Guselkumab Potentially Increases Treatment Choices For Psoriasis

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Prof. Dr. med. Kristian Reich Dermatologie, Allergologie Psoriasis- und Neurodermitis-Trainer Hamburg

Prof.  Kristian Reich

Prof. Dr. med. Kristian Reich
Dermatologie, Allergologie
Psoriasis- und Neurodermitis-Trainer
Hamburg

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Ustekinumab is an antibody against the p40 molecule shared by IL-12 and IL-23. The antibody shows a favorable benfit-risk profile in the treatment of psoriasis. IL-23 is regarded a key driver in psoriasis pathology. It is speculated that antibodies against the IL-23-specific subunit p19 may produce even higher levels of clinical response than ustekinumab or the anti-TNF antagonist adalimumab. Guselkumab is the first IL-23p19 antibody to publish phase III data in psoriasis.   
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Antidepressants Have Variable Effects On Symptom Clusters

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Adam Chekroud PhD Candidate Human Neuroscience Lab

Adam Chekroud

Adam Chekroud
PhD Candidate
Human Neuroscience Lab
Department of Psychology
Yale University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: We know that depression includes a wide range of symptoms, from low mood and feeling worthless, to problems sleeping, slowed thinking, and suicidal ideation.

We wanted to know whether antidepressants work well in treating all of these symptoms, or whether they are primarily effective on certain kinds of symptoms.

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SWORD Study Demonstrates Two-Drug Control of HIV

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Kati Vandermeulen Senior Director, Global Regulatory Leader and Compound Development Team Lead IDV Janssen

Kati Vandermeulen

Kati Vandermeulen
Senior Director, Global Regulatory Leader and Compound Development Team Lead
IDV Janssen

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response:  SWORD is the first large trial program specifically conducted to look at the combination of dolutegravir and rilpivirine as a complete, two-drug antiretroviral regimen. Results of the two identical Phase III SWORD studies have been positive and demonstrate that the two-drug regimen of dolutegravir and rilpivirine is as effective, with comparable tolerability, to traditional three- or four-drug (integrase inhibitor-, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-, or boosted protease inhibitor-based) antiretroviral regimens for the maintenance treatment of HIV.
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5-alpha reductase inhibitors For BPH Linked to Higher, Not Lower, PSA Levels

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Teemu J Murtola, MD, PhD, adjunct professor
University of Tampere, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences
Tampere University Hospital, Department of Urology
Tampere, Finland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: A previous study called Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial
(PCPT) showed that finasteride, which belongs to a drug group called
5alpha-reductase inhibitors lowers serum PSA and increases sensitivity
of PSA to detect high-grade prostate cancer in men who had little or
no symptoms of the lower urinary tract. We postulated that this effect
would increase the accuracy and benefits of PSA-based prostate cancer
screening.

Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer was a large
trial of over 80,000 men randomized either to be screened for prostate
cancer with a PSA test at 4-year intervals or to be followed for
prostate cancer incidence and mortality via national registries. Three
consecutive screening rounds were commenced between 1996-2008. In the
current study we compared the effects of PSA-based screening on
prostate cancer risk and mortality separately among men who were using
5alpha-reductase inhibitors finasteride or dutasteride and among men
who were not.

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Roles of Angiotensin Peptides and Recombinant Human ACE2 in Heart Failure

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Gavin Y Oudit, MD, PhD, FRCPC Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta Clinician-Scientist, Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute Canada Research Chair in Heart Failure Division of Cardiology, 2C2 Walter Mackenzie Health Sciences Centre Edmonton, Alberta

Dr. Gavin Oudit

Gavin Y Oudit, MD, PhD, FRCPC
Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta
Clinician-Scientist
Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute
Canada Research Chair in Heart Failure
Division of Cardiology
Edmonton, Alberta

Heart specialist Gavin Oudit and his research team discovered a molecule — angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)—that works to restore balance to the pathways responsible for chronic and acute heart failure, including in hearts from patients with advanced heart failure who underwent heart transplants.

In developing the new drug, Oudit and his team discovered to an extent not seen before how the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which regulates the body’s sodium balance, fluid volume, and blood pressure, is at play in both acute and chronic heart failure. In collaboration with Dr. Oudit, recombinant human ACE2 was made by Apeiron Biologics, purchased by GlaxoSmithKline, and has recently completed phase II clinical trial.

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Multiple Treatment Options Now Available for Multiple Sclerosis

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Tomas Kalincik, MD, PhD, PGCertBiostat Neurologist and Senior Research Fellow Melbourne Brain Centre | Department of Medicine | University of Melbourne Department of Neurology | Royal Melbourne Hospital Melbourne | Victoria | Australia

Dr. Tomas Kalincik

Tomas Kalincik, MD, PhD, PGCertBiostat
Neurologist and Senior Research Fellow
Melbourne Brain Centre | Department of Medicine | University of Melbourne
Department of Neurology | Royal Melbourne Hospital
Melbourne | Victoria | Australia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Multiple sclerosis is a disease predominantly of young adults, with the peak of incidence in the 3rd and 4th decades. It is the most common cause of neurological disability in young adults. Only in Australia, 23,000 people are living with MS, with MS representing an annual cost of almost 1 billion $AU to the Australian society. It is a disease that presents with broad range of neurological symptoms and signs, which are typically temporary (these are called relapses) that with time can lead to permanent neurological disability. While there is currently no cure for MS, with appropriate therapy, its symptoms can be controlled and the disability progression slowed down.

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Aspirin Promotes Growth of Staph aureus in Nose

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Fernanda Buzzola

IMPaM, UBA-CONICET

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Staphylococcus aureus represents a serious problem to public health due to methicillin-resistance and the bacterial persistence over a long period of time in the host. Approximately the 20% of the human population is at risk to acquire an endogenous infection by S. aureus as a consequence of its asymptomatic nasal colonization.

Aspirin, the main source of salicylic acid in the human host, is currently taken by millions of human beings worldwide without medical prescription and widely indicated for defined purposes, including prevention of coronary thrombosis. Salicylic acid is a plant hormone known too for its use as a key ingredient in anti-acne preparations and medications for skin conditions. We also consume mild doses of salicylic acid when we eat fruits and vegetables. Iron is an important trace element for the human body and plays an essential role in blood formation. The metabolism of many bacteria, including S. aureus, also depends on the availability of iron molecules. Salicylic acid forms complexes with iron ions in the blood and so deprives not only us but also the staphylococcal bacteria of this element. S. aureus modifies its metabolism if the iron content is insufficient. The microorganism reacts to the changed – from its perspective, negative – conditions through the intensified formation of a biofilm, a sort of layer of slime formed by the aggregation of individual bacteria. The enhanced biofilm production allows the bacteria to survive for an even longer period under unfavourable living conditions.

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NSAIDS Have Minimal Effect On Back Pain and Risk GI Side Effects

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Gustavo Machado BPhty (Hons) Cert.MDT The George Institute for Global Health Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Dr. Gustavo Machado

Dr. Gustavo Machado BPhty (Hons) Cert.MDT
The George Institute for Global Health
Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney
Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: People with back pain are usually told by their health care practitioners to take analgesic medications to relieve their pain. But our previous research published in the BMJ showed that paracetamol does not have a measurable impact on patient’s symptoms. This resulted in recent changes in guidelines’ recommendations. The 2017 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines/UK no longer recommend paracetamol as a stand-alone intervention for back pain.

So now non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are recommended as the analgesic of first choice. However, our results show that compared to placebo, commonly used NSAIDs, such as Ibuprofen (e.g. Nurofen) and Diclofenac (e.g. Voltaren), provide only small benefits for people with back pain while increasing the risk of gastrointestinal adverse effects by 2.5 times.

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Treatment With Liraglutide (Victoza) Reduces Fat Around the Heart

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Gianluca Iacobellis MD PhD Professor of Clinical Medicine Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Department of Medicine University of Miami, FL

Dr. Gianluca Iacobellis

Gianluca Iacobellis MD PhD
Professor of Clinical Medicine
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Department of Medicine
University of Miami, FL

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We know that epicardial fat, the visceral fat of the heart, is associated with coronary artery disease, diabetes and obesity. My studies have shown that epicardial fat can be easily measured with non invasive imaging procedures. Remarkably, epicardial fat has recently emerged as therapeutic target responding to medications targeting the fat. Liraglutide, a GLP-1 analog has shown to provide modest weight loss and beneficial cardiovascular effects beyond its glucose lowering action. So , we sought to evaluate the effects of liraglutide on epicardial fat.

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Novel Oral Iron Formulation Can Correct Anemia in Non-Dialysis CKD

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Glenn M. Chertow, MD Professor Medicine, Nephrology Stanford University School of Medicine

Dr. Glenn M. Chertow

Dr. Glenn M. Chertow, MD
Professor Medicine, Nephrology
Stanford University School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Iron deficiency is common in persons with moderate to advanced (non-dialysis-dependent) chronic kidney disease (CKD), for a variety of reasons. Conventional iron supplements tend to be poorly tolerated and of limited effectiveness. In earlier studies of patients treated with ferric citrate for its effect as a phosphate binder, we saw increases in transferrin saturation and ferritin (markers of iron stores) and hemoglobin and hematocrit (the “blood count”). Therefore, we thought we should test the safety and efficacy of ferric citrate specifically for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA).

With respect to the key findings, more than half (52%) of patients treated with ferric citrate experienced a sizeable (>=1 g/dL) increase in hemoglobin over the 16-week study period compared to fewer than one in five (19%) patients treated with placebo. Rates of adverse events (“side effects”) were similar to placebo; diarrhea in some patients and constipation in others were the most common. There were also favorable effects of ferric citrate on laboratory metrics of bone and mineral metabolism.

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Syrosingopine Plus Metformin Have Potential Anti-Cancer Effects

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Don Gary Benjamin
Biozentrum, University of Basel
Basel, Switzerland.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We initiated the study to find a co-drug that would increase the anti-cancer effect of the commonly prescribed anti-diabetic drug metformin. Metformin is a very well tolerated medication, however the dosage required to show anti-cancer activity is higher than that usually prescribed, hence the aim of the study. We found that metformin in combination with a second drug, syrosingopine (an anti-hypertensive), potently kills cancer cells in a variety of pre-clinical models. Quite nicely, both these drugs combine to kill the cells at a concentration where they have no impact on cell growth when applied singly.

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Metformin Associated With Lower Mortality in CKD, CHF and Chronic Liver Disease

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Matthew J. Crowley, MD, MHS Assistant Professor of Medicine Member in the Duke Clinical Research Institute Duke University Medical Center

Dr. Matthew Crowley

Matthew J. Crowley, MD, MHS
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Member in the Duke Clinical Research Institute
Duke University Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Although metformin is widely considered to be the first-line drug for type 2 diabetes, concerns about lactic acidosis have traditionally limited its use in some populations. However, FDA now indicates that metformin may be used safely for patients with mild-moderate chronic kidney disease and other historical contraindications like congestive heart failure. With the lactic acidosis question addressed for these groups, this review asked “what do we know about how metformin affects mortality and other outcomes for patients with historical contraindications and precautions?”

The main take-home message is that metformin appears associated with lower mortality in patients with mild-moderate chronic kidney disease, congestive heart failure, and chronic liver disease.

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