.

Our main findings for each of those aims are the following:

1) It would appear that a large push at the end of the last century led to a lower threshold to prescribe opiates in the effort to control pain, leading to the current opioid epidemic
2) Mulitmodal methods of pain control and the expanding skill of regional anesthesia can be used to help decrease narcotic use and thus limit exposure to narcotics, and
3) Future research needs to focus on the psychologic aspect of patients’ ability to manage pain and we should strive to be able to categorize patients in order to create an individualized pain management protocol which will most effectively manage pain.

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Evolution of Surgery for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis over 20 Years

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Baron Lonner MD Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery Mount Sinai Medical Center

Dr. Baron Lonner

Dr. Baron Lonner MD
Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery
Mount Sinai Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form of scoliosis, lateral curvature of the spine, in the pediatric population. 2-3% of adolescents are affected and approximately 10% of patients require surgery. Operative treatment has traditionally involved a spinal fusion with the use of metallic implants. I personally have been practicing spine surgery with an emphasis on the treatment of the pediatric patient with scoliosis for over twenty years. During the course of my own practice, I have seen significant changes in the way my colleagues and I operatively manage adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Being part of a group of surgeons from around the world who contribute clinical data on patients with AIS, with a database of nearly 3000 patients, a group called the Harms Study Group after Professor Jurgen Harms of Germany, an innovator in this area, and housed within the larger Setting Scoliosis Straight Foundation, I felt, now, as we reached the twenty year mark of data collection in January 2015, was the moment to look at trends in our collective experience.

Our goal was to evaluate changes in the surgical approach to AIS over this time span and to assess whether or not these changes have been associated with improvements in outcomes for the patient including decreases in complication rates. Perhaps we could learn lessons from this data, contributed by leaders in the treatment of AIS, that might inform future innovations and to be confirmatory of the trajectory of our approach to these patients.

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Patients Who Quit Smoking Had Fewer Adverse Events After Knee Replacement

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Amy Wasterlain, MD

Fourth-year orthopaedic surgery resident
NYU Langone Medical Center who led the study with Dr. Richard Iorio 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response:  We looked at smoking habits and outcomes for 539 smokers undergoing primary total hip or knee arthroplasty, 73 of whom participated in a pre-operative smoking cessation program. Patients who participated in program were 4.3 times more likely to quit than smokers who tried to quit on their own. Program participants also reduced their tobacco intake dramatically (10.6 fewer cigarettes/day) compared to smokers who didn’t participate (2.3 fewer cigarettes/day), even if they weren’t able to quit completely. Patients who completed the program before undergoing total knee arthroplasty had about 24% fewer adverse events (readmission, venous thromboembolism, stroke, urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and surgical site infection) than smokers who didn’t participate in the program.

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Risk Factors For Adverse Events After Total Shoulder Replacement

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Brad Parsons, MD Associate Professor, Orthopaedics Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Dr. Parsons

Brad Parsons, MD
Associate Professor, Orthopaedics
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: As bundled payment initiatives increase in order to contain health care costs, total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is a likely future target.

Understanding modifiable drivers of complications and unplanned readmission as well as identifying when such events occur will be critical for orthopedic surgeons and hospitals to improve outcomes and to make fixed-price payment models feasible for TSA.

Utilizing the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program we identified 5801 patients that underwent TSA with a 2.7% readmission rate and 2.5% severe adverse event rate. Patients with 3 or more risk factors were found to have a significantly increased risk of readmission and severe adverse events within the first two weeks postoperatively.

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The Short Form KOOS, Jr Is Valid for Revision Knee Arthroplasty

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Alexander S. McLawhorn, MD, MBA Orthopedic Surgery, Hip and Knee Replacement Hospital for Special Surgery New York, NY 10021

Dr. McLawhorn

Alexander S. McLawhorn, MD, MBA
Orthopedic Surgery, Hip and Knee Replacement
Hospital for Special Surgery
New York, NY 10021

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) researchers saw the need for a shorter, more patient friendly outcome survey for revision knee replacement surgery. This is an area where patient-reported outcomes data are essential to improving quality of care. In fact, knee replacement revisions, which are more complex and heterogeneous than primary knee surgery, are under-studied in this regard.

A commonly used knee replacement survey, the KOOS (Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score), is 42 questions and often leaves physicians with partial and unusable information secondary to patient burden and fatigue. Previously, researchers at HSS created the KOOS, JR, which is a shorter, 7-question survey that accurately measures “knee health”, meaning it reflects aspects of pain, symptom severity, and activities of daily living relevant and difficult for patients with knee arthritis. The current research presented at AAOS showed that the KOOS, JR can be extended to knee replacement revision patients and that it is a valid and efficient tool for assessing knee health in this challenging patient population.

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High School Students Increasingly Specializing in One Sport

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Michael G. Ciccotti, MD Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery Rothman Institute Chief of Sports Medicine, and Director of the Sports Medicine Fellowship Thomas Jefferson University

Dr. Michael Ciccotti

Michael G. Ciccotti, MD
Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery
Rothman Institute
Chief of Sports Medicine, and
Director of the Sports Medicine Fellowship
Thomas Jefferson University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? 

Response: No doubt sports plays a huge role in the United States and all over world with millions of young people between the ages 6 and 18 participating in an organized sport on a regular basis.

Over the past decade, there has been a tremendous focus on youth single sport specialization (SSS), with pressure from coaches, parents and the athletes themselves to participate in one sport year round. Many participants, coaches and parents believe that early specialization may allow the young athlete to become better and progress more quickly in their sport, perhaps allowing them a greater chance of becoming a professional athlete. This drive toward early specialization has been fueled by popular icons i.e. Tiger Woods (golf) and Lionel “Leo” Messi (soccer) as well as by media hits such as Friday Night Tykes (young football players) and The Short Game (7-year old golfers). The pop-psych writer, Malcolm Gladwell, whose The 10,000 Hour Rule (in his book Outliers) holds that 10,000 hours of “deliberate practice” are needed to become world-class in any field may have also encouraged the specialization trend.

There is little doubt that youth sports may encourage a lifelong interest in a healthy lifestyle as well as improved self-esteem and social relationships. The flip side is that extreme training and singular focus on a sport can lead to stress on the developing musculo-skeletal system, a pressure to succeed at all costs, reduced fun, burnout and sometimes social isolation.

The dilemma we are beginning to scratch the surface of is does single sport specialization enhance the likelihood of getting to an elite level and does it increase the risk of injury? There is a growing sense in the medical community that SSS raises injury risk without enhancing progression to a higher level.

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How Does Spinal Deformity Impact Hip Stability?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Aaron J. Buckland Spinal and scoliosis surgeon and assistant professor Orthopedic surgery NYU Langone Medical Center

Dr. Aaron Buckland

Dr Aaron J. Buckland
Spinal and scoliosis surgeon and
Assistant professor
Orthopedic surgery
NYU Langone Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: For decades, surgeons performing hip replacements have placed the acetabular component adjacent to the pelvis in a “safe zone” which has been shown to reduce dislocation risk. However, beginning in residency, I would notice that several of my patients with spinal deformities or lumbar fusions, would experience dislocations despite the safe zone placement of these implants. Our initial research demonstrated that there was an increased dislocation risk in patients with lumbar fusions, particularly if they underwent spinal realignment. We investigated this phenomenon further by retrospectively reviewing 107 patients who met the criteria for sagittal spinal deformity, including 139 hip replacements collectively.

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Female Soccer Players Have High Risk of Concussion

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Wellington K. Hsu, MD Clifford C. Raisbeck, MD, Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery Associate Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery Northwestern University Chicago, IL

Dr. Hsu

Wellington K. Hsu, MD
Clifford C. Raisbeck, MD, Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery
Associate Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery
Northwestern University
Chicago, IL

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Concussions remains a significant problem in youth sports. The recent enactment of Traumatic brain injury laws have certainly heightened awareness regarding this problem. Our study looked at publicly available data regarding diagnosis of concussion in high school athletes. We found that females are more likely to be diagnosed with a concussion than males. We also concluded that girl soccer players and boys football players are at highest risk for a diagnosis of concussion. Since the neck meant of the Traumatic brain injury state laws, the diagnosis of concussion in this patient group increased significantly past decade.

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Despite Guidelines, Low Proportion of Elderly Hip Fracture Patients Are Consistently Taking Vitamin D

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Sheila Sprague, PhD Assistant Professor, Research Methodologist McMaster University

Dr. Sheila Sprague

Dr. Sheila Sprague, PhD
Assistant Professor, Research Methodologist
McMaster University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Previous research has found that daily administration of vitamin D is important for maintaining bone homeostasis. There has been an increased interest among the orthopaedic community regarding vitamin D supplementation and patient outcomes following fractures. Using data from the FAITH trial (NCT01908751), a multicenter randomized controlled trial that compared cancellous screws versus sliding hip screws in patients over the age of 50 with femoral neck fractures, we:

1) determined the proportion of patients consistently taking vitamin D following hip fracture surgery and
2) determined if supplementation was associated with improved health related quality of life and reduced re-operation.

Patients enrolled in the FAITH trial were recruited from 81 clinical sites in 8 countries over a 6-year span. We asked a subset of them about vitamin D supplementation and categorized them as consistent users, inconsistent users, or non-users.

The final analysis included 573 patients and we found that a surprisingly low proportion of elderly hip fracture patients are consistently taking vitamin D (18.7% of patients reported never taking vitamin D, 35.6% reported inconsistent use, and 45.7% reported consistent use). We also found that vitamin D was associated with a statistically (p=0.033), but not clinically, significant improvement in health-related quality of life following a hip fracture. Lastly, supplementation was discovered to not be associated with reduced re-operation (p=0.386).

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Men and Women Have Different Post-Op Risks After Joint Replacement

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Darwin Chen, MD Assistant Professor, Orthopaedics Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Dr. Darwin Chen

Darwin Chen, MD
Assistant Professor, Orthopaedics
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Total hip and knee replacement surgery are among the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures today. Although success rates are high, complications can occur and some may be preventable. The goal of our research was to assess the impact of gender on complications within the first 30 days after hip and knee replacement.

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Effect of SSRIs and Depression On Revisions After Hip or Knee Replacement

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Hilal Maradit Kremers, M.D. M.Sc.   Associate Professor of Epidemiology Mayo Clinic College of Medicine

Dr. Hilal Maradit Kremers

Hilal Maradit Kremers, M.D. M.Sc. 
Associate Professor of Epidemiology
Mayo Clinic College of Medicine 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Depression and mood disorders are common comorbidities in patients undergoing total hip and total knee arthroplasty.  Based on previous research, there is evidence to suggest presence of depression in arthroplasty patients is associated with worse functional and clinical outcomes, such as complications, readmissions and mortality.  Although the mechanisms are poorly understood, it is important to identify strategies to effectively manage perioperative depression in an effort to improve arthroplasty outcomes.  One potential strategy is effective medical treatment of underlying depression which can potentially improve depression symptoms, thereby surgical outcomes.

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Home-Based Rehabilitation Found As Effective As Inpatient After Knee Replacement

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Justine M. Naylor, PhD
Braeside Hospital, HammondCare, Australia
South West Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Liverpool Hospital
South West Sydney Local Health District, Liverpool 2170, NSW, Australia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Total knee arthroplasty (replacement) for end-stage arthritis is a very successful procedure for relieving the associated pain and functional impairments. Formalized rehabilitation following the surgery is also considered an essential adjunct to optimise recovery. World-wide, the volume of knee arthroplasty surgeries is increasing each year. In the US, for example, the prevalence of this surgery increased 11-fold from 1980 to 2010. The costs of the procedures (including the acute and rehabilitation costs) are also increasing. Because of these trends, there is concern for the future sustainability of these procedures. Research devoted to identifying the most cost-effective strategies in this field is required.

Our group conducted a randomized trial comparing 10-days of inpatient rehabilitation to a simple, clinician-monitored home program in people who underwent total knee arthroplasty for end-stage osteoarthritis. Inpatient rehabilitation in a rehabilitation facility is commonly provided after knee arthroplasty in various countries including Australia, the US and Switzerland, and is comparatively expensive. In particular, it is a commonly available option for people with private healthcare insurance. Essentially, we wanted to compare 2 extremes – a resource-intensive program to one with far less resource requirements. Because patients who experience complications immediately after surgery may require inpatient rehabilitation to aid their recovery, we only included patients who did not experience a significant complication while in hospital, thus, were otherwise deemed able to be discharged directly home.

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Testosterone Therapy Improves Bone Mineral Density In Men With Low T

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Tony M. Keaveny, Ph.D. Professor, Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Bioengineering; Co-Director, Berkeley BioMechanics Laboratory University of California Berkeley, CA 94720-1740

Dr. Tony Keaveny

Tony M. Keaveny, Ph.D.
Professor, Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Bioengineering;
Co-Director, Berkeley BioMechanics Laboratory
University of California
Berkeley, CA 94720-1740

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: As men age, they experience decreased serum testosterone concentrations, decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of fracture. While prior studies have been performed to determine the effect of testosterone treatment on bone in older men, for various reasons those studies have been inconclusive.

The goal of this study was to overcome past limitations in study design and determine if testosterone treatment — versus a placebo — in older men with low testosterone would improve the bone. Specifically, we used 3D quantitative CT scanning to measure changes in BMD and engineering “finite element analysis” to measure changes in the estimated bone strength, both at the spine and hip. The study was performed on over 200 older men (> age 65) who had confirmed low levels of serum testosterone.

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Bisphosphonates Can Be Reduced In Second Year of Breast Cancer Metastases

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Gabriel N. Hortobagyi, MD, FACP, FASCO Professor, Department of Breast Medical Oncology Division of Cancer Medicine The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston, TX 77230-1439

Dr. Gabriel Hortobagyi

Gabriel N. Hortobagyi, MD, FACP, FASCO
Professor, Department of Breast Medical Oncology
Division of Cancer Medicine
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Houston, TX 77230-1439 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Bisphosphonates have been commercially available for several decades as supportive care for patients with bone metastases. They reduce the frequency and severity of bone-related complications. While the optimal dose and short-term scheduling of zoledronic acid (and previously, pamidronate) have been determined, there has been no research to determine how long these drugs need to be maintained nor the optimal dose and schedule beyond the first year of therapy. These questions are particularly important for this family of drugs, since they are incorporated into bone and not excreted from the body for many years.

We set out to determine whether a reduction in the frequency of administration of zoledronic acid (every 12 weeks) was able to maintain the therapeutic efficacy of this intervention when compared to the “standard” schedule of administration (every 4 weeks). It was a prospective, randomized, non-inferiority trial that recruited patients with metastatic breast cancer with bone metastases and who had previously received 9 or more doses of zoledronic acid or pamidronate. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with one or more skeletal-related events. Four hundred and sixteen patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio. The two groups were comparable at baseline. After the first year of follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in SRE rate between the two arms, confirming the non-inferiority fo the every-12-week schedule of zoledronic acid.

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Hip vs Lumbar Spine Pain Can Be Difficult to Differentiate

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Afshin E. Razi MD</strong> Clinical Assistant Professor NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases Department of Orthopaedic Surgery New York, N.Y. 1001

Dr. Afshin Razi

Afshin E. Razi MD
Clinical Assistant Professor
NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
New York, N.Y. 10016

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We did an extensive literature search and through our two previous seminars on this topic we were able to gather information to aid our colleagues on best ways of differentiating causes of hip and back pain. As an orthopaedic surgeon specializing in spine surgery I encounter many patients who present with concomitant back and hip pain. Many of these patients are also referred to me by surgeons who solely take care of hip problems such as total hip replacement or sport medicine specialist who treat younger patients with hip pain. It can be very difficult to properly diagnose the main issue and as such some patients go on to have unnecessary treatments, including surgery, because of their persistent symptoms. It was our goal to try to educate physicians, including orthopaedic surgeons, on the common differential diagnoses, appropriate clinical history and physical examination, diagnostic tools and their evaluations appropriately, as well as treatment options and priorities of which one to be treated first. More recently, it has been noted that some patients who have undergone total hip replacement with significant curvature of the spine had postoperative dislocation of the hip after reconstruction of the spinal malalignment. This article also talks about this newly seen problem.

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Hip Fractures Increase Mortality Risk in Cognitively Impaired Men

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ann L. Gruber-Baldini, Ph.D. Professor, Division of Gerontology Director, Program in Epidemiology and Human Genetics  Department of Epidemiology & Public Health University of Maryland School of Medicine

Dr. Ann Gruber-Baldini

Ann L. Gruber-Baldini, Ph.D.
Professor, Division of Gerontology
Director, Program in Epidemiology and Human Genetics
Department of Epidemiology & Public Health
University of Maryland School of Medicine 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: While men make up only about 25% of all hip fractures, the number of men who fracture their hip is increasing and we know men are more likely to die than women after a hip fracture. It is also known that those with cognitive impairments, typically due to delirium and Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia, are more likely to do more poorly after the fracture. The impact of both sex and cognition on outcomes after hip fracture has not been fully explored.

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Is the Benefit of Arthroscopic Meniscus Surgery a Placebo Effect?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jonas Bloch Thorlund Associate Professor (MSc, PhD) Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics Research Unit for Musculoskeletal Function and Physiotherapy University of Southern Denmark

Dr. Jonas Thorlund

Jonas Bloch Thorlund
Associate Professor (MSc, PhD)
Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics
Research Unit for Musculoskeletal Function and Physiotherapy
University of Southern Denmark

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy is a very common knee surgery. Research evidence has seriously questioned the effect of this type of surgery for degenerative meniscal tears in middle-aged and older patients. Most young patients with traumatic meniscal injury (from sports or similar) also undergo this type of surgery. There is a general understanding that young patients with traumatic tears experience larger improvements in patient reported pain, function and quality of life. However, evidence for this presumption is sparse.

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More Hip Fractures in Elderly on Antidepressants

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Sanna Torvinen-Kiiskinen MSc (Pharm.), PhD student, Kuopio Research Centre of Geriatric Care and School of Pharmacy University of Eastern Finland

Sanna Torvinen-Kiiskinen

Sanna Torvinen-Kiiskinen
MSc (Pharm.), PhD student,
Kuopio Research Centre of Geriatric Care and School of Pharmacy
University of Eastern Finland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Antidepressants are widely used among elderly persons, especially persons with Alzheimer’s disease. They are used not only for treatment for major depression, but for treatment of anxiety, insomnia and chronic pain as well as behavioral symptoms caused by dementia.

However, antidepressants, as well as other psychotropic drugs, may cause sedation, confusion, orthostatic hypotension and hyponatremia, which increase the risk of falling and fractures. Because of changes in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics due to aging, older persons are at the higher risk of those adverse events.

The aim of our study was to investigate whether antidepressant use is associated with an increased risk of hip fracture among community-dwelling persons with and without Alzheimer’s disease.

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Bisphosphonates For Bone Metastases May Be Given Less Frequently

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Charles L. Shapiro, MD Professor of Medicine Co-Director of Dubin Breast Center Director of Translational Breast Cancer Research Director of Cancer Survivorship, Tisch Cancer Institute Mount Sinai Health System Division of Hematology / Medical Oncology: Tisch Cancer Institute New York, NY 10029

Dr. Charles Shapiro

Charles L. Shapiro, MD
Professor of Medicine
Co-Director of Dubin Breast Center
Director of Translational Breast Cancer Research
Director of Cancer Survivorship, Tisch Cancer Institute
Mount Sinai Health System
Division of Hematology / Medical Oncology: Tisch Cancer Institute
New York, NY 10029

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Metastases to bone are frequent in many cancers and cause pain, pathological fractures, necessitate surgical and/or radiation treatments, cause spinal chord compression that can lead to paralysis, and significantly increase health care costs.

Zoledronic acid, a bisphosphonate that inhibits bone resorption, is used in standard practice because it reduces the risks skeletal-related events including cancer-related pathological fractures, the need for surgery and/or radiation to bone metastases, and spinal chord compression in patients with breast cancer, prostate cancer and multiple myeloma.

However, the optimal dosing interval for zoledronic acid is unknown and based on prior studies and empiricism it is administered monthly along with anti-cancer treatments.

In this trial, over 1800 breast cancer, prostate cancer and multiple myeloma patients with bone metastases were randomized to the standard dosing interval of monthly zoledronic acid versus every 3-months zoledronic acid for a duration of two years.

The results overall, and in each specific disease site, show that giving zoledronic acid once every 3-months as opposed to monthly did not result in any increase in skeletal-related
events.

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Bundled Payment For Joint Replacements Saved Hospitals and CMS Money

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Amol Navathe, MD PhD University of Pennsylvania Staff Physician, CHERP, Philadelphia VA Medical Center Assistant Professor of Medicine and Health Policy, Perelman School of Medicine Senior Fellow, Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, The Wharton School Co-Editor-in-Chief, HealthCare: the Journal of Delivery Science and Innovatio

Dr. Amol Navathe


Amol Navathe, MD PhD

University of Pennsylvania
Staff Physician, CHERP,
Philadelphia VA Medical Center
Assistant Professor of Medicine and Health Policy, Perelman School of Medicine
Senior Fellow, Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, The Wharton School
Co-Editor-in-Chief, HealthCare: the Journal of Delivery Science and Innovation

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Bundled payments pay a fixed price for an episode of services that starts at hospital admission (in this case for joint replacement surgery) and extends 30-90 days post discharge (30 days in this study). This includes physician fees, other provider services (e.g. physical therapy), and additional acute hospital care (hospital admissions) in that 30 day window.

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Psoriasis Associated With Increased Risk of Avascular Bone Death

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Psoriasis

Psoriasis

Hsien-Yi Chiu, MD/
Tsen-Fang Tsai, MD

Department of Dermatology, National Taiwan University Hospital
Taipei, Taiwan

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder, characterized by red, itchy and scaly skin patches. Over the past several years, accumulating research had shown the effects of psoriasis go far deeper than the skin and psoriasis is associated with multiple comorbidities.

Psoriasis shares the inflammatory pathways and several contributing factors with avascular necrosis (AVN), a bone disease presented with death of trabecular bone and collapse of the bony structure. However, previous studies mostly focus on evaluation the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients with psoriasis. No large scale studies have previously explored a potential association between psoriasis and AVN.

Our nationwide population-based cohort study investigated this risk in 28268 patients with psoriasis registered in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The patients were matched, by age and sex, with 113072 controls without psoriasis. Both the patients and controls were followed to identify those who subsequently diagnosed with an AVN. The results showed that psoriasis was associated with a disease severity–dependent increase in avascular necrosis risk. Moreover, AVN risk was positively associated with male sex, age younger than 30 years, corticosteroid use, severe psoriasis, and concomitant psoriatic arthritis. People with severe psoriasis were 3 times more likely to develop AVN compared with the control group.

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Cardiac Disease Linked To Elevated Risk of Shoulder Pain and Rotator Cuff Tendinitis

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Kurt T. Hegmann, M.D., M.P.H. Director, Division of Occupational and Environmental Health Chief, Division of Occupational and Environmental Health The University of Utah Health Care

Dr. Kurt Hegmann

Kurt T. Hegmann, M.D., M.P.H.
Director, Rocky Mtn. Center for Occupational and Environmental Health
Chief, Division of Occupational and Environmental Health
The University of Utah Health Care

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: This line of work for us began approximately 20 years ago.

Normal tendons never rupture, as the weak point when loading the muscle-tendon unit is either the muscle-tendon junction (i.e., a true muscle strain) or bone-tendon junction. Researchers in the 1960s reported there is poor blood supply in the area of rotator cuff tendon tears, providing one of the two main etiological theories of rotator cuff tears. The other main theory is “impingement syndrome” or a biomechanical impingement in the shoulder joint. Naturally, both theories could co-exist.

Next, we noted rotator cuff tendinitis and shoulder risks from tobacco in other studies. We also reported prior research of increased risks with obesity. These led us to the theory that these rotator cuff tears are likely vascular in etiology. The next problem was to show this.

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Shock-Absorbing Insoles Probably Don’t Prevent Injuries

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Daniel Bonanno

Lecturer & 3rd Year Podiatry Co-ordinator
Discipline of Podiatry, College of Science, Health, and Engineering
La Trobe University
Victoria Australia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Foot orthoses and shock-absorbing insoles are commonly used for the prevention of many musculoskeletal disorders of the lower extremity, so this review summarized the findings of existing clinical trials that evaluated their effectiveness for preventing such injuries.

The main findings of our review were that foot orthoses were found to be effective for preventing overall injuries and stress fractures, but not soft-tissue injuries.

Regarding shock-absorbing insoles, there is no evidence to date to support their use for the prevention of injury.

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Only High Risk Patients May Require Anticoagulation After Arthroscopic Knee Surgery

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Suzanne C. Cannegieter, M.D., Ph.D. Einthoven Laboratory  Leiden University Medical Center  The Netherlands

Dr. Suzanne Cannegieter,

Suzanne C. Cannegieter, M.D., Ph.D.
Einthoven Laboratory
Leiden University Medical Center
The Netherlands

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Patients who undergo arthroscopic knee surgery and patients who are treated with casting of the lower leg are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). It is uncertain whether thromboprophylaxis is effective in these situations to prevent VTE. For both indications, several trials have been performed to evaluate the effectiveness of anticoagulant prophylaxis. However, an overall risk–benefit balance could not be established because of methodologic shortcomings; hence, there has been reluctance to establish international guidelines regarding the use of anticoagulant therapy for either of these indications.

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Compared To Other Blood Pressure Medications Diuretics Have Bone Protective Effect

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Joshua I. Barzilay, MD Kaiser Permanente of Georgia Duluth, GA 30096

Dr. Joshua I. Barzilay

Joshua I. Barzilay, MD
Kaiser Permanente of Georgia
Duluth, GA 30096

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Hypertension (HTN) and osteoporosis (OP) are age-related disorders. Both increase rapidly in prevalence after age 65 years. Prior retrospective, post hoc studies have suggested that thiazide diuretics may decrease the risk of osteoporosis. These studies, by their nature, are open to bias. Moreover, these studies have not examined the effects of other anti HTN medications on osteoporosis.

Here we used a prospective blood pressure study of ~5 years duration to examine the effects of a thiazide diuretic, a calcium channel blocker and an ACE inhibitor on hip and pelvic fractures. We chose these fractures since they are almost always associated with hospitalization and thus their occurrence can be verified.

After the conclusion of the study we added another several years of follow up by querying medicare data sets for hip and pelvic fractures in those participants with medicare coverage after the study conclusion.

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Menopausal Hormone Therapy Benefits Bone Health For Several Years After Discontinuation

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Georgios Papadakis FMH, Médecin InternenMédecin assistant Service d'endocrinologie, diabétologie et métabolisme Lausanne

Dr Georgios Papadakis

Dr Georgios Papadakis
FMH, Médecin InternenMédecin assistant
Service d’endocrinologie, diabétologie et métabolisme
Lausanne

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: This study was mainly motivated by the absence of available data on the effect of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) on bone microarchitecture, as well as contradictory results of previous trials regarding the persistence of a residual effect after MHT withdrawal.

We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1279 postmenopausal women aged 50-80 years participating in OsteoLaus cohort of Lausanne University Hospital. Participants had bone mineral density (BMD) measurement by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip, as well as assessment of trabecular bone score (TBS), a textural index that evaluates pixel grey-level variations in the lumbar spine DXA image, providing an indirect index of trabecular microarchitecture.

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Smoking Reduces Surgical Improvement for Cervical Myelopathy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. David Kusin MD University of Nebraska Medical Center Omaha

Dr. David Kusin

Dr. David Kusin MD
University of Nebraska Medical Center
Omaha

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: There is a wealth of research showing that cigarette smoking impairs healing through various mechanisms, including microvascular injury. Some evidence also suggests that tobacco use results in direct neurological injury to the peripheral and central nervous systems. Many studies have also shown that smoking reduces fusion rates and time to fusion in orthopedic surgery, including cervical surgery. Prior to our work, only a few high quality studies had been conducted to investigate prognostic factors in patients undergoing surgery for cervical myelopathy, and these identified smoking as a risk factor for a poorer outcome. The purpose of our study was to investigate this relationship further.

We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 87 nonsmokers and 47 smokers and correlated postoperative change in Nurick score (a measure of severity of cervical myelopathy from 0-5 with 5 being the worst) with smoking status. After controlling for age, sex, diabetes, duration of preoperative symptoms, severity of preoperative symptoms, signal change on MRI, surgical approach, number of spinal levels operated on, and alcohol use, we found that smokers had a significantly decreased improvement in Nurick score. Nonsmokers improved by 1.5 points whereas smokers only improved by 0.6 points. We also found that this was a dose response relationship, such that those with a history of greater tobacco use by pack years or packs per day had a greater decrease in improvement postoperatively. Interestingly, we found no correlation between tobacco use and preoperative severity of symptoms.

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