Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Endocrinology, JCEM, OBGYNE, Yale / 25.10.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_45459" align="alignleft" width="150"]Valerie A. Flores, MD Clinical Instructor Division of Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences Yale School of Medicine - Yale New Haven Hospital Dr. Flores[/caption] Valerie A. Flores, MD Clinical Instructor Division of Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences Yale School of Medicine - Yale New Haven Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Endometriosis is a debilitating gynecologic disease that affects 1 in 10 reproductive-aged women, causing pain and infertility.  It is a hormonally dependent disorder— estrogens promote growth of endometriosis, while progesterone inhibits estrogen-dependent proliferation. Although progestin-based therapies (including combined oral contraceptives) are first-line therapy in the management of endometriosis-associated pain, response to progestins is variable and currently unpredictable.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM, OBGYNE, Testosterone, UCSD / 24.01.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_39566" align="alignleft" width="133"]Varykina Thackray, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Reproductive Medicine University of California, San Diego Dr. Thackray[/caption] Varykina Thackray, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Reproductive Medicine University of California, San Diego MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Previous studies have shown that changes in the composition of intestinal microbes (gut microbiome) are associated with metabolic diseases. Since many women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have metabolic dysregulation that increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, we wondered whether PCOS was associated with changes in the gut microbiome and if these changes were linked to any clinical features of PCOS. We collaborated with Beata Banaszewska and her colleagues at the Poznan University of Medical Sciences in Poznan, Poland to obtain clinical data and fecal samples from 163 premenopausal women recruited for the study. In collaboration with Scott Kelley at San Diego State University, we used 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and bioinformatics analyses to show that the diversity of the gut microbiome was reduced in Polish women with PCOS compared to healthy women and women with polycystic ovaries but no other symptoms of PCOS. The study confirmed findings reported in two other recent studies with smaller cohorts of Caucasian and Han Chinese women. Since many factors could affect the gut microbiome in women with PCOS, regression analysis was used to identify clinical hallmarks that correlated with changes in the gut microbiome. In contrast to body mass index or insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism was associated with changes in the gut microbiome in this cohort of women, suggesting that elevated testosterone may be an important factor in shaping the gut microbiome in women.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Hormone Therapy, JCEM / 04.11.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_37876" align="alignleft" width="112"]Alexandra Ycaza Herrera, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Scholar Leonard Davis School of Gerontology Department of Psychology University of Southern California Los Angeles, Ca 90089 Dr. Herrera[/caption] Alexandra Ycaza Herrera, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Scholar Leonard Davis School of Gerontology Department of Psychology University of Southern California Los Angeles, Ca 90089  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: ​Previous research has shown that estradiol treatment after menopause can reduce the stress response when exposed to a stressor, including the cortisol response to stress. Other work has shown that stress can impair certain types of memory​. We wanted to test whether post-menopause estradiol treatment would not only attenuate the cortisol response to stress, but if it could also reduce the negative effects of stress on memory. In particular, we tested the effects on a type of memory called working memory. Working memory allows us to maintain and update information we need to readily access in short-term memory. For example, imagine you stop at the grocery store after work and only have a mental list of the items you need to make dinner. Working memory is the memory type engaged in helping you maintain and update your mental list of items as you grab items off the shelves and check them off your list. We recruited women through the Early versus Late Intervention Trial with Estradiol, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Women who participated in our study had received nearly 5 years of either estradiol or placebo. We found that women receiving estradiol showed significantly smaller cortisol responses to stress and less of an effect of stress on working memory than women that had been receiving placebo.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, JCEM, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 28.09.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_37234" align="alignleft" width="125"]Duo Li, PhD Chief professor of Nutrition Institute of Nutrition and Health Qingdao University, China.  Dr. Duo Li[/caption] Duo Li, PhD Chief professor of Nutrition Institute of Nutrition and Health Qingdao University, China.  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Childhood obesity is becoming an emerging public health issue worldwide, owing to its association with a variety of health problems at younger ages in adulthood, including obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Identification of prenatal and early life risk factors is key for curbing the epidemic of the childhood obesity. Main finding of the present study is that among pregnant women, elevated blood pressure is associated with a greater risk of overweight and obesity for their children.
Author Interviews, JCEM, Surgical Research, Thyroid, University of Michigan / 18.05.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_34701" align="alignleft" width="125"]Megan Rist Haymart MD Assistant Professor University of Michigan Dr. Haymart[/caption] Megan Rist Haymart MD Assistant Professor University of Michigan MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Thyroid cancer is typically treated with thyroid surgery. It is common practice for physicians to inform patients that the risk of vocal cord paralysis or hypoparathyroidism with thyroid surgery is 1-3%. However, most of these estimates are based on single institution studies with high volume surgeons. In our study we evaluated surgical risks in a population-based cohort. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database, we found that 6.5% of thyroid cancer patients developed general post-operative complications (fever, infection, hematoma, cardiopulmonary and thromboembolic events) and 12.3% developed thyroid surgery specific complications (hypoparathyroidism/hypocalcemia, vocal cord/fold paralysis). Older patient age, presence of comorbidities, and advanced stage disease were associated with the greatest risks of surgical complications.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 08.02.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alfonso Abizaid PhD Department of Neuroscience Carleton University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a compound considered to be a potential environmental hazard and an endocrine disruptor. We have found an association between exposure to BPA at levels that are considered safe by Health Canada and the EPA early in life, and the development of obesity. In addition, we found that this propensity to develop obesity is due to under development of the hypothalamic projection field of POMC neurons, a set of neurons that regulate satiety and stimulate metabolic rate. In this paper we replicate those findings and also show that this abnormal development is due to BPA altering the secretion of the hormone leptin at critical times where this hormone is important for the post-natal development of these POMC neurons.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JCEM, Microbiome / 20.01.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_31395" align="alignleft" width="149"]Prof Lorenzo Piemonti, MD Professor of Endocrinology Deputy Director, Diabetes Research Institute (SR-DRI) Head, Beta Cell Biology Unit Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, San Raffaele Scientific Institute Milano Italy Prof Lorenzo Piemonti[/caption] Prof Lorenzo Piemonti, MD Professor of Endocrinology Deputy Director, Diabetes Research Institute (SR-DRI) Head, Beta Cell Biology Unit Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, San Raffaele Scientific Institute Milano Italy MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The potential role of gut inflammation and microbiome is becoming a hot topic in the field of diabetes. Several very recent publications report the presence of intestinal abnormalities associated with autoimmune diabetes in both experimental rodent models and patients. We have previously published that, compared to healthy subjects, patients with type 1 diabetes or at high risk of developing type 1 diabetes shows increased intestinal permeability. Among the factors that may modify the intestinal barrier and impact on its immune activation, the gut microbiota is at present the main suspect. Our study is the first in literature that had the opportunity to analyze the inflammatory profile, the microbiome and their correlation on duodenum biopsies of patients with type 1 diabetes, in comparison with patients with celiac disease and healthy controls. Previous papers pointed out a significant difference in the composition of the stool microflora in subjects with autoimmune diabetes. A major advancement of our work comes from the direct analysis of small intestine, instead of studies on stool samples. In fact, because of their close functional and spatial relationships, as well as a shared blood supply, it is logical to consider the duodenum and the pancreas correlated. We found big differences among the groups: gut mucosa in diabetes shows a peculiar signature of inflammation, a specific microbiome composition and we also discovered a strong association between some analysed inflammatory markers and specific bacteria genera. We think that our data add an important piece to disentangle the complex pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and more generally of autoimmune diseases.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Gender Differences, JCEM / 13.01.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Caroline J. Davidge-Pitts, M.B., Ch.B Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minn. MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The awareness of transgender healthcare issues has increased, leading to improved coverage of both hormonal and non-hormonal therapies. In endocrinology practices, there is an increased demand for providers who are competent in these areas. We wanted to assess the current status of knowledge and practice in transgender health amongst our current and future endocrinologists.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Hormone Therapy, JCEM, Menopause, Osteoporosis / 20.11.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_29927" align="alignleft" width="131"]Dr Georgios Papadakis FMH, Médecin InternenMédecin assistant Service d'endocrinologie, diabétologie et métabolisme Lausanne Dr Georgios Papadakis[/caption] Dr Georgios Papadakis FMH, Médecin InternenMédecin assistant Service d'endocrinologie, diabétologie et métabolisme Lausanne MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: This study was mainly motivated by the absence of available data on the effect of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) on bone microarchitecture, as well as contradictory results of previous trials regarding the persistence of a residual effect after MHT withdrawal. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1279 postmenopausal women aged 50-80 years participating in OsteoLaus cohort of Lausanne University Hospital. Participants had bone mineral density (BMD) measurement by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip, as well as assessment of trabecular bone score (TBS), a textural index that evaluates pixel grey-level variations in the lumbar spine DXA image, providing an indirect index of trabecular microarchitecture.
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, Diabetes, JCEM, Outcomes & Safety / 19.11.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Amit Akirov, MD Institute of Endocrinology Rabin Medical Center- Beilinson Hospital Petach Tikva, Israel MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: As hypoglycemia is common among hospitalized patients with and without diabetes mellitus, we aimed to investigate the association between spontaneous and insulin-related hypoglycemia including severe hypoglycemia and all-cause mortality among a large cohort of hospitalized patients.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Hormone Therapy, JCEM / 29.10.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mario Philip Reyes Festin, MD World Health Organization Geneva, Switzerland.  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Researchers are trying to identify a hormonal male contraceptive that is effective, reversible, safe, acceptable, affordable, and available. Most of the research has been done either by groups of university researchers. However, in the 1990s, WHO undertook two multi-center, multinational studies. The studies were unable to provide evidence to support the development of a commercially viable, and user-acceptable product.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM, Thyroid Disease / 14.10.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_28881" align="alignleft" width="120"]Antonio C. Bianco, MD, PhD Rush University Medical Center Dr. Antonio C. Bianco[/caption] Antonio C. Bianco, MD, PhD Rush University Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The standard of care for patients with hypothyroidism is treatment with levothyroxine. The dosage of levothyroxine is adjusted for each patient with the goal of normalizing blood levels of TSH. About 15% of the patients treated this way exhibit variable degrees of residual symptoms, despite having a normal TSH level. These symptoms include difficulty losing weight, low energy and depression. However, given the subjective nature of these complains and that the blood levels of TSH are normal, many times such symptoms are dismissed by physicians as non-thyroid related.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM, Kidney Disease, Mineral Metabolism / 03.10.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jonas Esche Dipl.-Mol. Biomed University of Bonn Institute of Nutritional and Food Sciences DONALD Study MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Modern western diets increase diet-dependent acid load and net acid excretion which are suggested to have adverse long-term effects on bone. Urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) is an established parameter to assess nutritional acid load. Urinary citrate, on the other hand, integrates nutritional and also systemic influences on acid-base homeostasis with high citrate indicating prevailing alkalization. Against this background urinary citrate excretion was used as a new index of acid-base status and its relationship with bone strength and long-term fracture risk was examined.
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Depression, JCEM, Menopause, Sleep Disorders / 28.09.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_28419" align="alignleft" width="150"]Hadine Joffe, MD, MSc Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School Vice Chair for Psychiatry Research Director of Division of Women's Mental Health / Dept of Psychiatry / Brigham and Women’s Hospital Director of Psycho-Oncology Research / Dept of Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care /Dana Farber Cancer Institute www.brighamwharp.org Dr. Hadine Joffe[/caption] Hadine Joffe, MD, MSc Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School Vice Chair for Psychiatry Research Director of Division of Women's Mental Health / Dept of Psychiatry / Brigham and Women’s Hospital Director of Psycho-Oncology Research / Dept of Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care /Dana Farber Cancer Institute www.brighamwharp.org MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We conducted this study to advance our understanding about causes of mood disturbance in the menopause transition that are specifically related to menopause. We used an experimental model to dissect out the contributions of hot flashes and sleep disturbance from contribution of changing levels of estrogen because hot flashes, sleep problems, and estrogen fluctuations co-occur and are difficult to distinguish from one another. Understanding whether hot flashes and/or sleep disturbance are causally related to mood disturbance will help us identify who is at risk for mood changes during the menopause transition. This is incredibly important now that we are finding effective non-hormonal treatments for hot flashes and sleep disruption.
Author Interviews, JCEM, Microbiome, Pediatrics, Weight Research, Yale / 21.09.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_28185" align="alignleft" width="133"]Nicola Santoro, MD, PhD Associate Research Scientist in Pediatrics (Endocrinology) Yale University Dr. Nicola Santoro[/caption] Nicola Santoro, MD, PhD Associate Research Scientist in Pediatrics (Endocrinology) Yale University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The study start from previous observations showing an association between the gut microbiota and obesity. Similarly to what previously described in adults and in children, we found an association between the gut microbiota and obesity. We took a step further and also observed that the gut flora is associated to body fat partitioning (amount of fat in the abdomen). Moreover, we observed that the effect of microbiota could be mediated by the short chain fatty acids a product of gut flora.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM, NIH, Vitamin D / 08.08.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_26830" align="alignleft" width="100"]Quaker Harmon M.D., Ph.D. Epidemiology Branch National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 Dr. Quaker Harmon[/caption] Quaker Harmon M.D., Ph.D. Epidemiology Branch National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Vitamin D is important for bone health. In the United States many women are vitamin D deficient. Vitamin D does not naturally occur in many foods, however some foods are fortified with vitamin D. Supplements and sunshine are the most reliable sources of vitamin D. Previous studies suggested that women using birth control pills containing estrogen had higher levels of vitamin D. These studies were generally small and were not always able to examine important factors such as time spent outside. We were interested in examining the association between hormonal contraception and vitamin D levels in a larger group of women. We found that women who use estrogen-containing contraception had a 20% increase in their vitamin D levels. This increase was not due to time spent outside or behaviors related to choice of contraception. The magnitude of increase for hormonal contraception was smaller than for regular use of a supplement containing vitamin D.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Gender Differences, JCEM, Sleep Disorders / 04.07.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_25784" align="alignleft" width="133"]Dr. Femke Rutters Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre Amsterdam, The Netherlands; EMGO+ Institute for Care Research Dr. Femke Rutters[/caption] Dr. Femke Rutters Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre Amsterdam, The Netherlands; EMGO+ Institute for Care Research MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: In the past 10 years the interest in sleep as a possible cause for obesity/diabetes has risen. But data up until now used mainly self-reported sleep and simple measures of diabetes (related parameters), such as fasting glucose. A study on well-measured insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function was lacking. Such a study could provide more information on the pathophysiology.
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, JCEM, Thyroid, Thyroid Disease / 14.12.2015

[caption id="attachment_20086" align="alignleft" width="120"]Erik K. Alexander, MD FACP Chief, Thyroid Section, Division of Endocrinology Brigham & Women's Hospital Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Dr. Erik Alexander[/caption] MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Erik K. Alexander, MD FACP Chief, Thyroid Section, Division of Endocrinology Brigham & Women's Hospital Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Alexander: Thyroid nodular disease has become an increasingly common medical illness, with prevalence reported to range between 26-67% in the adult.  Though advancing age is known to influence the formation of thyroid nodules, their precise relationship remains unclear.  Furthermore, it is uncertain whether age influences the risk that any thyroid nodule may prove cancerous.  Thus we conducted a study to determine the impact of patient age on nodule formation, the number of thyroid nodules, and risk of thyroid malignancy. Medical Research:  What are the main findings? Dr. Alexander: Our study is a prospective cohort analysis of consecutive adults who presented for evaluation of nodular disease from 1995-2011 at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA.  6,391 patients underwent thyroid ultrasound and fine needle aspiration that resulted in 12,115 thyroid nodules ≥1 cm.  Patients were stratified into six age groups and compared using sonographic, cytologic, and histologic endpoints. We found that the prevalence of thyroid nodular disease increases with advancing age.  The mean number of nodules at presentation increased from 1.5 in the youngest cohort (ages 20–30) to 2.2 in the oldest cohort (>70 years).  In contrast, the risk for malignancy in a newly identified nodule declined with advancing age.  Thyroid cancer incidence per patient was 22.9% in the youngest cohort, but 12.6% in the oldest cohort.  Despite a lower likelihood of malignancy, identified cancers in older patients demonstrated a more aggressive cancer subtype.  While nearly all malignancies in younger patients were well-differentiated, older patients were more likely to have higher risk papillary thyroid cancer variants, poorly differentiated cancer, or anaplastic carcinoma.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM, Menopause, Mineral Metabolism / 01.09.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Emily Krantz (né Amundson) MD Södra Älvsborgs Hospital Borås, Sweden Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: This study is a 10-year follow up of a double-blind placebo controlled trial in which women with post menopausal osteoporosis received Growth Hormone (GH) for 3 years (Landin-Wilhelmsen JBMR 2003;18:393-404). Positive effects of the treatment on the patients bone mineral density and bone mineral content were seen after another 7 years. Furthermore and most interestingly, fracture incidence decreased dramatically from 56% to 28% (p=.0003) in the osteoporosis patients while fractures increased significantly in the control group, from 8% to 32% (p=.0008). Health Related Quality of Life was also measured throughout the study’s duration and it did not change nor did it differ from the control group.
Author Interviews, JCEM, Sleep Disorders / 29.07.2015

Jonathan Cedernaes M.D., Ph.D. Department of Neuroscience Uppsala University SwedenMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jonathan Cedernaes M.D., Ph.D. Department of Neuroscience Uppsala University Sweden Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Cedernaes: Previous studies have demonstrated that experimental sleep loss and simulated shift work (i.e. misalignment of circadian rhythms) reduces energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity, providing links to why sleep loss may increase the risk of e.g. type-2 diabetes and obesity. Such phenotypes have also been observed in animals in which clock genes are ablated. Clock genes regulate the circadian rhythms of all cells and variants in these have also been associated with increased risk of obesity, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes in humans. Almost no study has however investigated whether overnight wakefulness - mimicking a situation which recurrently occurs in shift work - can affect the expression of such clock genes in metabolically important tissues, i.e. adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, in humans. Such gene expression changes may both acutely and more long-term be regulated by changes in methylation, i.e. an epigenetic change, which have been found in blood of e.g. shift workers and in e.g. adipose tissue of type-2 diabetic subjects. However, whether sleep loss can lead to epigenetic changes has been unknown, and therefore also whether this could affect genes important for metabolism, such as the core clock genes which are essential for orchestrating and synchronizing downstream metabolic processes according to our circadian rhythms. With this background in mind, I and associate professor Christian Benedict set out to conduct a study to investigate how one night of sleep loss altered gene transcription and methylation of core clock genes in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, and whether this would be reflected at the systemic level by an impaired glucose tolerance test in healthy young individuals. For the study, we had 15 participants undergo two almost 2-day long sessions in our lab, with the first night of each session serving as a baseline or habituation night, with a normal sleep period. On the second night, in random order, participants slept a full night (8.5 hours) in one session, and were kept awake the entire night while being bed-restricted in the other of two sessions. After each of these conditions, we took biopsies in the fasting condition from the subcutaneous adipose tissue and the skeletal muscle. In collaboration with researchers from the Karolinska Institute, Gothenburg University and the German Institute of Human Nutrition, we were able to observe transcriptional repression of clock genes in the muscle, but not in the adipose tissue following sleep loss compared with normal sleep. Instead, we found methylation of regulatory elements of clock genes to be increased in the adipose tissue but not the skeletal muscle following sleep loss compared with normal sleep. Finally, we observed that participants had an impaired glucose tolerance test when they had been kept awake as compared with their response after sleep.
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JCEM, University of Pittsburgh, Women's Heart Health / 24.07.2015

Samar R. El Khoudary, Ph.D., M.P.H. Assistant professor Graduate School of Public Health Department of Epidemiology University of Pittsburgh MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Samar R. El Khoudary, Ph.D., M.P.H. Assistant professor Graduate School of Public Health Department of Epidemiology University of Pittsburgh Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. El Khoudary: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women, and it increases after age 50 - the average age when a woman is going through menopause. Weight gain in women during and after menopause has long been attributed to aging, rather than menopause itself. However, recent research identified changes in body fat composition and distribution due to menopause-related hormonal fluctuations. No previous study had evaluated whether those changes in fat distribution during menopause affect cardiovascular fat. Increased and excess fat around the heart and vasculature can be more detrimental than abdominal fat, causing local inflammation and leading to heart disease. Doubling certain types of cardiovascular fat can lead to a more than 50 percent increase in coronary events. My team and I investigated whether there may be a link between menopause and cardiovascular fat using data from 456 women from Pittsburgh and Chicago enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). The women averaged about 51 years of age and were not on hormone replacement therapy. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Dr. El Khoudary: Our study is the first to find that  late- and post-menopausal women have significantly greater volumes of fat around their hearts than their pre-menopausal counterparts. As concentrations of the sex hormone estradiol - the most potent estrogen - declined during menopause, greater volumes of cardiovascular fat were found. The finding held even after my colleagues and I took into account the effects of age, race, obesity, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, medication use and chronic diseases.
Author Interviews, CDC, Endocrinology, JCEM / 16.07.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Hubert W. Vesper, PhD Director, Clinical Standardization Programs in the National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Co-author, “Measuring Estrogen Exposure and Metabolism: Workshop Recommendations on Clinical Issues” Co-chair of the PATH Steering Committee Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Vesper: Accurate data on estrogen levels are needed to ensure appropriate and effective patient care. Research studies found high inaccuracies among different estrogen tests, especially at low estrogen levels commonly observed in postmenopausal women, men and children. Accurate estrogen measurements can be achieved through standardization. Stakeholders should support standardization efforts of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or alternative strategies to arrive at estrogen measurement methods that are accuracy-based and reliable.
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Diabetes, JCEM / 11.07.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Wei-Che Chiu, MD, PhD National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Cathay General Hospital and Fu Jen Catholic University Taipei, Taiwan Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Response: Diabetes mellitus is a common risk factor for dementia and accounts for 6–8% of all cases of dementia in older populations. Cognitive impairment is associated with the presence of diabetic complications and diabetic severity, but the effects of diabetic severity on dementia are unclear. Our study was to investigate the association between the severity and progress of diabetes and the risk of dementia. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Response: The diabetic severity and progression reflected the risk of dementia, and the early progress in diabetic severity could predict the risk of dementia in new-onset diabetic patients.
Author Interviews, JCEM, Sexual Health, Testosterone / 11.07.2015

Darius A. Paduch, MD, PhDAssociate  Professor of Urology and Reproductive Medicine Director Sexual Health and Medicine Research Director of Male Infertility Fellowship Co-Director Male Infertility Genetics Laboratory Weill Cornell Medical College Dept of Urology New York, NY 10065MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Darius A. Paduch, MD, PhD Associate  Professor of Urology and Reproductive Medicine Director Sexual Health and Medicine Research Director of Male Infertility Fellowship Co-Director Male Infertility Genetics Laboratory Weill Cornell Medical College Dept of Urology New York, NY 10065 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Paduch: Ejaculatory dysfunction, inability to ejaculate or delayed ejaculation affects 10-8% of men. Inability to ejaculate either intravaginally or at all is independent of erectile function. Men with normal erection may take very long time to ejaculate (>30 min) or not able to ejaculate at all. The men in our study had either normal erections or minimal erectile dysfunction. Men of all ages have spontaneous erections but don't ejaculate just from erection, it is progression of arousal and activation of spinal cord motor generator for ejaculation which is necessary for ejaculation. One of important factors in our ability to ejaculate is testosterone (T), testosterone allows for normal function of CNS centers for ejaculation, it is a modulator and is necessary; preadolescent boys don't ejaculate because their spinal cord centers for ejaculations are not mature – process dependent on testosterone. However testosterone is just one of many neurotransmitters and hormones needed of normal ejaculation. Actually our study showed that in men who achieved normal levels of testostosterone the ejaculatory function have improved. As this was first double blinded and randomized clinical trial we had to report our results based on radomization to testosterone treatment or placebo. Unfortunately only 70-80% of men treated with topical testosterone preparation will achieve normal testosterone level , we simply didn’t reach statistical significance based on randomization and  considering relatively low number of patients in each group. But in men who achieved normal testosterone levels the difference was statistically significant. Testosterone should not be used to treat any conditions, including ejaculatory dysfunction, in absence of low testosterone  level. EjD is very common but it bares significant embarrassment stigma, it is difficult for the couple to bear fact that male partner can’t ejaculate, it also creates issues within couple and question about attraction and fidelity. We have previously showed that treatment with tadalafil improves ejaculatory and orgasmic dysfunction and these data has been published. This study was focused on effect of testosterone, but its main significance was it’s design: we developed new tools to assess ejaculatory function and learned a lot about when patients or their partners start to be bothered by EjD. If time to ejaclate takes > 30 min We are now looking into novel and available pharmacotherapy modulating dopaminergic and canabioid signaling and reward mechanisms. I am also very excited about our potential work in direct spinal cord motor generator nano stimulator, this could be very useful for men with spinal cord injuries and diabetic patients. We paved the road for others and I am sure new treatments are just a matter of time.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Endocrinology, HIV, Infections, JCEM / 18.05.2015

Kevin Yarasheski, PhD Assistant Director, Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Research Facility Professor of Medicine, Cell Biology & Physiology, Physical Therapy Washington University School of MedicineMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kevin Yarasheski, PhD Assistant Director, Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Research Facility Professor of Medicine, Cell Biology & Physiology, Physical Therapy Washington University School of Medicine Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Yarasheski:   People living with HIV and taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) have successfully reduced the amount of HIV virus in their blood and have partially reconstituted their immune system (CD4+ T-cell count >250 cells/µL).  Despite this, many still experience residual immune cell activation and inflammation that is believed to increase HIV morbidity (non-AIDS conditions e.g., CVD, T2DM, obesity, liver fat, bone loss, dementia) and mortality.  Scientists are seeking safe and effective interventions for residual immune cell activation and inflammation, that have the potential to reduce non-AIDS complications that threaten quality and quantity of life among HIV infected adults. We have been testing the safety and efficacy of sitagliptin in people living with HIV; a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor that is FDA approved for treating T2DM, and appears to have favorable anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory properties that might specifically benefit people living with HIV and experiencing cardiometabolic complications associated with residual immune cell activation and inflammation. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Dr. Yarasheski:   In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled 8-wk trial, we found that sitagliptin had beneficial anti-inflammatory, immune regulatory, hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilizing, and glucose lowering effects in cART-treated virally suppressed HIV adults with impaired glucose tolerance.  Sitagliptin improved glucose tolerance (a risk factor for CVD), reduced circulating and adipose-specific inflammatory markers (risk factors for obesity, T2DM, liver fat accumulation, and CVD), and increased the number of blood stem cells that can repair damage and inflammation in the vascular walls.
Author Interviews, Hearing Loss, JCEM, Mineral Metabolism / 21.04.2015

Dr. Kai-Jen Tien MD Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, TaiwanMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Kai-Jen Tien MD Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Previous studies investigating the relationship between osteoporosis and sudden sensorineural hearing loss were rare. Most of the studies were of small sample size, or cross-sectional designs and their results were inconclusive. Our population-based study found an approximately 1.76-fold increase in the incidence of sensorineural hearing loss for patients with osteoporosis compared with the comparison group.Patients with more severe osteoporosis may have a higher risk of SSNHL than patients with osteoporosis of milder severity.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM, Metabolic Syndrome, Sleep Disorders / 03.04.2015

CDC- sleepMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nan Hee Kim M.D., Ph.D., Professor Korea University Ansan Hospital, Gojan1-dong, Danwon-gu, Gyunggi-do, Korea MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? Dr. Nan Hee Kim: Many individuals in modern society experience a discrepancy between social and biological time. Especially during the work or school week, we are often forced to be awake against our preferred time. In addition, the increase of light, TV, computer and internet make people stay up late at night. However, night owls (evening persons) have been reported to have more health and behavioral problems than morning persons. Evening persons experience eating disorders, negative mood and insufficient sleep compared to morning persons. They initiate sleep later in the night but need to wake up earlier than their biologic morning due to social demands. There is abundant evidence that short sleep duration and insomnia are significant risk factors for obesity and diabetes. Therefore, we feel the necessity to reveal whether evening persons are associated with metabolic abnormalities in the general population. MedicalResearch: What are the main findings? Dr. Nan Hee Kim: In middle-aged adults, people who stayed up late had a 1.7-fold increased risk for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and a 3.2-fold increase in risk for sarcopenia as compared with morning persons, independent of sleep duration and lifestyle. Evening persons were associated with reduced muscle mass in men and increased fat mass including visceral fat in women.
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JCEM, Pediatrics, Vitamin D / 12.02.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Markus Juonala, MD, PhD University of Turku Finland Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Earlier studies suggest that low vitamin D levels may be associated with cardiovascular disease. We wanted to study whether low childhood vitamin levels predict carotid intima-media thickness, a marker of early atherosclerosis, in adulthood. We observed that those children with vitamin D in lowest quartile had increased risk for high carotid intima-media thickness.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM, OBGYNE / 28.01.2015

Roger Hart MD  FRANZCOG MRCOG CREI Winthrop Professor of Reproductive MedicineSchool of Women's and Infants Health Director of Fertility Specialists of Western Australia The University of Western Australia Perth Western Australia 6008MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Roger Hart MD  FRANZCOG MRCOG CREI Winthrop Professor of Reproductive MedicineSchool of Women's and Infants Health Director of Fertility Specialists of Western Australia The University of Western Australia Perth Western Australia 6008 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Hart: PCOS is a very common condition affecting approximately 1 in 12 women and has an estimated annual impact upon the health system in the USA of up to $4.36 billion per year. PCOS is a condition that often manifests itself early in girls life with menstrual problems in adolescence and may lead to reduced fertility in later life due to problems with ovulation. Previous studies have suggested that women with this condition may have other problems in later life, however they have generally been small studies over a short duration. We studied women from 15 years of age, who were admitted to a hospital in Western Australia where a diagnosis of PCOS was recorded on admission. We compared them to women who did not have a PCOS diagnosis recorded on admission using our state-wide hospital database system data linkage. The medical records of 2,566 women with a PCOS diagnosis were followed from 1980 onwards until an average of almost 36 years, and these women were matched to 25,660 women without PCOS. Women with PCOS on average had twice as many hospital admissions and unfortunately were twice as likely to die during the study period. As expected women with PCOS women had a higher rate of menstrual problems and infertility, and require IVF treatment, have a miscarriage or an ectopic pregnancy, and ultimately require surgical intervention for heavy periods and a hysterectomy. In pregnancy women with PCOS were more likely to deliver preterm or have a stillbirth. In addition women with PCOS were four times more likely to develop late onset diabetes, even after taking into consideration obesity. These women wore more likely to have problems with blood pressure and ischemic heart disease, despite being relatively young. They were more likely to develop a deep vein thrombosis and have a diagnosis of asthma. With regard to mental health women with PCOS were twice as likely to have a diagnosis of stress and anxiety and depression. They were more likely to be a victim of self-harm and be involved with a land transport accidents. With regard to cancer; cervical cancer was diagnosed less frequently in women with PCOS, but they had an increased risk of cancer of the womb. The incidence of breast and skin cancers was no different between the groups.