Our Brains Are Hardwired To Prefer the Sofa to the Gym

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“sleeping” by Venturist is licensed under CC BY 2.0Matthieu Boisgontier  PhD

Movement Control & Neuroplasticity Research Group
KU Leuven
Brain Behaviour Laboratory
University of British Columbia, Canada

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: For decades, society has encouraged people to be more physically active. Yet, despite gradually scaling up actions promoting physical activity across the years, we are actually becoming less active. From 2010 to 2016, the number of inactive adults has increased by 5% worldwide, now affecting more than 1 in 4 adults (1.4 billion people). This context raised the question: Why do we still fail to be more physically active?

Our hypothesis was that this failure is explained by an “exercise paradox” in which conscious and automatic processes in the brain come into conflict. To illustrate this paradox, you can think of people taking the elevator or escalator when they go to the gym, which does not make sense. This non-sense, this paradox, could be due to the fact that their intention to exercise come into conflict with an automatic attraction to resting in the elevator.

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Helping Soccer Coaches Teach How To ‘Read The Field’

“Girl Playing Soccer” by Bold Content is licensed under CC BY 2.0MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Craig Pulling. MSc, PGCE, BA (Hons), FHEA
Head of Physical Education
University of Chichester

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Successful perceptual-cognitive skill in team-sports such as football requires players to pick up task-relevant information during the control of action in complex and dynamic situations. It has been proposed that players could perform visual exploratory activity (VEA) to be able to recognise important cues in the playing environment. VEA is defined as:

“A body and/or head movement in which the player’s face is actively and temporarily directed away from the ball, seemingly with the intention of looking for teammates, opponents or other environmental objects or events, relevant to perform a subsequent action with the ball” (Jordet, 2005, p.143).

Research has suggested that VEA is an important facet of skilled performance in youth and adult football. However, it is currently unknown whether such evidence is commensurate with the views of coaches and whether coaching practices are utilised to develop VEA in training.

In order to further current understanding on VEA and coaching practices, the present study developed an online survey to examine:
(i) when VEA should be introduced in coaching;
(ii) how VEA is delivered by coaches and
(iii) how coaches evaluate VEA.

Further, this study aimed to explore whether distinct groups of football coaches existed who differed in their approach to the delivery of VEA training and, if so, whether there were differences in the demographics of the coaches across these differentiated groups.

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Tai Ji Quan Can Reduce Falls in Elderly

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Peter A. Harmer, PhD., MPH., ATC., FACSM Professor - Department of Exercise & Health Science Willamette University

Dr. Harmer

Peter A. Harmer, PhD., MPH., ATC., FACSM
Professor – Department of Exercise & Health Science
Willamette University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Falls in older adults have long been a significant healthcare problem associated with loss of independence, premature morbidity and mortality, and considerable financial strain on individuals and healthcare systems. With the demographic impact of the Baby Boom generation aging into retirement, this issue is becoming even more critical. Among potential prevention strategies, exercise has been proposed to be beneficial. However, establishing what types of exercise are suitable to the task has been problematic. More importantly, identifying differences in the effectiveness of various exercise approaches has been lacking.

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Leg cycling and electrical muscle stimulation for the critically ill? Still many peaks to climb up

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“cycling” by Urs Steiner is licensed under CC BY 2.0Guillaume Fossat, Physiotherapist and
Thierry Boulain, M.D.
Médecine Intensive Réanimation
Centre Hospitalier Régional
Orléans, France

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Critically ill patients may suffer terrific muscle wasting during their intensive care unit stay. In most patients, particularly those with sepsis or other high inflammatory states, this is due to proteolytic pathways runaway that may persist as long as the cause of inflammation has not been eliminated. What is more, forced rest, as the one imposed to severely ill patients who need sedation to tolerate artificial respiratory support also induces muscle deconditioning and mass loss. In short, the more you are severely and acutely ill, the more you breakdown your muscle proteins and use the catabolic byproducts to fuel the rest of your organism. As a result of this sort of autophagy, intensive care unit survivors may have lost tens of muscle mass kilograms at discharge, to the point that they have lost all or parts of their functional autonomy. The personal and social burden is considerable as muscle weakness may persist several years after hospital discharge.

In the 2000’s, physiotherapy and early rehabilitation during intensive care have emerged as a way to counteract the autophagic muscle wasting and help patients to speed up their return to functional autonomy. Therefore, a standardized early rehabilitation that consists in early muscle exercises, systematic lowering or interruption of sedative drugs dosages to allow prompt patient’s awaking, early transfer to chair and early first walk try, has become the standard of care. However, to what extent, when and how muscles should be exercised during the intensive care unit stay in order to optimize the positive effects of rehabilitation remains a nearly blank clinical research area.

In-bed leg cycling and electrical muscle stimulation, each for their part, have shown encouraging results. In our study, we sought to know if the very early combination of both could improve global muscle strength in survivors at intensive care unit discharge.

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Gym Tanners More Likely To Show Signs of “Tanning Addiction.”

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Sherry Pagoto, PhD
Director, UConn Center for mHealth and Social Media
President, Society of Behavioral Medicine
UConn Institute for Collaboration in Health, Interventions, and Policy
Professor, Department of Allied Health Sciences
University of Connecticut
Storrs, CT 06268

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Recent research has shown that while physical activity is associated with reduced risk for many cancers, it is associated with an increased risk for melanoma. We are not sure why this is the case, however, we have noticed that popular gym chains (e.g., Planet Fitness) often offer tanning beds, which are carcinogenic.

We surveyed over 600 people who had used a tanning bed at least once in their life to see how many had used tanning beds in gyms. About one-quarter had used tanning beds in gyms and those folks actually tanned significantly more than people who had not tanned in gyms.  Gym tanners were also more likely to show signs of “tanning addiction.”  We also found an association between tanning and physical activity, such that the people who were the most physically active were the heaviest tanners.  Continue reading

How Fit You Are May Depend On The Bacteria in Your Gut

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

James R. Bagley, PhD Assistant Professor of Kinesiology Director, Muscle Physiology Lab Co-Director, Exercise Physiology Lab Research Director, Strength & Conditioning Lab San Francisco State University

Dr. Bagley

James R. Bagley, PhD
Assistant Professor of Kinesiology
Director, Muscle Physiology Lab
Co-Director, Exercise Physiology Lab
Research Director, Strength & Conditioning Lab
San Francisco State University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The human body contains many billions of bacteria cells, and the type of bacteria in your gastrointestinal tract (termed gut microbiota) has been linked to certain diseases.

Most of your gut microbiota falls into two categories: Firmicutes (F) or Bacteroidetes (B). The relative gut F/B ratio has been used to assess microbiota health. Our study was the first to examine potential relationships among F/B ratio and cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and diet in healthy young men and women

We recruited 37 healthy adults to undergo a battery of physiological tests and collected stool samples to analyze their gut F/B ratio using qPCR.

We found that F/B ratio was significantly correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness, but with no other variables. In fact, this correlation was so strong that a person’s fitness level explained ~22% of the variance in their gut bacteria composition. Continue reading

Genetic Factors Control Heart Rate in Response to Exercise

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Professor Patricia Munroe PhD Professor of Molecular Medicine William Harvey Research Institute Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry Queen Mary University of London

Prof. Munroe

Prof. Patricia Munroe PhD
Professor of Molecular Medicine
William Harvey Research Institute
Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry
Queen Mary University of London

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Over the years, it has become increasingly evident that impaired capacity to increase heart rate during exercise and reduce heart rate following exercise are important predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. A person’s capability to regulate their heart rate is the result of complex interactions of biological systems, including the autonomic nervous and hormonal systems. Prior work has demonstrated that genetic factors significantly contribute to variations in resting heart rate among different individuals, but less was known about the genetic factors modulating the response of heart rate to exercise and recovery.

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When Do Organized Activities for Kids Become Too Much?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Sharon Wheeler PhD

Dr Sharon Wheeler PhD Lecturer in Sport, Physical Activity and Health Department of Sport and Physical Activity Faculty of Arts and Sciences Edge Hill University Lancashire

Dr. Wheeler

Lecturer in Sport, Physical Activity and Health
Department of Sport and Physical Activity
Faculty of Arts and Sciences
Edge Hill University
Lancashire

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: It is well-known that family background and parents’ investment in their children has a big impact on a number of outcomes, including how well people do at school, the jobs they get, and how they spend their leisure time. It is also known that it is middle-class parents who tend to work particularly hard to make sure their children get on in life.

This research starts to question whether parents’ investment in their children’s organised activities is having the desired impact. Parents initiate and facilitate their children’s participation in organised activities as it shows that they are a ‘good’ parent and they hope such activities will benefit their children in both short-term (keeping fit and healthy, developing friendship groups) and long-term ways (getting jobs, having lots of opportunities in the future).

The reality, which has been highlighted in this research, is that while children might experience some of these benefits, a busy organised activity schedule can put considerable strain on parents’ resources and families’ relationships, as well as potentially harm children’s development and well-being.

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Does Exercise Slow Dementia?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Prof. Sarah E Lamb,  MSc, MA, MCSP, Grad Dip Statistics, DPhil Centre for Rehabilitation Research and Centre for Statistics in Medicine Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics Rheumatology & Musculoskeletal Sciences Botnar Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford

Prof. Lamb

Prof. Sarah E Lamb,  MSc, MA, MCSP, Grad Dip Statistics, DPhil
Centre for Rehabilitation Research and Centre for Statistics in Medicine
Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics Rheumatology & Musculoskeletal Sciences
Botnar Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Scientists and clinicians have considered the possibility that higher intensity aerobic and muscle strength training might have a beneficial effect in preventing dementia or slowing the progression of cognitive impairment in those who have dementia.

The hypothesis has come mostly from animal research.

The main findings of our research which used a large sample and high quality methods was that higher intensity exercise, whilst possible, did not slow cognitive impairment. Neither did it have an impact on the functional and behavioural outcomes for people with dementia. It was a substantial commitment for people to participate in the programmes, although many enjoyed the experience and their physical fitness improved.

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Resistance Exercise Training May Alleviate Some Depressive Symptoms

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“gym” by FooJFoo is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 3.0Mr. Brett R. Gordon, M.Sc.

Postgraduate researcher
Physical Education and Sport Sciences Department
University of Limerick, Ireland. 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Depression is prevalent, burdensome, and often comorbid mood disorder that is associated with other poor health outcomes. Exercise training interventions have demonstrated comparable efficacy for depressive symptoms to frontline treatments, such as antidepressant medications and behavioral therapies.

However, the evidence to date has primarily focused on findings from studies of aerobic exercise training like jogging, running, and cycling. Our work is the first quantitative summary of the effects of resistance exercise training (RET), or weight lifting and strength training, on depressive symptoms, and the influence of variables like participant characteristics, features of the RET, and the methods that were used in studies on the antidepressant effects of RET.

The main finding was that resistance exercise training significantly reduced depressive symptoms among adults regardless of their health status, the total prescribed volume of RET (e.g., how much the participants were supposed to exercise), or whether or not strength was significantly improved by the RET intervention.  Continue reading

Yoga Breathing Really Does Help You Focus – Namaste!

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Open Space Yoga Hawaii” by Open Space Yoga Hawaii is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Michael Christopher Melnychuk PhD candidate
Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience
Trinity, Dublin 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Practitioners of yoga have claimed for some 2,500 years, that respiration influences the mind. In our study we looked for a neurophysiological link that could help explain these claims by measuring breathing, reaction time, and brain activity in a small area in the brainstem called the locus coeruleus. We chose to focus on the locus coeruleus because this area and the chemical it produces play intimate roles in both attention and respiration.

The locus coeruleus produces noradrenaline and releases it to the entire brain. This neurotransmitter functions as an all-purpose action system. When we are stressed we produce too much noradrenaline and we can’t focus. When we feel sluggish, we produce too little and again, we can’t focus. There is a sweet spot of noradrenaline in which our emotions, thinking and memory are much clearer.  Continue reading

Every Pitch Should Count

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Pitching Crop” by slgckgc is licensed under CC BY 2.0Jason L. Zaremski, MD, CAQSM, FACSM, FAAPMR

Assistant Professor│Divisions of PM&R, Sports Medicine, & Research
Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation
Co-Medical Director Adolescent & High School Outreach Program
University of Florida College of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Throwing injuries are common in baseball and can be caused by excessive pitch counts, year-round pitching, and pitching with arm pain and fatigue. Despite the evidence, pitching injuries among high school players have not decreased. With a multitude of research in overhead throwers, yet the volume of overuse throwing injuries not decreasing, our team suspected there was a missing workload factor in baseball pitchers. Therefore, our team conducted research to determine whether an important factor was being overlooked: volume of pitches thrown during warm-up between innings and bullpen activity in high school varsity baseball pitchers.

In the study, our team counted all pitches thrown off a mound during varsity high school baseball games played by 34 different high schools in North Central Florida during the 2017 season. After counting nearly 14,000 pitches in 115 pitch outings, our team found that 42% of the pitches thrown off a mound were not accounted for in the pitch counts, and that there is a large variability of bullpen pitches being thrown from pitcher to pitcher. Even with a greater focus on pitch counts as a way to prevent injuries, a substantial number of pitches are going unaccounted for in high school players as part of warm-up and bullpen activity.

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Performance Drops Along With Weight on Ketogenic Diets

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Edward "Ted" Weiss, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Nutrition and Dietetics Saint Louis University Saint Louis MO 63104

Dr. Weiss

Edward “Ted” Weiss, Ph.D.
Professor
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics
Saint Louis University
Saint Louis MO 63104

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Ketogenic diets are popular. They are very low in carbohydrate, with moderate protein and large amounts of fat. They are popular for weight loss but definitive studies of this are lacking.

We tested the effects of a ketogenic diet on high-intensity exercise performance, such as sprinting. The result showed that the ketogenic diet was harmful to performance, reducing performance by 6 – 7% when compared to a high-carbohydrate diet.

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More Heart Attacks In Younger Men Following Canadian Hockey Games

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Wings Hawks Game 2-11” by Michael Kumm is licensed under CC BY 2.0

Hung Q. Ly, M.D., S.M., FRCPC

President, Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology
Program Director, Adult Cardiology Postgraduate Training Program
Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine
Interventional Cardiology Division,
Dept. of Medicine, Montreal Heart Institute, Montréal, Québec, Canada

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Prior scientific reports have discussed the association between major sporting events and cardiovascular events, irrespective of the sport.

Ours is the first to report an increase in hospital admission rates for heart attacks in men younger than 55yo in the day following a hockey game.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response:  Emotional stress and lifestyle habits/behavioural patterns surrounding the spectatorship of hockey (i.e. drinking, unhealthy eating patterns, etc.) might make some Hockey (sports) fans more susceptible to heart attacks. We report a statistically significant increase in the incidence of heart attacks in young men watching the sport. This was an association that we manage to document but not an actual causal relationship. 

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response:  (1) Ascertain causality: Document that the “watching/attending a hockey game” was indeed an activity that the patient presenting with a heart attack did indeed do; (2) randomize sports fan to lifestyle changes and/or stress management strategies to explore if there is a decrease in cardiovascular events around the time of a sporting event. 

MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add? 

Response:  (1) I am a hardcore, diehard (no pun intended) Montreal Canadiens fan, which motivated me to perform this analysis; (2) We accounted for the effect of harsh winter conditions as a potential confounder of the increase in hospital rate admission for heart attacks; (3) we were quite surprised that victory, instead of defeat, lead to an increase in events; (4)  I have to conflict of interest to declare.

Citations:

Caroline E. Gebhard, Catherine Gebhard, Foued Maafi, Marie-Jeanne Bertrand, Barbara E. Stähli, Karin Wildi, Zurine Galvan, Aurel Toma, Zheng W. Zhang, David Smith, Hung Q. Ly. Hockey Games and the Incidence of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/j.cjca.2017.12.028

The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

 

Every Minute Counts! Short Bursts of Physical Activity Reduces Mortality

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Pedro F. Saint-Maurice, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Fellow Metabolic Epidemiology Branch Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics National Cancer Institute, NIH, HHS Rockville, MD 20850

Dr. Saint-Maurice

Pedro F. Saint-Maurice, Ph.D.
Postdoctoral Fellow
Metabolic Epidemiology Branch
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics
National Cancer Institute, NIH, HHS
Rockville, MD 20850

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

 Response: The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommends adults do 150 minutes/week of moderate intensity physical activity (PA) in increments of at least 10 minutes at a time. However, there is limited epidemiologic evidence supporting the use of the 10-minute increment and whether shorter increments (for instance walking up the stairs) can also be beneficial for health in adults. We looked at accelerometer-measured physical activity in roughly 5,000 adults (40 and older) representative of the US population and followed them prospectively (over 7 years) to determine whether physical activity accumulated in 10-minute increments, but also accumulated in shorter bursts, were associated with lower risk of death (mortality data came from the National Death Index). Continue reading

Fit Obese Patients Can Be Healthy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Elliptical Stationary Bikes GVSU Winter Hall Exercise Center 2-4-15” by Steven Depolo is licensed under CC BY 2.0Jennifer L. Kuk, PhD

Associate Professor
York University
School of Kinesiology and Health Science
Sherman Health Science Research Centre
Toronto, Ontario  

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

– The benefits of fitness are well know, but it was unclear whether the benefits applied to those with severe obesity.  This is even more important give that the health risks associated with severe obesity are exponentially higher than in mild obesity.  Fitness in this study was defined as the top 80% of a normal population.This means that unfit is the bottom 20%.  In the past, research has shown that this threshold of fitness is associated with the biggest health benefits.

– We see that 40% of individuals with mild obesity are fit, while 11% of those with severe obesity are fit.  Individuals with high fitness had no differences in health risk, despite the large differences in obesity (~50-100 pounds).  Conversely, those within the unfit group did have significantly higher glucose, blood pressure and lipids with higher obesity levels.

In other words, fitness was able to protect individuals with severe obesity from many of the expected negative health consequences.  Continue reading

Swearing Makes You Stronger @#%^&!

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Good example of Crossfit Weight lifting - In Crossfit Always lift until you reach the point of Failure or you tear something” by CrossfitPaleoDietFitnessClasses is licensed under CC BY 2.0Dr Richard Stephens Senior Lecturer in Psychology

BSc Psychology Programme Director
Keele University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We had previously found that most people are able to tolerate having their hand in ice cold water for longer if they are repeating a swear word compared with repeating a neutral word. In these studies we have also reliably seen an increase in heart rate when swearing, indicating that activation of the fight or flight response is most likely to be what brings about the pain tolerance effects of swearing.

This latest study was designed to see if fight or flight effects of swearing would produce increase performance of physical power and strength tasks. We showed that swearing aloud can give people a boost in terms of physical performance. However, We expected that the effect would be brought about via the fight or flight response (i.e. elevated autonomic nervous system arousal), which is associated with increased adrenalin. But none of the biological measures that we took (e.g. heart rate) were  consistent with that. There was no evidence of a fight or flight response. So perhaps the effect is more psychological, perhaps associated with pain relief from swearing, or else a general disinhibition brought about by swearing in which people just “go for it” a little harder.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report? 

Response: People already know to turn to the register of the swear words when they really need to succeed – look at cyclists powering up hills muttering oaths under their breath! In some ways we have verified verified objectively what is a well known way to get a boost. People can partake of swearing knowing that there is evidence that it can help them with physical performance.  

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: We are currently assessing the effects of swearing on a range of common exercises such as sit ups and push ups. we also intend to assess effects of swearing on physical performance that is less dependent on strength and power such as tasks requiring dexterity or co-ordination (e.g. dancing).

MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add?

 Response: The research was unfunded research carried out by student volunteers at LIU Brooklyn and Keele University. I’d like to say a big thank you to the student volunteers – both investigators and participants!

Crowdfunding website address:- http://swearingmakesyoustronger.bigcartel.com/   People can buy hats and t shirts with the logo “Swearing Makes You Stronger” with the proceeds used to fund further studies in this area (and a charitable donation). 

Citations: Psychology of Sport and Exercise

Volume 35, March 2018, Pages 111-117

Effect of swearing on strength and power performance☆

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.11.014

RichardStephensaDavid K.SpiererbEmmanuelKatehisb

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1469029216301352

 

 

 

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The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

 

Frequent Exertion and Frequent Standing at Work Varies By Industry and Occupation Group

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Taylor M. Shockey, MPH

Title 42 Fellow
Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies
NIOSH

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Research has linked repeated exposure to occupational ergonomic hazards, such as frequent exertion and frequent standing, to injuries and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among workers.

To determine the industry and occupation groups that have the highest prevalence rates of frequent exertion at work and frequent standing at work, NIOSH researchers analyzed 2015 National Health Interview Survey data. The results showed large differences among the groups with the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting industry group having the highest prevalence of frequent exertion and standing at work (70.9%) and the construction and extraction occupation group having the highest prevalence of frequent exertion and standing at work (76.9%). These differences indicate a need for targeted interventions to reduce workplace exposure.

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“11+ Kids” Program Reduces Soccer Injuries in Children

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Spring Soccer” by terren in Virginia is licensed under CC BY 2.0Roland Rössler PhD

Postdoctoral Fellow
Dept of Public and Occupational Health
Amsterdam Collaboration on Health and Safety in Sports
VU University Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Previous studies have shown that exercise-based injury prevention programmes can reduce the number of sport injuries. However, no previous study investigated the prevention of football (soccer) injuries in children under the age of 14 years [1], even though the number of football players under 14 years of age could be estimated as around 15 million worldwide. In comparison, only about 100,000 players, so 150 times less, are considered professional players (earning enough money to live from playing football). The large number of children playing football and the fact that every year about 10% of these players sustain an injury, indicates the relevance of injury prevention in this population.

Based on the existing “11+” programme (that has been designed for players from the age of 14 years onwards) and our epidemiological data on injuries in football players under 14 years of age [2, 3], we developed and pilot tested an injury prevention programme for 7- to 13-year-old children (called “11+ Kids”) with an international group of experts.[4]

We designed the present cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate whether the “11+ Kids” programme reduces the incidence of injuries in children’s football.

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Sauna Bathing as a Positive Way To Improve Cardiac Health

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Sauna • 10 Ellen Street” by Tracey Appleton is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Prof. Jari A. Laukkanen MD, PhD
Cardiologist, Department of Medicine
Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition
University of Eastern Finland
Kuopio, Finland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We have shown that sauna bathing is associated with a variety of health benefits, based on a large population study.

Using an experimental setting this time, the research group now investigated the physiological mechanisms through which the heat exposure of sauna may explain positive effects on cardiovascular system.

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Review Finds Antioxidant Supplements of Little to No Benefit in Exercise Recovery

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Pills Vitamins Macro April 22, 2012 4” by Steven Depolo is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Dr Mayur Ranchordas, SFHEA
Senior Lecturer in Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Sport Nutrition Consultant
Chair of the Sport and Exercise Research Ethics Group
Sheffield Hallam University
Academy of Sport and Physical Activity
Faculty of Health and Wellbeing
Sheffield

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? 

Response: People engaging in intense exercise often take antioxidant supplements, such as vitamin C and/or E or antioxidant-enriched foods, before and after exercise in the anticipation that these will help reduce muscle soreness. In a new review published in the Cochrane Library we looked at the evidence from 50 studies. These all compared high-dose antioxidant supplementation with a placebo and their participants all engaged in strenuous exercise that was sufficient to cause muscle soreness. Of the 1089 participants included in the review, nearly nine out of ten of these were male and most participants were recreationally active or moderately trained.

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Doing Something Is Better Than Nothing: Even Light Physical Activity Improves Health

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Michael J. LaMonte, PhD, MPH Research Associate Professor Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health Co-Director, MPH Program (epidemiology) School of Public Health and Health Professions Women’s Health Initiative Clinic University at Buffalo – SUNY 

Dr. LaMonte

Michael J. LaMonte, PhD, MPH
Research Associate Professor
Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health
Co-Director, MPH Program (epidemiology)
School of Public Health and Health Professions
Women’s Health Initiative Clinic
University at Buffalo – SUNY 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Current national public health guidelines recommend 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity a week for adults. The guidelines recommend persons 65 and older follow the adult guidelines to the degree their abilities and conditions allow. Some people, because of age or illness or deconditioning, are not able to do more strenuous activity. Current guidelines do not specifically encourage light activity because the evidence base to support such a recommendation has been lacking.

Results from the Objective Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health (OPACH) Study, an ancillary study to the U.S. Women’s Health Initiative, recently published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society showed women ages 65-99 who engaged in regular light intensity physical activities had a reduction in the risk of mortality. The 6,000 women in the OPACH study wore an activity-measuring device called an accelerometer on their hip for seven days while going about their daily activities and were then followed for up to four and a half years.  Results showed that just 30 additional minutes of light physical activity per day lowered mortality risk by 12 percent while 30 additional minutes of moderate activity, such as brisk walking or bicycling at a leisurely pace, exhibited a 39 percent lower risk. 

The finding for lower mortality risk associated with light intensity activity truly is remarkable. We anticipated seeing mortality benefit associated with regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity, as supported by current public health guidelines. But, observing significantly lower mortality among women who were active at levels only slightly higher than what defines being sedentary was such a novel finding with important relevance to population health.

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Wearable Device Study Confirms Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity Linked To Decreased Mortality

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

I-Min Lee, MD, ScD Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Professor of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Brigham and Women's Hospital Boston, MA 02215

Dr. Lee

I-Min Lee, MD, ScD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Professor of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Boston, MA 02215

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The fact that physical activity lowers the risk of premature mortality is not a new fact – we have many studies showing this.  However, previous studies have primarily relied on self-reported physical activity, and self-reports tend to be imprecise.  Based on these self-report studies, we know that physical activity is associated with a 20-30% reduction in mortality rates.  And, these self-report studies also have focused on moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, since they are more reliably reported than lighter intensity activity.  We have little information on whether light-intensity activities (e.g., light household chores, very slow walking such as when strolling and window shopping) are associated with lower mortality rates.

We now have “wearables” – devices that can more precisely measure physical activity at low (as well as higher) intensities, and sedentary behavior.  The present study, conducted between 2011 and 2015, investigated a large cohort of older women (n=16,741; mean age, 72 years)  who were asked to wear these devices for a week – thus, providing detailed physical activity and sedentary behavior measures.  During an average follow-up of about two-and-a-half years, 207 women died.  The study confirmed that physical activity is related to lower mortality rates.

What is new and important is how strong this association is when we have more precise measures of physical activity – the most active women had a 60-70% reduction in mortality rates, compared with the least active, during the study.  For context, non-smokers have about a 50% risk reduction, compared to smokers, which is why patients (and doctors) should pay attention to being physically active.

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Exercise, Vision Testing and Osteoporosis Evaluation Are Keys To Fall Prevention

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Andrea C. Tricco PhD, MSc Scientist and Lead of the Knowledge Synthesis Team Associate Professor Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto Associate Editor Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, BMC Medical Research Methodology, Systematic Reviews

Dr. Tricco

Andrea C. Tricco PhD, MSc
Scientist and Lead of the Knowledge Synthesis Team
Associate Professor Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto
Associate Editor Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, BMC Medical Research Methodology, Systematic Reviews

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Falls are the leading cause of injury among older adults and account for $2 billion in direct health-care costs annually ($31 billion in costs to Medicare in the United States in 2012). We aimed to determine which types of fall-prevention programs may be effective for reducing falls in older people.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: Exercise, along with vision assessment and treatment, as well as an assessment and possible modification of a person’s living environment, reduced the risk of injurious falls by 23% compared to usual care.

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Traumatic Brain Injuries In Baseball Can Be Catastrophic, and Mostly Preventable With Universal Helmet Use

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Michael D. Cusimano MD, FRCSC, DABNS, FACS, PhD, MHPE Adjunct Scientist in the Keenan Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital Division of Neurosurgery, St. Michael\'s Hospital Professor of Neurosurgery, Education and Public Health University of Toronto

Dr. Cusimano

Michael D. Cusimano MD, FRCSC, DABNS, FACS, PhD, MHPE
Adjunct Scientist in the Keenan Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael’s Hospital
Division of Neurosurgery, St. Michael\’s Hospital
Professor of Neurosurgery, Education and Public Health
University of Toronto

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Baseball is played by millions annually and is traditionally seen as a low risk sport for head injury when compared to sports like American Football, Ice Hockey and Rugby. Over 6 million children and youth are enrolled in formal baseball or softball leagues annually.

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