Author Interviews, BMJ, Orthopedics / 20.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Matthew Costa Professor of Orthopaedic Trauma University of Oxford Honorary Consultant Trauma Surgeon, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Fixation with metal implants provides reliable functional outcomes for patients after a manipulation of a displaced fracture of the distal radius, but such surgery carries risk for the patient and is expensive. A moulded plaster cast is a safer and cheaper intervention but may not provide the same functional outcome. It is not known which of these treatments is superior. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gout, Orthopedics, Rheumatology / 09.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Prof. Dr.  Gurkirpal Singh, MD Adjunct Clinical Professor of Medicine Stanford University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Joint damage from gout has been linked to a possible increase in knee and hip joint replacements. The strong association between gout and osteoarthritis could also lead to an increased risk of joint replacements in patients with gout as the presence of gout may accelerate or worsen osteoarthritis.[i] This study aimed to evaluate total or partial hip and knee joint replacements in patients with gout in the U.S. and to estimate their economic impact. Data was analyzed on hospitalizations in patients with gout with hip and knee joint replacements in 2018, using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample  (NIS) which is the largest publicly available all-payer inpatient healthcare database. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, Menopause, Orthopedics, Osteoporosis, UCLA / 05.05.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Carolyn Crandall, M.D. Professor, Medicine Health Sciences Clinical Professor, UCLA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Previously-published studies had not examined in detail the risk of subsequent fractures after initial fractures in a large national sample of women in the us. Clinical guidelines mostly emphasize initial hip and spine fractures, but they do not emphasize fractures of other types.  We hypothesized that subsequent fracture risk would be higher after initial fracture even at locations other than the hip or the spine. (more…)
Author Interviews, Nature, Nutrition, Orthopedics, Pediatrics / 20.04.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Efrat Monsonego Ornan, Ph.D  Head of School of Nutritional Sciences Institute of Biochemistry and Nutrition The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment The Hebrew University of Jerusalem MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Food supplies in recent decades have been dominated by heavily processed, ready-to-eat products. Essentially, 75% of all world food sales are of processed foods. Over the past 30 years, children’s ultra-processed food intake has increased markedly, with 50% of the children in the US consuming these foods. Only in the US does UPF comprise 58% of energy intake, of which 90% is derived from added sugars. This reflects children’s excessive consumption of food and drink that are high in fat and refined sugars but do not provide appropriate levels of the proteins, vitamins and minerals required for growth. The negative health outcomes of excessive consumption of Ultra-processed food are well known, include obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes, and considered as the current world epidemic; the fact that children, during their postnatal development period (birth to adolescent), are the target of the Ultra-processed food industry is very disturbing in terms of public health. Bone development and growth are the characteristic phenomena of the childhood period. Yet, in spite of the huge importance of nutrition to bone development, the impact of Ultra-processed food consumption on skeleton development during childhood has never been studied directly, and this was the purpose of our study. To this end, we used young rats which are an excellent pre-clinical model for growth and fed them with either the recommended diet for their age or  a diet comprised of a typical Ultra-processed meal (a roll, hamburger, tomatoes, lettuce, ketchup and French fries) and a caloric soft drink.   (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Orthopedics, Rheumatology, Surgical Research / 02.02.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Codie Primeau, MSc Physical Therapy Student & Ph.D. Candidate (Combined MPT/Ph.D.) Wolf Orthopaedic Biomechanics Lab, Fowler Kennedy Sport Medicine Clinic Western University London, ON, Canada MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a surgery for patients with varus alignment (bowed legs) and earlier-stage knee osteoarthritis. By correcting alignment, HTO shifts load to less diseased parts of the knee. One of the goals of HTO is to delay or even prevent the need for knee replacement surgery later.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, Orthopedics / 18.12.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Karin Magnusson PT, PhD Associate Researcher Lund University and Norwegian Institute of Public Health MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the most common knee injuries, for which very limited data has been presented on the genetic contribution. Based on our knowledge of the role of genetics in the development of ACL-rupture related traits, such as joint hypermobility and knee osteoarthritis, we hypothesized that heritability might play a role also in ACL injury. Using the Swedish Twin Registry, which is the world's largest twin registry and in this study including more than 88.000 twins, we had unique data to for the first time reliably estimate the heritability for this common knee injury.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Orthopedics, Radiology, Rheumatology, UCSF, Weight Research / 18.11.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Silvia Schirò MD Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging University of California, San Francisco MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  Response: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is worldwide the second most frequent cause of lower extremity disability, and it has a global incidence of 199 cases per 100.000, including over 14 million people with symptomatic knee OA in the US. Overweight and obese individuals have a higher incidence of knee OA due to excessive knee joint load. The association between physical activity and knee OA, has not been systematically addressed in overweight and/or obese subjects and its association seems to be controversial. On the one hand, mild to non-weight-bearing physical activities have been found to be beneficial in the management knee homeostasis, the physiologic knee joint load providing an optimized environment for the joint tissues. On the other hand, excessive fast-paced physical activity with high load-joint torsion such as racquet sports, ball sports and running have been found to have an increased incidence of knee injury compared to mild-moderate exercise such as swimming, bicycling and low-impact aerobics independent of body weight. (more…)
Author Interviews, NYU, Orthopedics / 10.08.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bruce N. Cronstein, MD Paul R. Esserman Professor of Medicine NYU School of Medicine Director, NYU-H+H Clinical and Translational Science Institute Director, Division of Translational Medicine NYU Langone Health New York, NY 10016  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis affecting about 10% of the adult population and 25% of the population over 60. We had previously found that adenosine, a molecule generated by nearly all cell types, is critical for maintaining cartilage health by activating specific adenosine receptors on the surface of cells (A2A receptors). Moreover, giving adenosine into the joint could prevent deterioration of cartilage (progression of osteoarthritis) in a rat model of osteoarthritis. Because people do not usually go for treatment of osteoarthritis until they have developed symptoms we asked whether administration of adenosine or adenosine that had been modified to be a more potent and specific stimulus for A2A receptors, carried in fat bubbles called liposomes, could reverse osteoarthritis after it had already started. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Orthopedics, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Surgical Research / 19.05.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alyson Cavanaugh, PT, PhD Joint Doctoral Program in Epidemiology University of California, San Diego/ San Diego State University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: More than 700,000 total knee replacements are performed annually in the United States, but there is a racial disparity in outcomes after the surgery. If the knee replacement procedure is considered a highly effective treatment, why don't black women present with the same outcomes as whites? Physical function when going into surgery has a large impact on the potential functional outcomes after surgery. Our hypothesis was that black women were presenting to surgery with poorer physical function, which was contributing to poorer functional outcomes after surgery. (more…)
Author Interviews, Orthopedics, Surgical Research / 23.03.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pincus MD PhD Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery University of Toronto Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery ICES, Toronto, Ontario, Canada MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Controversy exists among arthroplasty surgeons and patients about the best surgical approach for total hip arthroplasty (THA) - one of the most common operations performed worldwide. In the last few years, the direct anterior approach has become increasingly popular compared to posterior and lateral approaches, partially as a result of advertising to patients.  We sought to determine whether a direct anterior surgical approach was associated with lower surgical complications compared to lateral and posterior approaches. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, JAMA, Orthopedics, Pediatrics / 17.03.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yun-Han Wang, PhD Student Karolinska Institute MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use has been linked to increased risk of fracture in adults. Despite an increasing trend in prescription of PPIs in children, there is scarce evidence regarding this safety concern in pediatric patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hip Fractures, JAMA, Orthopedics / 31.01.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alison MCoganPhDOTR/L Polytrauma/TBI Advanced Fellow Washington DC VA Medical Center Washington DC MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Medicare is shifting from a volume- to value-based payment for postacute care services, in which value is determined by patient characteristics and functional outcomes. Matching therapy time and length of stay (LOS) to patient needs is critical to optimize functional outcomes and manage costs. The objective of this study was to investigate the association among therapy time, LOS, and functional outcomes for patients following hip fracture surgery. This retrospective cohort study analyzed data on patients from 4 inpatient rehabilitation facilities and 7 skilled nursing facilities in the eastern and midwestern United States. Participants were patients aged 65 years or older who received inpatient rehabilitation services for hip fracture and had Medicare fee-for-service as their primary payer. We categorized patients into nine recovery groups based on low, medium, and high therapy minutes per day and low, medium, or high rate of functional gain per day. We measured the groups for functional mobility independence and self-care capabilities at the time each patient was discharged. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Orthopedics, Vitamin D / 26.12.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Robert Clarke MD, FRCP, FFPH, FFPHI, MSc, DCH Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health Medicine Clinical Trial Service Unit (CTSU) Nuffield Department of Population Health University of Oxford MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Approximately 1 in 2 women and 1 in 5 men aged 50 years or older will suffer from an osteoporotic fracture in their remaining lifetime. Hip fracture is the most serious type of osteoporotic fracture with an approximately 30% risk of death in the year following a hip fracture. Vitamin D is essential for optimal musculoskeletal health by promotion of calcium absorption, and mineralisation of osteoid tissue formation in bone and maintenance of muscle function. Low vitamin D status causes secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone loss and muscle weakness. Observational studies have reported that lower blood concentrations of vitamin D are associated with higher risks of falls and fractures. Combined supplementation with 800 IU/day vitamin D and 1200 mg/day calcium has been recommended for prevention of fractures in older adults living in institutions and in those with low vitamin D status. However, previous trials and meta-analyses of vitamin D alone, or in combination with calcium for prevention of fracture in either community-dwelling or general population settings reported conflicting results, with some reporting protective effects against fractures, but others demonstrated no beneficial effects. However, most of the previous trials had only limited power to detect differences in risk of fracture predicted by the observational studies, largely because of a combination of small sample size, relatively low equivalent daily doses of vitamin D, intermittent dosing regimens (>1 month), and short duration of follow-up. In addition, interpretation of the results of previous meta-analyses of such trials is complicated by use of variable inclusion criteria, inappropriate statistical methods, inclusion of multiple small trials with very few fracture events, in addition to failure to report achieved differences in blood 25(OH)D concentrations. We summarised the available evidence to guide clinical practice and future research, by conducting parallel meta-analyses of:
  • (i) observational studies of risks of fracture associated with prolonged differences in blood concentrations of 25(OH)D;
  • (ii) randomised trials of vitamin D alone versus placebo or no treatment for prevention of fracture; and
  • (iii) randomised trials of calcium and vitamin D versus placebo or no treatment for prevention of fracture.In addition, we reviewed the design of the ongoing randomised trials assessing the effects of higher doses of vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium for prevention of fracture.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Education, Exercise - Fitness, Orthopedics, Pediatrics / 24.09.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alison E. Field, ScD Professor and Chair of Epidemiology Brown University School of Public Heath Providence, RI  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Over past couple of decades there has been a large change in youth sports from playing different sports in each season to more and more specialization where children are playing the same sport for three or more seasons. The concern with that change is that specialization at young ages will lead to more injuries, as well as athlete burnout.   (more…)
Author Interviews, Orthopedics, PLoS / 12.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Inger Mechlenburg, PhD, DMSc Orthopaedic Department, Aarhus University Hospital Department of Clinical Medicine Aarhus University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Traditionally, displaced 2-part humerus fractures have been operatively treated using a metal plate and screws. However, there are no studies showing a benefit of operation of those fractures. Therefore, we were interested in investigating, in a direct comparison between operation and non-operative treatment, whether there was a difference in patient-reported function, pain and health-related quality of life two years after the fracture. In this Nordic research collaboration http://nitep.eu/en/ between Finland, Sweden, Estonia and Denmark we showed that there is no difference in functional results between operative and non-operative treatment in persons aged 60 or more with displaced proximal humerus fractures. In the study, only fractures with a significant displacement between bone fragments were included. In the non-operative treatment group, patients used a collar and cuff sling for three weeks and underwent instructed physiotherapy. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Orthopedics, Pediatrics / 09.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Ahmed Elhakeem PhD Senior Research Associate in Epidemiology University of Bristol MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We know that the denser (stronger) your bones are, the less likely they are to break (fracture). We also have reliable evidence that later maturing adolescents tend on average to have lower bone density than their earlier maturing peers. We wanted to find out how the timing of puberty might influence the development of bone density throughout adolescence and into early adult life. We did this by following up a large group of young people born in the early 90s around Bristol, UK that took part in a unique study (the Children of the 90s study) that included repeated density scans over a 15-year period from age ten to 25. We found that those later maturing adolescents that got their growth spurt at an older age tended to catch-up to some degree to their earlier maturing peers during puberty however, they continued on average to have lower bone density than average for several years into adulthood. (more…)
Author Interviews, Geriatrics, Hip Fractures, JAMA, Orthopedics, Osteoporosis / 17.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kristine E. Ensrud MD MPH Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology and Community Health University of Minnesota Core Investigator, Center for Care Delivery and Outcomes Research Minneapolis VA Health Care System  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Women aged 80 years and older, a rapidly growing segment of the population, account for the majority of hip fractures in the United States. Hip fractures account for 72% of fracture-related health care expenditures and lead to significant morbidity and mortality. However, many late-life women at high risk of hip fracture are undiagnosed. Clinicians have difficulty identifying late-life women most likely to benefit from osteoporosis screening and interventions to prevent hip fracture in part due to concerns about comorbidity burden and prognosis in this patient population. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Opiods, Orthopedics, Pain Research, Surgical Research / 16.05.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marilyn M. Heng, MD, MPH, FRCSC Orthopaedic Trauma Surgeon Assistant Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery Harvard Medical School  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: The ultimate background for this study does come from the larger context of the opioid epidemic that is seen worldwide but particularly in North America. Orthopaedic surgeons should take responsibility as being among the top prescribers of opioids. The more specific background that led to this specific study was the observation that several colleagues would insist that a drug like hydromorphone was so dangerous that they would not prescribe it but seemed okay prescribing large amounts of oxycodone.  It seemed like an urban myth that the type of opioid was what made it dangerous, so that led us to do the study to see if there was evidence for that.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, JAMA, Orthopedics, Osteoporosis, Surgical Research / 15.05.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Elaine W. Yu, MD, MMSc Assistant Professor,  Harvard Medical School Director, Bone Density Center Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a popular surgical weight loss procedure.  We have previously shown that gastric bypass leads to rapid high-turnover bone loss. Bariatric procedures are being increasingly performed in older adults, and the clinical consequences of gastric bypass-associated skeletal changes in this vulnerable population have been unclear to date.  Thus, we used Medicare claims data to investigate fracture risk among older adults after gastric bypass, and in comparison to adults who received another bariatric procedure called adjustable gastric banding (AGB), which is thought to have fewer negative bone effects. In our analysis, we found that patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were 73% more likely to fracture than those undergoing AGB. Importantly, we found that hip fracture risk increased nearly 180% after RYGB, and that fracture rates in patients aged 65 or older were similar to the overall group.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Orthopedics, Pain Research / 19.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Geoffrey Westrich, MD Director of Research Adult Reconstruction and Joint Replacement Service Hospital for Special Surgery NYC  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Recent mortality trends in the U.S. associated with opioid use disorders have brought to the forefront of national debate the desirability of minimizing the use of potentially addictive pain management therapies.  Pain management after hip replacement surgery is an important part of patient care, and  opioids are frequently given as a major part of postoperative pain management. At the same time, multimodal analgesia, the administration of anesthetic agents and medications agents targeting multiple pain pathways, has seen increased popularity in pain management after hip replacement surgery.  At Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS), the multimodal protocol entails the use of several different anesthetic agents and medications both during and after surgery to control pain, minimize the use of opioids and reduce side effects. The use of non-opioid analgesics such as acetaminophen allows for a reduction in opioid administration after surgery [1]. Acetaminophen, commonly known as Tylenol, has traditionally been administered orally, but more recently an intravenous (IV) preparation has become available.  IV acetaminophen after major orthopedic surgery was shown to provide effective analgesia and reduce morphine administration by 33%, compared to placebo [2]. Unless a patient is unable to take acetaminophen, it is commonly used as part of the multimodal protocol due to its efficacy and minimal contraindications. Although intravenous (IV) acetaminophen presents pharmacokinetic benefits, such as increasing both serum blood and cerebrospinal fluid levels more rapidly, there is limited analysis of its potential clinical advantages compared to oral acetaminophen.  We hypothesized that there could be a reduction in pain with activity, opioid usage, or opioid- related side effects among patients receiving IV acetaminophen compared to oral acetaminophen following hip replacement surgery  (more…)
Author Interviews, Opiods, Orthopedics / 18.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Paul Cagle, Jr. MD Assistant Professor of Orthopedic Surgery Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings ie What are some of the significant comorbidities?  Response: In this study our goal was to better understand what medical issues (medical comorbidities) can cause trouble or issue for patients with a proximal humerus fracture (shoulder fracture).  To tackle this issue we used a large national sample of patients and sorted our the different medical issues the patients had. We found that patients with increased medical issues had longer hospital stays and higher use of opioid medications (pain medications). (more…)
Author Interviews, Opiods, Orthopedics, Surgical Research / 18.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Alexis Colvin, MD Associate Professor of Orthopedic Surgery Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: 40% of all opioid overdose deaths involve a prescription opioid and orthopaedic surgeons are the 3rd highest prescribers of opioids.  Set guidelines for post surgery opioid prescriptions have not been established.  Arthroscopic knee meniscectomy is one of the most common orthopaedic procedures.  The purpose of this study was to determine how many opioids were being prescribed  among a group of six sports fellowship trained orthopaedic surgeons versus how many patients were actually using. (more…)
Author Interviews, Orthopedics, Pharmacology, Rheumatology / 28.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Andrew Spitzer MD Co-director Joint Replacement Program Cedars-Sinai Orthopedic Center Los Angeles, CA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? How does this product differ from other steroid injections for inflammatory arthritis? Dr. Spitzer: Many patients receive repeat injections of intra-articular corticosteroids to manage recurrent osteoarthritis pain and other symptoms. However, in most clinical trials to date, patients only received a single corticosteroid injection, and patients were only followed for 12 to 24 weeks after treatment. For trials that have evaluated repeated injections of corticosteroids over a longer period of time—2 years, for example—injections were administered every 3 months, regardless of the timing of the return of OA symptoms. This is not reflective of what is done in clinical practice, where corticosteroids are administered again in response to the return of pain or a flare of inflammation in the knee. In this study, we used a flexible dosing schedule based on the patients’ symptoms, meaning that patients received the second injection of a recently approved extended-release corticosteroid only when their pain and/or symptoms returned, not before. Safety was monitored for 52 weeks—this length of time should be sufficient to identify any associated side effects, including any potential impact on the knee tissue. Triamcinolone acetonide extended-release (TA-ER; Zilretta®) was approved in late 2017 as an intra-articular injection for the management of osteoarthritis pain of the knee. The formulation utilizes microspheres which enable a slow release of the active agent (triamcinolone acetonide) into the synovial fluid for 12 weeks following injection. Previously, a Phase 3 study demonstrated safety and efficacy of a single injection of TA-ER (Conaghan PG, et al. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2018;100:666-77). This is the first study evaluating the safety and patient response to repeat administration of TA-ER. This study also included patients that were more typical of who we see in the clinic—those who have higher body mass index, more severe disease, and received prior treatments for their osteoarthritis pain. (more…)
Author Interviews, Orthopedics, Technology / 02.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Sherry Towfighian PhD Mechanical Engineering Binghamton University   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: We wanted to avoid using batteries in a load monitor that can be placed in total knee replacement. We looked into energy scavenging technologies and studied the most appropriate one for this application. Energy scavenging is converting wasted energy such as walking to electricity for low power sensors. Our research study showed walking can provide enough electrical energy (about 6 microwatts) for low power load sensors. These load sensors are important in providing information about the mechanical load throughout different activities. It can be used in the future to create a self -awareness device for the patient to avoid certain activities.  (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Orthopedics / 28.01.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tero Kortekangas, MD, PhD Orthopaedic trauma surgeon Oulu University Hospital Oulu, Finland MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Isolated, stable, Weber B type fibula fracture is by far the most common type of ankle fracture. Traditionally these fractures are treated with below the knee cast for six weeks. Although the clinical outcome of this treatment strategy has been shown to be generally favourable, prolonged cast immobilisation is associated with increased risk of adverse effects, prompting attempts to streamline the treatment. However, perhaps because of absence of high quality evidence on the effectiveness and safety of more simple non-operative treatment strategies, the current tenet of six weeks of cast immobilisation still remains the “gold standard” treatment of stable Weber B type fractures. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brain Injury, Orthopedics, Pediatrics, PNAS / 21.01.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kelly Russell PhD Department of Pediatrics and Child Health University of Manitoba MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important patient-reported outcome that measures the patient’s perception on how their condition effects various aspects of their life, such as their physical, emotional, social and school quality of life.  HRQOL can measure the more subtle or hidden consequences of a condition, such as concussion.  Patient reported outcomes are important because they give a more complete picture of the patient’s condition than just reporting symptoms or outcomes that are only measured by their clinician.  We wanted to compare the effects of sport-related concussions versus sport-related limb fractures on HRQOL in adolescents after their injury and during their recovery. We chose to compare adolescents with sport-related concussions to a sport-related limb fracture group because we wanted to be able to attribute the results to having a concussion since not being able to play sports with their friends and teammates may decrease HRQOL regardless of the actual type of injury.  We also wanted to identify which clinical variables were associated with worse HRQOL in adolescent patients with sports-related concussion. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Orthopedics, Pain Research, University of Pittsburgh / 09.01.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Michael Schneider DC, PhD Associate Professor School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences University of Pittsburgh MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is one of the fastest growing problems in the country due to its aging population. One third of Medicare users have the condition, and it is the number one reason for spine surgery in this population. Existing research evaluates the benefits of nonsurgical treatment options compared to surgery, but there was no existing research that compared the available nonsurgical options to each other to determine the best course of treatment for each patient. We studied three nonsurgical treatments for LSS: medical management with medications and/or epidural injections, individualized care with a physical therapist or chiropractor, and group exercise. We assessed each of these treatment methods with a questionnaire, a walking distance test, and a physical activity monitor.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Bone Density, NEJM, Orthopedics / 21.12.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof Ian Reid MD Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences University of Auckland Auckland New Zealand MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  Response: Bisphosphonates prevent fractures in patients with osteoporosis, but their efficacy in women with osteopenia is unknown. Most fractures in postmenopausal women occur in osteopenic patients, so therapies with efficacy in osteopenia are needed. (more…)
Author Interviews, Orthopedics, Pediatrics / 19.12.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dana L. Duren, PhD Professor, Director of Orthopaedic Research Director of Skeletal Morphology Laboratory Thompson Laboratory for Regenerative Orthopaedics Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Missouri Orthopaedic Institute, University of Missouri Columbia, MO 6521 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The motivation for this study is the apparent accelerated maturity in children in the United States.   We previously demonstrated that skeletal maturity (bone age) is more advanced in today’s children compared to children born in the first half of the 20thCentury (Duren et al., 2015). n the current study (Boeyer et al., 2018) we show that a significant component of this advanced maturity status is the timing of epiphyseal fusion. In our study, nearly half of the epiphyses of the hand and wrist began or completed fusion significantly earlier in children born after 1995 than those born in the early part of the century, with differences as great as six to ten months for some bones, and mean differences on the order of 4 months in boys and 6 months in girls.  (more…)