Curcumin Gel May Speed Healing of Scalds and Burns

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Madalene Heng MD, FRACP, FACD, FAAD</strong> Professor of Medicine/Dermatology UCLA School of Medicine

Dr. Madalene Heng

Madalene Heng MD, FRACP, FACD, FAAD
Professor of Medicine/Dermatology
UCLA School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Curcumin, the active ingredient in the spice, turmeric, is an excellent anti-inflammatory agent with unique healing properties.

However, this is only observed with our preparation of topical curcumin but not with oral curcumin. This is because curcumin is not absorbed and does not cross cell membranes – low bioavailability.

The biochemical basis for the efficacy of topical curcumin is based on the fact that it is a phosphorylase kinase inhibitor. Phosphorylase kinase is an enzyme released by injured tissue 5 mins following injury, and is responsible for activating the transcription activator (NF-kB), resulting in turning on over 200 genes responsible for inflammation, and scarring among others, resulting in redness, swelling, pain, and eventually scarring. By blocking phosphorylase kinase activity early in the injury pathway, topical curcumin (curcumin gel) results in rapid healing with minimal or no scarring following many types of healing, including burns and scalds. The unique healing properties are also due to the fact that curcumin induces cell death (apoptosis) to damaged cells, resulting in the “space” for replacement by new healthy cells, resulting in normal appearing skin following burns and scalds.

The salutary result depends on when the curcumin gel is applied – the earlier the better. We observed that when curcumin gel was applied within 4 days to second degree burns- hourly applications, tapering after the patient is improved – we observed rapid healing within 5 days, with the skin returning to normal within 6 weeks to 2 months without redness or visible scarring. Minor burns and scalds heal even more rapidly. Pain was improved within hours.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: If the readers happen to have curcumin gel (Psoria-Gold) in their first aid kit, they should apply curcumin gel multiple times as soon as possible. Within the first hour, they should apply it every 5-10 mins, tapering off when the pain and swelling is improved. If they do this, it is possible that blistering may be aborted. The scarring is also minimal. The curcumin gel should be applied twice daily until the skin returns to normal (no redness, swelling, pigmentation etc) and no visible scarring is seen.

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Physicians, PAs and Nurse Practitioners Provide Similar Amount of Low Value Care

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

John N. Mafi, MD, MPH Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research Department of Medicine, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center Los Angeles, CA

Dr. John N. Mafi

John N. Mafi, MD, MPH
Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research
Department of Medicine, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center
Los Angeles, CA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Our country has a primary care physician shortage. Some have advocated that we expand the scope of practice for nurse practitioners and physician assistants to help alleviate this problem and improve access to primary care. But a 2013 study in the New England Journal of Medicine found that a large number of physicians believed that nurse practitioners provided lower value care when compared with physicians. We decided to put that belief to the test. We studied 29,000 U.S. patients who saw either a nurse practitioner, physician assistant, or physician in the primary care setting for common conditions, and we compared the rate of low-value or unnecessary services—for example, unnecessary antibiotics for the common cold, or MRI for low back pain, or a CT scan for headache. Things that don’t help patients and may harm.

We found no difference in the rates of low value services between nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and physicians. In other words, they did equivalent amounts of inappropriate or bad care.

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Only a Quarter of Medical Grand Round Speakers Are Women

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Julie R. Boiko, MD, MS
Resident Physician, PGY1
Department of Pediatrics
University of California, San Francisco

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Grand rounds is an over 100-year-old tradition in US medical school clinical departments of recurring, expert-delivered lectures to update physicians and physicians-in-training on recent advances in relevant medicine. We wanted to determine whether gender representation of speakers at grand rounds aligns with the gender distribution of people typically represented in grand rounds audiences — faculty, residents, and medical students — by clinical specialty according to national academic medical trainee and workforce statistics.

We chose to focus on grand rounds speakers as visible representations of women in academic medicine. This is important because, despite women and men entering medicine at comparable rates, women are much more likely to depart academic medical careers. As current and recent medical students, we considered that consistent exposure to successful female role models in grand rounds speaking venues may positively reinforce women trainees’ desires to continue in academic medical careers.

We found that the people at the podiums do not resemble the people in the audience. Only 26% of grand rounds speakers are women. Even accounting that some clinical specialties contain few women faculty and residents, grand rounds speakers in most specialties we studied were statistically less likely to be women as compared to faculty and residents. Across the specialties, grand rounds speakers are 44% less likely than medical students, 39% less likely than residents, and 21% less likely than faculty to be women.

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Testosterone Improves Anemia and Bone Strength, Worsens Coronary Plaque and Has No Effect on Memory

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ronald S. Swerdloff, MD Chief of the Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine and Director of a World Health Organization Collaborative Center in Reproduction a Mellon Foundation Center for Contraceptive Development and a NIH Contraceptive Clinical Trial Center Director of the Harbor-UCLA Reproductive Program LA BioMed Lead Researcher David Geffen School of Medicine UCLA Health

Dr. Ronald Swerdloff

Ronald S. Swerdloff, MD
Chief of the Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine and
Director of a World Health Organization Collaborative Center in Reproduction
a Mellon Foundation Center for Contraceptive Development and a
NIH Contraceptive Clinical Trial Center
Director of the Harbor-UCLA Reproductive Program
LA BioMed Lead Researcher
David Geffen School of Medicine
UCLA Health

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: While we have long known that testosterone levels decrease as men age, very little was known about the effects of testosterone treatment in older men with low testosterone until last year.

Our team of researchers from LA BioMed and 12 other medical centers in the U.S., in partnership with the National Institute on Aging, conducted a coordinated group of seven trials known as The Testosterone Trials (TTrials). We studied the effects of testosterone treatment for one year as compared to placebo for men 65 and older with low testosterone. The TTrials are now the largest trials to examine the efficacy of testosterone treatment in men 65 and older whose testosterone levels are low due seemingly to age alone.

The first published research from the TTrials last year reported on some of the benefits to testosterone treatment. We have now published four additional studies in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) and JAMA Internal Medicine that found additional benefits and one potential drawback.

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E-Cigs Linked To Adverse Cardiac Effects

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Holly R. Middlekauff, MD Professor UCLA Division of Cardiology David Geffen School of Medicine UCLA

Dr. Holly Middlekauff

Holly R. Middlekauff, MD
Professor
UCLA Division of Cardiology
David Geffen School of Medicine
UCLA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: E-cigarettes are the fastest rising tobacco product in the US today, but almost nothing is known about their cardiovascular effects. Rather than wait decades for epidemiological data in e-cigarette users to become available, we reasoned that investigations into the known mechanisms by which tobacco cigarettes increase heart disease would provide insights into the health risks of e-cigarettes.

We focused on 2 critical mechanisms:
1) cardiac adrenaline activity, and
2) oxidative stress, measured in chronic e-cigarrete users compared to matched, healthy controls.

The major findings were that, compared to healthy controls, e-cig users had increased cardiac adrenaline activity (measured by a technique called “heart rate variability”). Furthermore, compared to healthy controls, the e-cig users had increased susceptibility to oxidative stress.

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More Than Moderate Alcohol Not Good For The Heart

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Gregory M Marcus, MD, MAS, FACC, FAHA, FHRS Director of Clinical Research Division of Cardiology Endowed Professor of Atrial Fibrillation Research University of California, San Francisco

Dr. Gregory M Marcus

Gregory M Marcus, MD, MAS, FACC, FAHA, FHRS
Director of Clinical Research
Division of Cardiology
Endowed Professor of Atrial Fibrillation Research
University of California, San Francisco

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Moderate alcohol consumption has previously been associated with a decreased risk of heart attack. However, as we have previously shown that individuals who believe alcohol to be good for the heart tend to drink more, there is a concern that these previous data might appear to justify excessive alcohol consumption.

In addition, previous research on the topic of alcohol consumption and heart disease has relied almost entirely on participant self-report, which is known to be particularly unreliable among heavy drinkers. Finally, previous research has sought to study relationships between alcohol and various types of heart disease, but there has not been an emphasis on individual-level characteristics that might influence these relationships.
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Patients Who Understand Their Medical Condition Less Likely To Opt For Aggressive Care

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Joseph A. Ladapo, MD, PhD David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research Los Angeles, California

Dr. Joseph A. Ladapo

Joseph A. Ladapo, MD, PhD
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research
Los Angeles, California

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Four million stable patients in the US undergo testing for suspected ischemic heart disease (IHD) annually. There is substantial variation in how these patients are managed by physicians, and both clinical and economic factors have been used to explain this variation. However, it is unknown whether patients’ beliefs and preferences influence management decisions, and we aimed to answer this question. Based on interviews of 351 stable patients at Geisinger Health System newly referred for cardiac stress testing/coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) for suspected IHD, we found that patients with an accurate understanding of their initial test result were less likely to undergo follow-up tests/procedures if the initial test was negative and more likely to undergo follow-up tests/procedures if the initial test was positive.

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Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Rio de Janeiro

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Karin Nielsen, MD, MPH Professor of Clinical Pediatrics Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA Director, Center for Brazilian Studies

Karin Nielsen

Karin Nielsen, MD, MPH
Professor of Clinical Pediatrics
Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
Director, Center for Brazilian Studies

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Our research was a prospective study in which pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro who developed a rash in the last 5 days between the end of 2015 to mid 2016 were screened for possible infection with Zika virus by a special molecular test (PCR) which looked for the virus in blood or urine. Women who were found to have Zika virus in either blood, urine or both were followed throughout time to look for pregnancy and infant outcomes. We also followed women who had a negative PCR test for Zika as a comparison group. By July 2016, we had outcomes known for 125 Zika affected pregnancies, of these 58 had abnormal outcomes, with 9 fetal losses and 49 babies who had abnormal findings on physical exam or brain imaging, all consistent with neurologic abnormalities. This meant 46% of the pregnant women in our study had an abnormal pregnancy outcome, and 42% of live birth infants were found to have an abnormality in the first few months of life.

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First Childhood Exposure Determines How Sick You Get From Flu As Adult

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Katelyn M. Gostic and
Monique Ambrose

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
University of California
Los Angeles

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Monique Ambrose: Influenza pandemics pose a serious, recurrent threat to human public health. One of the most probable sources of future pandemic influenza viruses is the pool of influenza A virus (IAV) subtypes that currently circulate in non-human animals. It has traditionally been thought that the human population is immunologically naïve and unprotected against these unfamiliar subtypes. However, our work suggests that an individual ‘imprints’ to the influenza A virus (IAV) encountered in early childhood in such a way that they retain protection against severe disease if they later encounter a novel IAV subtype that belongs to the same genetic group as their first exposure.

Our research looked at human cases of H5N1 and H7N9, two avian IAV subtypes of global concern, to investigate what factors most strongly predicted risk of severe disease. The most striking explanatory factor was childhood IAV imprinting: our results suggest that individuals who had childhood imprinting on an IAV in the same genetic group as the avian IAV they encountered later in life experienced 75% protection against severe disease and 80% protection against death.

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Neuroimaging Detects Chemical Disturbances in Stuttering

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Joseph O’Neill, PhD
Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
University of California–Los Angeles Semel Institute for Neuroscience
Los Angeles

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Stuttering seriously diminishes quality of life. While many children who stutter eventually grow out of it, stuttering does persist into adulthood in many others, despite treatment. Like earlier investigators, we are using neuroimaging to explore possible brain bases of stuttering, aiming, eventually, to improve prognosis. What’s novel is that our study deploy neuroimaging modalities– arterial spin labelling and, in this paper, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)– not previously employed in stuttering. MRS offers prospects of detecting possible neurochemical disturbances in stuttering.

The MRS results showed differences in neurometabolite– brain chemicals– levels between people who stutter (adults and children) and those who don’t in many brain regions where other neuroimaging has also observed effects of stuttering. In particular, MRS effects were apparent in brain circuits where our recent fMRI work detected signs of stuttering, circuits subserving self-regulation of speech production, attention and emotion. This reinforces the idea that stuttering has to do with how the brain manages its own activity along multiple dimensions: motivation, allocation of resources, and behavioral output.

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Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Lip Predominantly Affects White Men in Their Mid-60s

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Albert Yoon-Kyu Han, PhD Class of 2017 Medical Scientist Training Program David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

Dr. Albert Han

Albert Yoon-Kyu Han, PhD
Class of 2017
Medical Scientist Training Program
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lip makes up a large portion of oral cancers (25%). Most of the demographic and prognostic indicators for lip SCC are only available through retrospective case series. Thus, we used the national cancer database (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results, or SEER) to examine the incidence, treatment, and survival of patients with lip SCC.

The main findings of this study were that lip Squamous cell carcinoma predominantly affects white men in their mid-60s. We also found that the determinants of survival for lip SCC include age at diagnosis, primary site, T stage, and N stage. More specifically, on the primary site, SCC of the upper and lower lip had similar survival, whereas SCC of the oral commissure was associated with decreased survival.

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Results of the 2-Year Ocriplasmin for Treatment for Symptomatic Vitreomacular Adhesion Including Macular Hole (OASIS) Randomized Trial

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Pravin U. Dugel, MD Retina Consultants of Arizona Phoenix, Arizona; USC Roski Eye Institute Keck School of Medicine University of Southern California Los Angeles, California

Dr. Pravin Dugel

Pravin U. Dugel, MD
Retina Consultants of Arizona
Phoenix, Arizona; USC Roski Eye Institute
Keck School of Medicine
University of Southern California
Los Angeles, California 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: OASIS is an acronym for “OcriplASmIn for Treatment for Symptomatic Vitreomacular Adhesion including Macular Hole”.  It was a Phase IIIB, randomized, prospective, sham-controlled, double-masked, multicenter clinical study. The goal of the study was to further evaluate the long-term (24 months) efficacy and safety of a single injection of 0.125mg of ocriplasmin in patients with symptomatic vitreomacular adhesion (VMA) and vitreomacular traction (VMT), including macular hole (MH).

OASIS evaluated 220 patients with symptomatic VMA/VMT.  One hundred forty-six patients received ocriplasmin while 74 served as a sham control group. In the latter group, no intravitreal injection was administered.  Continue reading