Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM, OBGYNE / 28.01.2015

Roger Hart MD  FRANZCOG MRCOG CREI Winthrop Professor of Reproductive MedicineSchool of Women's and Infants Health Director of Fertility Specialists of Western Australia The University of Western Australia Perth Western Australia 6008MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Roger Hart MD  FRANZCOG MRCOG CREI Winthrop Professor of Reproductive MedicineSchool of Women's and Infants Health Director of Fertility Specialists of Western Australia The University of Western Australia Perth Western Australia 6008 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Hart: PCOS is a very common condition affecting approximately 1 in 12 women and has an estimated annual impact upon the health system in the USA of up to $4.36 billion per year. PCOS is a condition that often manifests itself early in girls life with menstrual problems in adolescence and may lead to reduced fertility in later life due to problems with ovulation. Previous studies have suggested that women with this condition may have other problems in later life, however they have generally been small studies over a short duration. We studied women from 15 years of age, who were admitted to a hospital in Western Australia where a diagnosis of PCOS was recorded on admission. We compared them to women who did not have a PCOS diagnosis recorded on admission using our state-wide hospital database system data linkage. The medical records of 2,566 women with a PCOS diagnosis were followed from 1980 onwards until an average of almost 36 years, and these women were matched to 25,660 women without PCOS. Women with PCOS on average had twice as many hospital admissions and unfortunately were twice as likely to die during the study period. As expected women with PCOS women had a higher rate of menstrual problems and infertility, and require IVF treatment, have a miscarriage or an ectopic pregnancy, and ultimately require surgical intervention for heavy periods and a hysterectomy. In pregnancy women with PCOS were more likely to deliver preterm or have a stillbirth. In addition women with PCOS were four times more likely to develop late onset diabetes, even after taking into consideration obesity. These women wore more likely to have problems with blood pressure and ischemic heart disease, despite being relatively young. They were more likely to develop a deep vein thrombosis and have a diagnosis of asthma. With regard to mental health women with PCOS were twice as likely to have a diagnosis of stress and anxiety and depression. They were more likely to be a victim of self-harm and be involved with a land transport accidents. With regard to cancer; cervical cancer was diagnosed less frequently in women with PCOS, but they had an increased risk of cancer of the womb. The incidence of breast and skin cancers was no different between the groups. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM, Menopause, UCLA / 20.12.2014

Carolyn J. Crandall, MD, MS Professor of Medicine David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles UCLA Medicine/GIM Los Angeles, CA 90024MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Carolyn J. Crandall, MD, MS Professor of Medicine David Geffen School of Medicine UCLA Medicine/GIM Los Angeles, California 90024 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Crandall: In a large group of postmenopausal women aged 50-79, we found that women who reporting having hot flashes at baseline had increased risk of hip fracture during the subsequent 8 years of observation, nearly double the risk compared with women who did not have hot flashes at baseline. (more…)
Author Interviews, JCEM, Menopause, UCLA / 22.10.2014

Carolyn J. Crandall, MD, MS Professor of Medicine David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles UCLA Medicine/GIM Los Angeles, CA 90024MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Carolyn J. Crandall, MD, MS Professor of Medicine David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California UCLA Medicine/GIM Los Angeles, CA 90024 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Crandall: Clinical guidelines recommend that women aged ≥ 65 years should be screened for osteoporosis.  However, for younger postmenopausal women aged between 50 and 64 years, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends osteoporosis screening for women who have a 10-year predicted risk of osteoporosis fracture that is ≥9.3%.  We tested the ability the USPSTF strategy, and two other strategies (called OST and SCORE), to distinguish between women who did and did not experience a fracture in the subsequent 10 years.  We found that the USPSTF strategy did not identify the majority of who experienced osteoporotic fracture in the subsequent 10 years.  Especially in women aged 50-54 years, the USPSTF strategy identified fewer than 5% of women who experienced fracture over 10-year follow-up. (more…)
Author Interviews, JCEM, Lipids, Prostate Cancer / 13.10.2014

Emma H. Allott PhD Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine Cancer Prevention, Detection, and Control Program, Duke Cancer Institute Division of Urology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center Durham Durham, North Carolina.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Emma H. Allott PhD Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine Cancer Prevention, Detection, and Control Program, Duke Cancer Institute Division of Urology Veterans Affairs Medical Center Durham Durham, North Carolina. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Allott: Relative to normal triglyceride levels, high triglycerides (≥150 mg/dl) were associated with 35% increased risk of prostate cancer recurrence. In addition, we found that each 10 mg/dl increase in total serum cholesterol above the abnormal cut-off value of 200 mg/dl was associated with a 9% increased risk of prostate cancer recurrence, while each 10 mg/dl increase in HDL (high density lipoprotein; “good” cholesterol) below the abnormal cut-off value of 40 mg/dl was associated with a 39% increased risk of prostate cancer recurrence. These findings suggest that normalization, or even partial normalization, of serum lipid levels among men with dyslipidemia may reduce the risk of prostate cancer recurrence. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, JCEM / 06.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lu Chen, MPH Researcher in the Public Health Sciences Division Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Doctoral student in the Department of Epidemiology University of Washington School of Public Health Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Chen: We found no evidence that wearing a bra is associated with breast cancer risk. Further, breast cancer risk was not impacted by bra wearing frequency, wearing a bra with an underwire, or starting to wear a bra at a young age. (more…)
Author Interviews, JCEM, Weight Research / 28.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Cintia Cercato, MD, PhD and Emerson Leonildo Marques University of São Paulo in Brazil Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The major findings are that the cerebral metabolism of the obese compared to normal weight people is increasing. The fact that it can be increased means a greater chance of Alzheimer's disease, but bariatric surgery can reduce cerebral metabolism of obese. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Exercise - Fitness, JCEM / 13.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Sylvie Mesrine, Gynecologist, MD Inserm, CESP Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Nutrition, Hormones and Women's Health Team, Villejuif, France. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We wanted to disentangle the effect of recent physical activity (within the previous four years) from the effect of past physical activity (5-9 years earlier) on postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Our most important finding was that recreational/transport physical activity (including walking, cycling and engaging in other sports), even of modest intensity, seemed to have a rapid impact on breast cancer risk: it was quite rapidly associated with a decrease in breast cancer risk, which was however attenuated when activity stops. To our knowledge, our study is the first to independently assess the association between breast cancer risk and recreational physical activity both 5 to 9 years earlier and within the previous 4 years. Furthermore, the association of recent recreational physical activity and breast cancer risk decrease was observed whatever the recent levels of gardening or do-it yourself activities. (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, JCEM, Weight Research / 31.07.2014

Dr. Agatha van der Klaauw, PhD Wellcome Trust Postdoctoral Clinical Fellow Wellcome Trust-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories Addenbrooke's Hospital Cambridge, United KingdomMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Agatha van der Klaauw, PhD Wellcome Trust Postdoctoral Clinical Fellow Wellcome Trust-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories Addenbrooke's Hospital Cambridge, United Kingdom   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. van der Klaauw: Obesity occurs when we eat more calories than we burn which is often easy to do as many foods are highly palatable and high in calories. Highly palatable foods such as chocolate trigger signals in the brain that give a feeling of pleasure and reward (sometimes called cravings) which can contribute to overeating. These signals are processed in the reward centres in the brain, where sets of neurons release chemicals such as dopamine. However, very little is known about whether the reward centres of the brain work differently in some people who are overweight. In this study, we were interested in studying overweight people who had a problem with the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene. About 1% of obese people have a problem in this gene which contributes to weight gain from a young age. We compared three groups of people: people who were overweight due to a problem in the MC4R gene, people who were overweight but the gene was normal and some people who were normal weight. We performed functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans to look at how the reward centres in the brain were activated by pictures of appetizing food such as chocolate cake compared to bland food such as rice or broccoli and non-food items such as staplers. We found that in normal weight people, the reward centres are activated (light up) when they are shown pictures of cake or chocolate and the same was seen in overweight people with a problem in the MC4R gene. But we found that the reward centres were underactive in overweight volunteers (in whom the gene was normal). (more…)
Author Interviews, JCEM, Social Issues, Weight Research / 26.07.2014

Qi Zhang, Ph.D. Associate Professor School of Community and Environmental Health Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Qi Zhang, Ph.D. Associate Professor School of Community and Environmental Health Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Zhang: This study found the child-parent resemblance in body weight status varied by socio-demographics in the U.S. In short, the resemblance in BMI is weaker in minorities, older children and lower socioeconomic groups. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Health Care Systems, JCEM / 09.07.2014

Robert A. Vigersky, MD Walter Reed National Military Medical Center Bethesda, MDMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Robert A. Vigersky, MD Walter Reed National Military Medical Center Bethesda, MD Medical Research: What type of patients do endocrinologists typically treat and why is the demand for their services anticipated to grow? Dr. Vigersky: Endocrinologists are physicians trained in managing, diagnosing, and treating disorders of the endocrine system:  thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, hypophyseal and hypothalamic axes, ovaries, testes, and pancreas.  Their role involves controlling diabetes mellitus, menopause, hyperthyroidism and other conditions involving metabolism. A major factor affecting the anticipated demand for health care services is the aging population.  In 2010, there were 37.5 million people age 65 or over, constituting about 12.7 percent of the total population, and by 2025 the population age 65 or over will number 62.5 million (17.9 percent of the population).  Due to the greater prevalence of many of the diseases in older age groups, like osteoporosis, diabetes, obesity, and thyroid nodules, the growth in the population age 65 or over will exert a major influence on the demand for endocrine services. Diabetes, by itself, is a major driver of demand.  The incidence of Type 2 diabetes rises dramatically with age, and with obesity.  In an increasingly overweight population an estimated 22.3 million people in the U.S. are diagnosed with diabetes as of 2012, representing about 7 percent of the population. This estimate is higher than but consistent with those published by the CDC for 2010.  The percentage of the population with diagnosed diabetes continues to rise, with one study projecting that as many as one in three U.S. adults could have diabetes by 2050 if current trends continue. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM / 20.06.2014

Mette Andersen Nexø Psychologist, Ph.D. student at The National Research Center for the Working Environment Copenhagen Area, DenmarkMedicalResearch.com: Interview with Mette Andersen Nexø Psychologist, Ph.D. student at The National Research Center for the Working Environment Copenhagen Area, Denmark MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? Answer: The present study is a systematic assessment of the influence of a spectrum of thyroid diseases on ability to work. By presenting new information on the possible socioeconomic consequences of thyroid diseases, the results can help bring awareness to important needs for rehabilitation of thyroid patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JCEM / 16.06.2014

L. Keoki Williams, MD, MPH Center for Health Policy and Health Services Research Department of Internal Medicine Henry Ford Health System Detroit, Michigan 48104MedicalResearch.com Interview with L. Keoki Williams, MD, MPH Center for Health Policy and Health Services Research Department of Internal Medicine Henry Ford Health System Detroit, Michigan 48104 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Williams: Metformin is recommended as first line treatment for type 2 diabetes, and these recommendations are based on the results of clinical trials performed almost exclusively in white individuals.  This is the first study to specifically assess whether metformin is effective at reducing blood glucose levels in African American individuals.  In our large study of over 19,000 individuals, we showed that metformin was consistently more effective at reducing glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (a measure of long-term blood glucose control) in African Americans when compared with white individuals. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM / 31.05.2014

Prof. Stefano Palomba Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology University “Magna Graecia” of Catanzaro Catanzaro, ItalyMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Stefano Palomba Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology University “Magna Graecia” of Catanzaro Catanzaro, Italy MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Palomba: Our study demonstrates that simple markers of inflammation, commonly detectable in clinical practice with commercial kits, are significantly modified in women with PCOS during pregnancy and associated at an increased risk of complications during pregnancy in the same population with PCOS. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, JCEM, Menopause / 24.05.2014

Unab I. Khan, M.B.,B.S., M.S.            Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Family & Social Medicine Division of Adolescent Medicine The Children’s Hospital at Montefiore The Pediatric Hospital for Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, NY 10467MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Unab I. Khan, M.B.,B.S., M.S.   Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Family & Social Medicine Division of Adolescent Medicine The Children’s Hospital at Montefiore The Pediatric Hospital for Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, NY 10467 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Khan: We wanted to find factors that lead to either an increase or decrease in risk of developing cardiovascular disease. We found that in middle aged overweight and obese women, who may not have any medical problems like diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, an increase in weight over time and the development of any of the conditions stated above, increased the risk of cardiovascular disease significantly. On the other hand, even moderate physical activity decreased the risk of heart disease, even in the presence of the above stated conditions. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JCEM, Vitamin D / 01.05.2014

Hui Wang, M.D., Ph.D., Professor Principal Investigator Director, Food Safety Research Center Institute for Nutritional Sciences, SIBS, CASMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Hui Wang, M.D., Ph.D., Professor Principal Investigator Director, Food Safety Research Center Institute for Nutritional Sciences, SIBS, CAS MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?
 Dr. Wang: 
This meta-analysis has systematically reviewed 25 relevant studies composed of 17,332 cancer cases to give a comprehensive perspective on the relationship between vitamin D and cancer patient outcomes. Our result demonstrated that vitamin D levels are linked to better outcomes in several types of cancer patients. The strongest link was found in breast cancer, lymphoma and colorectal cancer. There was less evidence of a connection in people with lung cancer, gastric cancer, prostate cancer, leukemia, melanoma or Merkel cell carcinoma, but the available data were positive. We also found that a 10 nmol/L increase in vitamin D levels was tied to a 4 percent increase in survival among people with cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM / 28.04.2014

Dr. Dorte Glintborg PhD Senior Hospital Physician, PhD Dorte Glintborg, Department of Endocrinology, OUH Odense University HospitalMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Dorte Glintborg PhD Senior Hospital Physician, PhD Dorte Glintborg, Department of Endocrinology, OUH Odense University Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Glintborg: The main finding of the study is that one year’s metformin treatment is associated with a minor but significant weight loss in patients with PCOS irrespective of BMI at study inclusion. Treatment with oral contraceptives improves sex-hormone levels but is associated with at minor weight gain. Based on the study results, clinicians should consider the combined treatment with metformin and oral contraceptives in patients with PCOS. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM / 16.04.2014

Kai-Jen Tien, MD Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Chi Mei Medical Center Assistant Professor, Center of General Education Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science Tainan, TaiwanMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kai-Jen Tien, MD Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine,  Chi Mei Medical Center Assistant Professor, Center of General Education Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science Tainan, Taiwan MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer:  We conducted the first and largest population-based cohort study to evaluate the association of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and osteoporosis in a 6-year follow-up investigation of an Asian population. OSA is characterized by repetitive episodes of apnea/hypopnea and hypoxia in tissue, which might impact the bone metabolism. The results of the study showed that patients with obstructive sleep apnea had 2.74 times the risk of osteoporosis than patents without obstructive sleep apnea after adjustment for the patient`s characteristics and comorbidities. Across all age groups and sex groups, individuals with OSA had higher incidence rate of osteoporosis than individuals without obstructive sleep apnea. Subgroup analysis showed that older patients and female patients had a higher risk for osteoporosis than their younger and male counterparts. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM, Testosterone / 23.11.2013

Dr Bu Beng Yeap   MBBS, FRACP, PhD Professor, School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia Endocrinologist, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Fremantle Hospital. School of Medicine and Pharmacology
Level 2, T Block, Fremantle Hospital, Alma Street, Fremantle, Western Australia 6160, AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Bu Beng Yeap   MBBS, FRACP, PhD Professor, School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia Endocrinologist, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Fremantle Hospital. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found that older men with testosterone levels in the middle of the range had the lowest mortality risk. Having a low testosterone level predicted higher mortality, and there was no benefit of having a high-normal testosterone level. Men with optimal rather than high testosterone levels lived longest. The other important finding was that men with higher dihydrotestosterone levels had lower mortality from ischaemic heart disease, suggesting that androgens may protect against heart disease in older men. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease, JCEM, Weight Research / 21.11.2013

Carlos Lorenzo, MD Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center 7703 Floyd Curl Drive San Antonio, Texas 78229MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Carlos Lorenzo, MD Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center 7703 Floyd Curl Drive San Antonio, Texas 78229 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lorenzo: Metabolically healthy obese individuals are at increased risk of developing of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These findings were demonstrated in men and women and in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Management of excess weight and any metabolic abnormality appears to be important for all individuals. Our study is also in agreement with previous studies that indicate that metabolically unhealthy normal weight individuals are at increased risk of developing of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, JCEM, Weight Research / 28.08.2013

MedialResearch.com Interview with: Dr Catherine M. Phillips Health Research Board Centre for Diet and Health Research Room 4.033, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health Western Gateway Building, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland MedialResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Obesity is associated with increased risk of diabetes and heart disease leading to reduced life expectancy. However in recent years it has been recognized that not all obese individuals are at increased risk – these individuals have been described as being metabolically healthy obese (MHO) in that despite carrying excess weight they do not have the typical abnormal metabolic features associated with obesity such as hypertension, insulin resistance and alterations to their lipid profile. It is not clear what factors determine whether an obese person becomes metabolically healthy or unhealthy. In this study conducted at the Dept. of Epidemiology and Public Health at University College Cork, Ireland, we examined levels of a range of inflammatory markers in 2047 middle-aged Irish adults to investigate to what extent differences between metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese and non-obese male and female adults are explained by inflammatory status. Participants, who were between the ages of 50 and 69, completed lifestyle questionnaires, physical and clinical assessments, and underwent blood testing so their body mass index (BMI), metabolic profiles and inflammatory markers could be determined. We found that, regardless of a person’s BMI, having a favorable inflammatory profile was associated with being metabolically healthy. Specifically metabolically healthy individuals presented with lower levels of complement component 3, C reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, reduced white blood cell count and higher adiponectin levels compared to their metabolically unhealthy counterparts. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Exercise - Fitness, JCEM / 24.08.2013

Thomas P. J. Solomon, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Biomedical Sciences Department of Biomedical Sciences | Cellular & Metabolic Research Section Panum Institute 4.5 | University of Copenhagen | Blegdamsvej 3B | 2200 Copenhagen N | DenmarkMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Thomas P. J. Solomon, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Biomedical Sciences Department of Biomedical Sciences | Cellular & Metabolic Research Section Panum Institute 4.5 | University of Copenhagen | Blegdamsvej 3B | 2200 Copenhagen N | Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Solomon: The main findings were that when impaired glucose tolerant and type 2 diabetic subjects underwent 3-4 months of regular aerobic exercise training, although the majority of subjects (86-90%) increased increased VO2max, lost weight, and increased insulin sensitivity, only around two-thirds of subjects improved glycemic control (HbA1c, fasting glucose, and 2-hour OGTT glucose). The novel finding was that the changes in glycemic control were congruent with changes in oral glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). We also found that exercise training-induced changes in glycemic control were related to changes in GSIS (P0.05), but not insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, we found that training-induced improvements in glycemic control were largest in subjects with greater pre-training GSIS, i.e. in subjects with greatest beta-cell function. And, we noted that high pre-training hyperglycemia blunted exercise-induced improvements in beta-cell compensation for insulin resistance. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JCEM, OBGYNE, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Sleep Disorders / 22.08.2013

Sirimon Reutrakul MD Section of Endocrinology Department of Medicine Rush University Medical Center Chicago, Illinois 60612MedicalResearch.com: Interview with Sirimon Reutrakul MD Section of Endocrinology Department of Medicine Rush University Medical Center Chicago, Illinois 60612   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found a strong association between obstructive sleep apnea and gestational diabetes mellitus. In pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes, the risk of obstructive sleep apnea is increased nearly 7-fold compared to those without gestational diabetes.  In addition, we found that in non-diabetic women, pregnancy is associated with more disrupted sleep. (more…)