Drug Overdoses and Mental Disorders Tied to Drop in Longevity in US

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Samuel Preston, Ph.D. Professor of Sociology University of Pennsylvania 

Dr. Preston

Samuel Preston, Ph.D.
Professor of Sociology
University of Pennsylvania

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Life expectancy at birth in the United States is low by international standards and has been declining in recent years. Our study aimed to identify how these trends differed by age, sex, cause of death, metropolitan status, and region.

We found that, over the period 2009-11 to 2014-16, mortality rose at ages 25-44 in large metropolitan areas and their suburbs as well as in smaller metropolitan areas and non-metropolitan areas. Mortality at ages 45-64 also rose in all of these areas except large metropolitan areas. These were the ages responsible for declining life expectancy.

Changes in life expectancy were particularly adverse for non-metropolitan areas and for women. The metropolitan distinctions in mortality changes were similar from region to region.

The cause of death contributing most strongly to mortality declines was drug overdose for males and mental and nervous system disorders for women. Continue reading

Walking Pace Addresses Fit versus Fat Debate

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
sneakers-walkingFrancesco Zaccardi, MD, PhD

Clinical Epidemiologist
Assistant Director Leicester Real World Evidence Unit
Leicester Diabetes Centre
UK

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The role of excess body weight on mortality has been extensively investigated during the last decades. Studies from several countries have also shown, however, that the risk of death in persons who are overweight or obese is lower if their fitness, a parameter indicating cardio-pulmonary health, is higher.

Most of these studies reported the beneficial effect of fitness in terms of relative risk reduction, for example 20% reduction of risk of death. Relative estimates, though, are difficult to interpret. Continue reading

Replacing Alcohol with Soda Not Good for the Liver

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
E. van Eekelen, MSc | PhD Candidate
Leiden University Medical Center
Dept. Clinical Epidemiology
Leiden, The Netherlands

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Fatty liver, defined as excess accumulation of fat within the liver, covers a broad clinical spectrum and is the leading cause of chronic liver diseases. It has also been linked to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

The consumption of alcohol is a well-established risk factor for fatty liver. However, we hypothesized that consumption of non-alcoholic energy-containing beverages also leads to liver fat accumulation. We analysed data from the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study, which is a prospective population-based cohort study including non-invasive measurements of liver fat content by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Besides consumption of alcoholic beverages, sugar sweetened beverages were associated with more liver fat. We specifically showed that replacement of alcoholic beverages with milk was associated with less liver fat, whereas replacement with sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a similar amount of liver fat, even when taking calories into account.  Continue reading

Diet Rich in Red Meat Linked to Earlier Death

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Heli Virtanen, PhD StudentUniversity of Eastern Finland

Heli Virtanen

Heli Virtanen, PhD Student
University of Eastern Finland 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Optimal amount of protein in diet for supporting longevity is unclear. In addition, there have been indications that different protein sources have differential associations with mortality risk.  Thus, we investigated the associations of proteins and protein sources with mortality risk in the Finnish men of the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.

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Brain Aging Impacted by Modifiable Risk Factors

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Carla R. Schubert, MS

Researcher,  EpiSense Research Program
Dept. of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences
School of Medicine and Public Health
University of Wisconsin
Madison, WI  53726-2336 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Mildlife is an important time-period for health later in life and also when declines in sensory and cognitive functions may begin to occur. Hearing, vision and smell impairments have been associated with cognitive impairments in older adults and with worse cognitive function in middle-aged adults.  These associations may be reflecting the close integration of sensory and cognitive systems as both require good brain function.

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Is Behavioral Change Among Overweight Diabetics Feasible and Sustainable?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Giuseppe Pugliese, MD, PhD
for the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study 2 (IDES_2) Investigators
Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine
‘‘La Sapienza’’ University
Diabetes Unit, Sant’Andrea University Hospital
Rome, Italy

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: There is a growing epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes worldwide,
which are causally related to the increasing prevalence of “physical
inactivity”, i.e., an insufficient amount of moderate-to-vigorous
physical activity according to current guidelines, and
“sedentariness”, i.e., too many hours, especially if uninterrupted,
spent in a sitting or reclined position.  These two unhealthy
behaviors exert their detrimental effects independently of each other
and are very common among people suffering from type 2 diabetes, who
would therefore benefit from increasing physical activity and reducing
sedentary time, as recommended by current guidelines.

However, such a behavior change is generally difficult for a number of
internal and external barriers and requires behavioral interventions
targeting both physical activity and sedentary habits.  Unfortunately,
there is no definitive evidence that this is indeed feasible and,
particularly, that, if adopted, change in behavior can be maintained
in the long term.  Continue reading

Cardiology Articles Pertaining to Lifestyle and Nutrition Receive Most Media Attention

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ravi B. Patel, MD Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine Chicago, Illinois

Dr. Patel

Ravi B. Patel, MD
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Chicago, Illinois

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The digital attention of scientific articles can be readily quantified using the Altmetric score. The Altmetric score is a weighted measure, incorporating a variety of media platforms.

We aimed to characterize the Top 10% of articles by Altmetric score among 4 major cardiovascular journals (Circulation, European Heart Journal, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, and JAMA Cardiology) in 2017.

Our primary findings were:

1) nearly half of the most disseminated articles were not original research investigations,

2) the most common article topic was nutrition/lifestyle, and

3) there was a weak but significant correlation between Altmetric scores and citation number.  Continue reading

Almost Half of US Adults Get No Leisure Time Physical Activity in Typical Week

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Emily Neusel Ussery, MPH PhD Epidemiologist, Physical Activity and Health Branch CDC

Dr. Ussery

Emily N Ussery, PhD
Epidemiologist
LT, US Public Health Service
Physical Activity and Health Branch
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Sitting for too long and being physically inactive can have negative health consequences, and it is important to understand how common these behaviors are among US adults.

This study describes sitting time and leisure-time physical activity reported by US adults in a national survey. Continue reading

Why Don’t Younger Men Get Health Check Ups?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
"Blood pressure check" by Army Medicine is licensed under CC BY 2.0Pallavi Bhandarkar MPH
Nova Southeastern University
Kirkland, Washington

preetipshenoy@gmail.com 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Gender based preventative health has been of interest to medical community since 1900’s with health disparities between males and females being of particular interest. United States founded National Research Institutes for female health in 1900. This led to comprehensive and systematic medical services being offered which have improved female health care significantly. Similar research programs and initiatives to improve men’s health were started only in 2000 (1).

Cultural depiction of men being fearless and based on perception of masculinity leads them to underutilize the preventative health care screenings available to them or sometimes even delay care when they need it the most. Males have been found to have higher mortality rates compared to females.

Life expectancy for females was 5.0 years higher than for males. The difference in life expectancy between the sexes has narrowed since 1979, when it was 7.8 years, but it increased 0.2 year in 2016 from 2015, the first increase since 1990. Death rates for males increased significantly for age groups 15–24, 25–34, 35–44, and 55–64. Rates decreased significantly for age groups 75–84 and 85 and over” (2)

My research study adopted the basic survey design and conducted an anonymous survey throughout United States with men aged 18 to 40 being the participants.

Our goal was to identify these gaps, analyze the reasons for underutilization and identify opportunities to improve preventative care guidelines among the male population. The main findings were almost similar to the BFRSS data obtained by CDC in the year 2016. Continue reading

Should Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Ride Roller Coasters?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Nikolaos Papoutsidakis, M.D., Ph.D. Associate Research Scientist, Yale University School of Medicine New Haven, CT 

Dr. Papoutsidakis

Nikolaos Papoutsidakis, M.D., Ph.D.
Associate Research Scientist,
Yale University School of Medicine
New Haven, CT 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Lifestyle education is a significant part of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy management. HCM patients, who frequently have to abstain from intense athletics, often ask if such restrictions extend to thrill-seeking activities they previously enjoyed, such as rollercoaster rides. Werealized there is very little data on this topic, which prompted us to set up this study.

We found that for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy patients who elected to participate in thrill-seeking activities, adverse events (defined as losing consciousness or experiencing a shock from an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator) were rare. We also asked patients (participating and non participating) about advice received from their physician on this topic. We found that, probably due to the lack of data, physicians often avoid providing advice or provide conflicting advice regarding participation in thrill seeking activities.  Continue reading

SMArT Work: Stand More AT Work Increased Work Engagement and Quality of Life

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr Fehmidah Munir CPsychol, AFBPsS

Reader in Health Psychology
Athena SWAN School Champion
School of Sport, Exercise & Health Sciences
National Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine
Loughborough University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Given the evidence of the harmful effects of high levels of sitting time on health and the high proportion of time the majority of adults spend in this behaviour, particularly in the workplace, methods to reduce overall and prolonged sitting were needed.

Our SMArT Work (Stand More AT Work) programme was delivered to NHS office workers and involved brief education about the impact of sitting on health and benefits of reducing sitting, feedback on sitting behaviour, providing staff with a height-adjustable desk to enable them to work either standing up or sitting down, motivational posters and brief chats with a researcher to see how they were getting on. They received this programme over 12 months.

We found that office workers in our study spent nearly 10 hours/day sitting down, which can be bad for health, but we’ve shown that those office workers who received our SMArT Work programme had lower sitting time by around 80mins per day after 12 months compared to those who didn’t receive our programme. Those who received SMArT Work also reported an increase in work engagement, job performance and quality of life and less musculoskeletal issues such as back and neck pain, they felt less tired after a day at work, had less feelings of anxiety and lower sickness presenteeism (working whilst sick). We didn’t find any differences in the number of days absent at work though. Whether you work remotely from home or in an office environment, it may also be good to invest in new Office Furniture. This could also help combat the issue of back and neck pains that you may be experiencing.
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Our Brains Are Hardwired To Prefer the Sofa to the Gym

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“sleeping” by Venturist is licensed under CC BY 2.0Matthieu Boisgontier  PhD

Movement Control & Neuroplasticity Research Group
KU Leuven
Brain Behaviour Laboratory
University of British Columbia, Canada

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: For decades, society has encouraged people to be more physically active. Yet, despite gradually scaling up actions promoting physical activity across the years, we are actually becoming less active. From 2010 to 2016, the number of inactive adults has increased by 5% worldwide, now affecting more than 1 in 4 adults (1.4 billion people). This context raised the question: Why do we still fail to be more physically active?

Our hypothesis was that this failure is explained by an “exercise paradox” in which conscious and automatic processes in the brain come into conflict. To illustrate this paradox, you can think of people taking the elevator or escalator when they go to the gym, which does not make sense. This non-sense, this paradox, could be due to the fact that their intention to exercise come into conflict with an automatic attraction to resting in the elevator.

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Algorithm Allows Patients To Calculate Their Risk of Stroke and Heart Disease

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Doug Manuel MD, MSc, FRCPC Professor and Senior Scientist Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | L’Institut de Recherche de l’Hôpital d’Ottawa Department of Family Medicine, University of Ottawa Départment de Médicine Familiale Université d’Ottawa 

Dr. Manuel

Dr. Doug Manuel MD, MSc, FRCPC
Professor and Senior Scientist
Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | L’Institut de Recherche de l’Hôpital d’Ottawa
Department of Family Medicine, University of Ottawa
Départment de Médicine Familiale
Université d’Ottawa 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: A lot of people are interested in healthy living, but often we don’t have that discussion in the doctor’s office,” says Dr. Manuel, who is also a professor at the University of Ottawa. “Doctors will check your blood pressure and cholesterol levels, but they don’t necessarily ask about lifestyle factors that could put you at risk of a heart attack and stroke. We hope this tool can help people — and their care team — with better information about healthy living and options for reducing their risk of heart attack and stroke.”

“What sets this cardiovascular risk calculator apart is that it looks at healthy living, and it is better calibrated to the Canadian population,” says Dr. Doug Manuel, lead author, senior scientist at The Ottawa Hospital and a senior core scientist at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES).”  Continue reading

Bad Genes and Unhealthy Lifestyle Contribute to Cardiovascular Risk

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Pim van der Harst MD, MSc Professor and Scientific Director Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory University Medical Center Groninger

Dr. van der Harst

Pim van der Harst MD, MSc
Professor and Scientific Director Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory
University Medical Center Groninger

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The disease is driven by both genetic (inherited) and lifestyle factors such as smoking, physical activity and body mass index (BMI).

However, little is known about the interplay between genetic and lifestyle factors. So we looked into how lifestyle influences risk in individuals with a low genetic risk compared to those with a high genetic risk. A Healthy Lifestyle is an important part of life, it keeps us from developing vascular disease. Some people are able to maintain such a lifestyle with the help of companies similar to Weston Biltong Co. as well as exercise.

 

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: We studied 339,003 unrelated individuals participating in UK Biobank project and looked into 5 very important cardiovascular conditions: coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, stroke, hypertension and type 2 diabetes.

We then calculated the genetic risk of these individuals bases on the DNA information and assessed their lifestyle. We found that both genetics and an unhealthy lifestyle increased the risk of developing these conditions in an additive way.

Risk appears simply as a summation of bad genes and an unhealthy lifestyle, there is no multiplier effect. A healthy lifestyle is always beneficial, independent of the luck you had with your genes. However, we do see patterns suggesting that for some conditions the risk is approximately the same for those with good genes and poor lifestyle compared to those with poor genes and a poor lifestyle. Best is to have both, good genes and a healthy lifestyle.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: No matter how good your genes are, a good lifestyle is always beneficial. However, if you have a high genetic risk you really should pay even more attention an adhering to a healthy lifestyle, otherwise they are in double trouble. Also our study is important as it lays a foundation for personalized risk assessment.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: Now we can combine the personal genetics with a person’s lifestyle we should work towards personalized risk assessment and estimate the effect of lifestyle changes for an individual.

No disclosures

Citation:

Associations of Combined Genetic and Lifestyle Risks With Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in the UK Biobank Study – M. Abdullah Said, Niek Verweij, Pim van der Harst. JAMA Cardiology 2018

The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

Song Contests Linked To Life Satisfaction and Health

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

“Sara Singing for the IT MS Society” by Draft is licensed under PDM 3.0Filippos Filippidis MD, MSc, MPH, PhD
Lecturer in Public Health
School of Public Health
Imperial College London
London

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Previous research suggests that big sports and international events are associated with happiness, productivity, suicides and homicides. Considering the popularity of the Eurovision Song Contest (ESC) in Europe, we wanted to see if there is any association between performance in the competition and life satisfaction and suicides. We used interview data from more than 160,000 people in Europe collected from 2009 to 2015 and found that better performance in the contest was associated with higher levels of life satisfaction in the country. Winning the competition did not confer any additional advantage. When comparing bad performance in the ESC with no participation at all, we found that even bad performance was associated with higher satisfaction with life compared to absence from the competition.

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Healthy Lifestyle Keys to a Longer Life

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Yanping Li PhD, Research Scientist
Department of Nutrition
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: It is well known that a  healthy lifestyle is associated with less chance of premature mortality; however, it is not clear how much it will improve the longevity.

We are working on a quantity estimation of the prolonged life expectancy that could be potentially saved by a healthier lifestyle among US adults.

MedicalResearch.com: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report?

Response: Two key taking home message:

(1)    Each heathy lifestyle was associated with around 2-3 years of prolonged life expectancy. The more the healthy lifestyle factors, the longer of the life expectancy.

(2)    For each health lifestyle factor, the healthier of each lifestyle, the longer life expectancy would be.

There is not too less or too much of the healthy lifestyle, everybody should find the level that most suitable for themselves. There will be a great pay back of prolonged life expectancy with each small step toward a heathier lifestyle.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study?

Response: Future research regarding how to be more healthier would be welcome, especially the practical strategies.

MedicalResearch.com: Thank you for your contribution to the MedicalResearch.com community.

Citation:

Impact of Healthy Lifestyle Factors on Life Expectancies in the US Population

Yanping Li, An Pan, Dong D. Wang, Xiaoran Liu, Klodian Dhana, Oscar H. Franco, Stephen Kaptoge, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, Meir Stampfer, Walter C. Willett, Frank B. Hu

https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.032047
Circulation. 2018;CIRCULATIONAHA.117.032047
Originally published April 30, 2018

Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Not Clear That Physical Activity Programs Reduce Cognitive Decline

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Exercise” by Diabetes Education Events is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Michelle Brasure, MSPH, PhD, MLIS
Evidence-based Practice Center
School of Public Health
University of Minnesota 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We conducted a large systematic review to assess the evidence relating to interventions to prevent cognitive decline and dementia. We included experimental studies with follow up times of at least six months. This paper analyzes the physical activity interventions; other papers in this issue address other types of interventions.

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Having a Dog May Help You Live Longer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Tove Fall PhD Senior author of the study Associate Professor in Epidemiology Department of Medical Sciences and the Science for Life Laboratory Uppsala University.

Dr. Fall

Tove Fall PhD
Senior author of the study
Associate Professor in Epidemiology
Department of Medical Sciences and the Science for Life Laboratory
Uppsala University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?
Response: Loneliness and sedentary lifestyle are two major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and mortality, but are notoriously difficult to prevent in the general population.

Previous studies have shown that dogs may serve as a strong motivator for daily exercise, provide substantial social support and have a positive effect on the owner’s gut microbiome. The effects of pet dogs on health outcomes in the general population are largely unknown.

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Lifestyle Modifications Slow Progression To Diabetes As Effectively As Medications

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Karla Galaviz PhD
Hubert Department of Global Health
Rollins School of Public Health
Emory University
Sonya Haw, MD| Assistant Professor
Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism & Lipids
Emory University, School of Medicine
Grady Memorial Hospital
Atlanta, GA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

  • Diabetes affects 1 in 11 adults worldwide and though there is evidence that lifestyle modification (eating healthier diets and exercising about 150 mins a week) and certain medications can prevent or delay diabetes onset, it is not clear which of these strategies offers long-term benefits.
  • To answer this question, we compiled all available randomized controlled trials of lifestyle programs and medications to prevent diabetes and analyzed the data to see if the diabetes prevention effects persisted in the long-term. We specifically compared studies where the lifestyle or drug interventions were discontinued to see if the effect was long lasting or diminished when the intervention was stopped.

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Wearable Device Study Confirms Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity Linked To Decreased Mortality

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

I-Min Lee, MD, ScD Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Professor of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Brigham and Women's Hospital Boston, MA 02215

Dr. Lee

I-Min Lee, MD, ScD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Professor of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Boston, MA 02215

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The fact that physical activity lowers the risk of premature mortality is not a new fact – we have many studies showing this.  However, previous studies have primarily relied on self-reported physical activity, and self-reports tend to be imprecise.  Based on these self-report studies, we know that physical activity is associated with a 20-30% reduction in mortality rates.  And, these self-report studies also have focused on moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, since they are more reliably reported than lighter intensity activity.  We have little information on whether light-intensity activities (e.g., light household chores, very slow walking such as when strolling and window shopping) are associated with lower mortality rates.

We now have “wearables” – devices that can more precisely measure physical activity at low (as well as higher) intensities, and sedentary behavior.  The present study, conducted between 2011 and 2015, investigated a large cohort of older women (n=16,741; mean age, 72 years)  who were asked to wear these devices for a week – thus, providing detailed physical activity and sedentary behavior measures.  During an average follow-up of about two-and-a-half years, 207 women died.  The study confirmed that physical activity is related to lower mortality rates.

What is new and important is how strong this association is when we have more precise measures of physical activity – the most active women had a 60-70% reduction in mortality rates, compared with the least active, during the study.  For context, non-smokers have about a 50% risk reduction, compared to smokers, which is why patients (and doctors) should pay attention to being physically active.

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Inactivity Plus Frailty Predict Mortality

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Olga Theou, MSc PhD Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, Dalhousie University Affiliated Scientist, Geriatric Medicine, Nova Scotia Health Authority Adjunct Senior Lecturer, School of Medicine, University of Adelaide Halifax, Nova Scotia

Dr. Theou

Olga Theou, MSc PhD
Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, Dalhousie University
Affiliated Scientist, Geriatric Medicine, Nova Scotia Health Authority
Adjunct Senior Lecturer, School of Medicine, University of Adelaide
Halifax, Nova Scotia 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We already know that moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity, such as time accumulated during exercise, is associated with numerous health benefits. More recent studies also have shown that sedentary time, such as time accumulated during prolonged sitting at work, transportation, and leisure, can also increase the risk of adverse outcomes. What was not known was whether prolonged sitting affects people across different levels of frailty similarly. This is what we examined in our study.

We found that there were differences. Low frailty levels (people who are extremely healthy; frailty index score < 0.1) seemed to eliminate the increased risk of mortality associated with prolonged sitting, even among people who did not meet recommended physical activity guidelines. Among people with higher frailty levels, sedentary time was associated with mortality but only among those who did not meet recommended physical activity guidelines

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USPSTF: Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults Without Cardiovascular Risk Factors

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Carol M. Mangione, MD, MSPH, FACP Barbara A. Levey, MD, and Gerald S. Levey, MD Endowed chair in medicine David Geffen School of Medicine University of California, Los Angeles Professor of public health at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health

Dr. Mangione

Carol M. Mangione, MD, MSPH, FACP
Barbara A. Levey, MD, and Gerald S. Levey, MD
Endowed chair in medicine
David Geffen School of Medicine
University of California, Los Angeles
Professor of public health at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Americans can experience several health benefits from consuming healthy foods and engaging in physical activity. The Task Force recommends that primary care professionals work together with their patients when making the decision to offer or refer adults who are not obese and do not have hypertension, high cholesterol, high blood sugar, or diabetes to behavior counseling to promote healthful diet and physical activity. Our focus was on the impact of a healthful diet and physical activity on cardiovascular risk because this condition is the leading cause of premature morbidity and mortality. The Task Force evaluates what the science tells us surrounding the potential benefits and harms of a particular preventive service. In this case, the Task Force found high quality evidence focusing on the impact a healthful diet and physical activity can have on a patient’s risk of cardiovascular disease. Relying on this evidence, the Task Force was able to conclude that there is a positive but small benefit of behavioral counseling to prevent cardiovascular disease.

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Daily Crossword Puzzles May Help Sustain Brain Function As We Age

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Professor Keith A. Wesnes BSc PhD FSS CPsychol FBPsS Head Honcho, Wesnes Cognition Ltd Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience, Medical School, University of Exeter, UK Visiting Professor, Department of Psychology, Northumbria University, Newcastle, UK Adjunct Professor, Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia Visiting Professor, Medicinal Plant Research Group, Newcastle University, UK Wesnes Cognition Ltd, Little Paddock, Streatley Hill, Streatley on Thames UK

Prof. Wesnes

Professor Keith A. Wesnes
BSc PhD FSS CPsychol FBPsS
Head Honcho, Wesnes Cognition Ltd
Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience, Medical School, University of Exeter, UK
Visiting Professor, Department of Psychology
Northumbria University, Newcastle, UK
Adjunct Professor, Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia
Visiting Professor, Medicinal Plant Research Group
Newcastle University, UK
Wesnes Cognition Ltd, Little Paddock, Streatley Hill, Streatley on Thames UK 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This data we reported were taken from the PROTECT study, a 10-year research programme being conducted jointly by Kings College London and the University of Exeter Medical School. It started in November 2015 and over 20,000 individuals aged 50 to 96 years have enrolled.

A highly novel feature of the study is that it is run entirely remotely, the participants logging on via the internet at home and providing demographic and life style information, and also performing online cognitive tasks of key aspects of cognitive function. The tasks are from two well-validated systems, CogTrack and the PROTECT test system, and assess major aspects of cognitive function including focused and sustained attention, information processing, reasoning and a range of aspects of memory.

One of the lifestyle questions was ‘How frequently do you engage in word puzzles, e.g. crosswords?’ and the 6 possible answers were: never; occasionally; monthly; weekly; daily; more than once per day. We analysed the cognitive data from 17,677 individuals who had answered the question, and found that the more often the participants reported engaging in such puzzles, the better their cognitive function on each of the 9 cognitive tasks they performed. The group who never performed such puzzles were poorest on all measures, and the improvements were mostly incremental as the frequency of use increased. The findings were highly statistically reliable, and we controlled for factors including age, gender and education. To evaluate the magnitudes of these benefits, we calculated the average decline over the age-range on the various tasks in the study population. The average difference between those who ‘never’ did puzzles to those who did so ‘more than once a day’ was equivalent to 11 years of ageing; and between those who never did puzzles and all those who did was 8 years.

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Healthy Diet Translates Into Longer Life

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Mercedes Sotos Prieto PhD Research Fellow Department of Nutrition Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health 

Dr. Sotos-Prieto

Mercedes Sotos Prieto PhD
Research Fellow
Department of Nutrition
Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Previous research have found that adherence to the 2010 Alternate Heathy Eating Index, the Mediterranean Diet pattern, and DASH pattern is associated with health benefits, but none of those studies have examined dynamic changes in diet quality over time and subsequent risk of mortality.

This is the first study to demonstrate that improvement in these three diet scores over time is associated with reduced risk of total and cardiovascular mortality. In contrast, worsening diet quality over 12-years was associated with 6%-12% increased mortality.

In addition, not only improvement in diet quality but maintaining a high adherence to any of the three dietary patterns over 12 years was significantly associated with 9%-14% lower total mortality.
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Mind–Body Interventions Reduce Inflammatory Activity of Genes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ivana Buric Brain, Belief, and Behaviour Lab Centre for Psychology, Behaviour, and Achievement, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands

Ivana Buric

Ivana Buric
Brain, Belief, and Behaviour Lab
Centre for Psychology, Behaviour, and Achievement, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom
Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour
Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response:  Genes that we inherited can change their activity – the​y can be active and produce proteins, but they can also stop producing proteins and remain silent. We are now beginning to understand what aspects of our environment affect the activity of which genes.

In this study, we analysed all the existing studies that examined the effects of mind-body interventions on the expression of our genes and found that mind-body techniques reduce the activity of genes that produce inflammatory proteins.

This pattern was found in all studies despite the fact that they vary in the amount of physical activity: Tai Chi, yoga, breathing techniques and different types of meditation. We believe that this effect is observed due to reduced stress.

When we experience something stressful, the brain regions associated with pain get activated and send that signal further to sypmathetic nervous system that produces epinephrine and norepinefrine, and activates nuclear factor kappa B – a molecule that travels to and activated the genes that produce inflammatory proteins. When we do yoga or meditation, we learn to perceive situations differently and consequently experience less stress, which then prevents the production of inflammatory proteins.

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Unhealthy Weight Gain in Pregnancy Is Now the Norm

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

 

Professor Helena Teede MBBS, FRACP, PhD Executive Director Monash Partners Academic Health Research Translation Centre Director Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation Monash University

Prof. Teede

Professor Helena Teede MBBS, FRACP, PhD
Executive Director Monash Partners Academic Health Research Translation Centre
Director Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation
Monash University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Reproductive aged women are gaining weight rapidly both before and during pregnancy. Here in 1.3 million pregnancies internationally we show that almost 3 in 4 have unhealthy weight gain (half with excess weight gain and one quarter with inadequate gain)

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: For women establish your healthy weight for your height and try to stay within this for better fertility, pregnancy and for your and your child’s health. Regardless of your starting weigh,  aim to gain within targets in pregnancy. Seek help to do so.

For health professionals: unhealthy weight gain in pregnancy is now the norm, we must monitor women in pregnancy wand support them to gain healthy weight for better health outcomes. Weighing is not enough with health professionals needing skills in healthy conversations and support strategies for women.

For governments and policy makers this life stage around pregnancy is an optimal time to tackle obesity prevention and is targeted by WHO.

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Some Retirees Begin Risky Alcohol Consumption

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Jaana Halonen, Docent and Senior Researcher

Finnish Institute of Occupational Health

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Retirement is a significant life transition when substantial changes in daily life are experienced as retirees adapt to life without work. After retirement people have more leisure time and more opportunities for different activities, and less stress. These changes are positive, but retirement can also lead to reduced social control and loss of social contacts and therefore be perceived as a stressful life transition. Both the positive and negative aspects related to changes in leisure time, stress, and social networks around retirement may affect drinking behaviours. However, little is known about how risky alcohol consumption changes around the retirement transition.

Thus, in our study we wanted to examine how and for whom risky drinking changes around the time of retirement. To do that we followed up public sector workers with questionnaires before and after their old-age retirement.

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2017’s Fattest Cities in America

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jill Gonzalez WalletHub Analyst

Jill Gonzalez

Jill Gonzalez
WalletHub Analyst

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We based our research on recent findings that suggest that 70 percent of the adult U.S. population is overweight or obese. With that in mind, we wanted to find which metro areas offer the best environments for a healthy and active lifestyle.

Based on the report’s methodology, we concluded that areas in the south tend to have higher overweight and obese rates, as some fail to offer residents healthy environments and amenities that would facilitate a more active lifestyle. Please find the report’s main findings here: https://wallethub.com/edu/fattest-cities-in-america/10532/#main-findings.

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Association Between Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Aortic Stenosis

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Andrew T. Yan, MD
Terrence Donnelly Heart Centre
St Michael’s Hospital
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The pathogenesis of aortic stenosis is complex and incompletely understood. Previous experimental data and epidemiologic studies (mostly cross-sectional) have demonstrated an association between conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, and aortic sclerosis or stenosis. However, there is a paucity of longitudinal data from large population studies. Therefore, we sought to examine the relationship between conventional cardiovascular risk factors and incident severe aortic stenosis during extended follow-up in a large unselected elderly population in Ontario, Canada.

In over 1 million individuals older than 65 who were followed for a median of 13 years, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia were all significantly and independently associated with development of severe aortic stenosis requiring hospitalization or intervention. Furthermore, we observed a positive dose-response relationship between the number and duration of cardiac risk factors, and the risk of aortic stenosis. Together, these risk factors accounted for approximately one third of the incidence of severe aortic stenosis at a population level.

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Health Lifestyle Could Cut Cardiovascular Disease 50% in Chinese

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Lu Qi, MD, PhD, FAHA HCA Regents Distinguished Chair and Professor Director, Tulane University Obesity Research Center Department of Epidemiology Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine New Orleans, LA 70112

Dr. Lu Qi

Lu Qi, MD, PhD, FAHA
HCA Regents Distinguished Chair and Professor
Director, Tulane University Obesity Research Center
Department of Epidemiology
Tulane University
School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine
New Orleans, LA 70112 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Adherence to healthy lifestyle (high physical activity, less smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, healthy diet, and low adiposity) has been related to substantially reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases in large cohorts from the US and Europe, however, similar evidence in Asians such as Chinese is lacking.

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