Association Between Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Aortic Stenosis

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Andrew T. Yan, MD
Terrence Donnelly Heart Centre
St Michael’s Hospital
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The pathogenesis of aortic stenosis is complex and incompletely understood. Previous experimental data and epidemiologic studies (mostly cross-sectional) have demonstrated an association between conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, and aortic sclerosis or stenosis. However, there is a paucity of longitudinal data from large population studies. Therefore, we sought to examine the relationship between conventional cardiovascular risk factors and incident severe aortic stenosis during extended follow-up in a large unselected elderly population in Ontario, Canada.

In over 1 million individuals older than 65 who were followed for a median of 13 years, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia were all significantly and independently associated with development of severe aortic stenosis requiring hospitalization or intervention. Furthermore, we observed a positive dose-response relationship between the number and duration of cardiac risk factors, and the risk of aortic stenosis. Together, these risk factors accounted for approximately one third of the incidence of severe aortic stenosis at a population level.

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Health Lifestyle Could Cut Cardiovascular Disease 50% in Chinese

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Lu Qi, MD, PhD, FAHA HCA Regents Distinguished Chair and Professor Director, Tulane University Obesity Research Center Department of Epidemiology Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine New Orleans, LA 70112

Dr. Lu Qi

Lu Qi, MD, PhD, FAHA
HCA Regents Distinguished Chair and Professor
Director, Tulane University Obesity Research Center
Department of Epidemiology
Tulane University
School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine
New Orleans, LA 70112 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Adherence to healthy lifestyle (high physical activity, less smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, healthy diet, and low adiposity) has been related to substantially reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases in large cohorts from the US and Europe, however, similar evidence in Asians such as Chinese is lacking.

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Lifestyle Modifications May Improve Health and Prognosis in Breast Cancer Patients

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Ellen Warner, MD, FRCPC, FACP, M.Sc.
Affiliate scientist
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
Toronto, ON

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this review?

Response: As a medical oncologist who has treated breast cancer patients for over 30 years, I have found that most of the women in my practice are desperately looking for things they can do beyond standard surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, etc. to increase their chance of cure.  Unfortunately, many fall prey to false claims they read over the Internet or hear from well-meaning friends and relatives.  As a result they turn to absurdly restrictive diets (eg. No meat, dairy or sugar) or to ‘supplements’ with unproven effectiveness or even safety. So I thought it would be helpful to review the literature to determine what evidence-based lifestyle changes these women could make that would at least improve their overall health and, ideally, reduce their risk of dying of recurrent breast cancer.  For this review I thought it would be great to team up with Julia Hamer, a pre-med student with a degree in nutrition who just happens to also be an Olympic level athlete!
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Physical Activity and Abnormal Blood Glucose Among Healthy Weight Adults

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Arch G. Mainous III, PhD  HSRMP Department Chair Florida Blue Endowed Professor of Health Administration University of Florida Health

Dr. Arch G. Mainous III

Arch G. Mainous III, PhD
HSRMP Department Chair
Florida Blue Endowed Professor of Health Administration
University of Florida Health

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: As our post-industrial society becomes more and more sedentary, there is a concern that a lack of activity is associated with poor health outcomes like diabetes. At the same time, the medical community has a strong focus on determining whether patients are overweight or obese as a way to classify them as  being at higher risk for poor health outcomes. However, individuals at a “healthy weight” in general, are considered to be at low risk. Some recent studies have shown that many individuals at “healthy weight” are not metabolically healthy. How then might we predict who at “healthy weight” would be unhealthy? We hypothesized that individuals at “healthy weight” who had a sedentary lifestyle would be more likely to have prediabetes or undiagnosed diabetes.

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Light-Intensity Activities Can Improve Glycemic Control in Diabetics

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Bernard M Duvivier  Department of Human Biology and Movement Science NUTRIM School for Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre Maastricht, the Netherlands

Dr. Bernard M Duvivier

Bernard M Duvivier 
Department of Human Biology and Movement Science
NUTRIM School for Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre
Maastricht, the Netherlands

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings?

Response: The health benefits of exercise have been well established but sitting is a risk factor for health, independent of exercise.

As many people with type 2 diabetes don’t like to exercise we investigated whether replacing sitting time with light-intensity activities (standing and light walking) is equally effective to exercise when energy expenditure is comparable. Our results suggest that for people with type 2 diabetes, light-intensity activities (light walking and standing) can be an alternative to exercise to improve glucose regulation.

In addition we showed that too much sitting has negative effects on insulin sensitivity which could not be fully compensated by 1 hour of exercise per day.

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Risk Factors For Adult Acne Identified

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Luigi Naldi, MD
Director Centro Studi GISED
Department of Dermatology
Azienda Ospedaliera papa Giovanni XXIII
Bergamo Italy

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The study was the natural continuation of a previous case-control study focusing on risk factors for moderate to severe acne in adolescents. In that study, we documented the role of a westernized diet to influence acne severity, with a low weekly intake of fruits or vegetables, a low consumption of fresh fish and a high consumption of milk especially skim milk, being risk factors for moderate to severe acne. Not surprisingly, also a family history of acne was associated with acne severity.

After completion of our study in adolescents, we realized that very little was known about acne in adults. Hence, we started a new case-control study focusing on risk factors for adult female acne. Besides the role of a family history, we documented that lifestyle factors could play an important role in adult acne. More specifically, being an office worker, and having a high level of reported psychological stress were associated with acne in adult women. In addition, similarly to acne in adolescents, low weekly intake of fruits or vegetables and a low consumption of fresh fish were documented as risk factors.

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The Health ABC Study: Simple Exercise Test Predicts Heart Failure

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Vasiliki Georgiopoulou MD MPH PhD Assistant Professor of Medicine (Cardiology) Emory University School of Medicine

Dr. Vasiliki Georgiopoulou

Vasiliki Georgiopoulou MD MPH PhD
Assistant Professor of Medicine (Cardiology)
Emory University School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Although existing evidence suggests that more exercise capacity is associated with lower risk of CV disease and death, we don’t know whether more exercise capacity would lead to lower risk for heart failure also. This would be especially important for older adults, who are the group with the highest risk to develop heart failure. We used the data of a cohort study to test this association.

The exercise capacity was evaluated by a walking test that is easy to perform – the long-distance corridor walk test. We observed that older adults who were able to complete the test had the lowest risk to develop heart failure and the lowest mortality rates, when compared with those who were not able to complete the test and those who could not do the test for medical reasons. We also observed that changes in exercise capacity 4 years later did not predict subsequent heart failure or mortality – perhaps because less fit older patients had already developed heart failure or had died.

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High Fitness Level Can Reduce Cardiovascular Risk of Prolonged Daily Sitting

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ulrik Wisløff, PhD Professor, Head of K.G. Jebsen Center for Exercise in Medicine Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging Norwegian University of Science and Technology Norway

Dr. Ulrik Wisløff

Ulrik Wisløff, PhD
Professor, Head of K.G. Jebsen Center for Exercise in Medicine
Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Norway

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Prolonged time spent sedentary on a daily basis is detrimental for general health and is associated with increased risk of developing and dying from lifestyle related diseases such as cardiovascular disease – even in those following todays advice for physical activity given by health authorities worldwide. Number of hours spent inactive tend to increase with increased age. A person’s fitness level is regarded the best predictor of future health. We tested, in older adults (aged 70-77 years old) whether meeting physical activity recommendations and/or having high age-specific fitness level attenuated the adverse effect of prolonged sedentary time on cardiovascular risk factor clustering.

Main finding was that high age-specific fitness level fully attenuated the adverse effect of prolonged sedentary time on clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, independent of meeting the physical activity recommendation in older adults.

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Sedentary Lifestyle Linked To Increased Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Paul Dinneen Loprinzi, PhD Health, Exercise Science and Recreation Management University of Mississippi

Dr. Paul Loprinzi

Paul Dinneen Loprinzi, PhD
Health, Exercise Science and Recreation Management
University of Mississippi

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Previous research demonstrates that adults who have higher daily sedentary behavior tend to have worse cardiometabolic health profiles. The extent to which sedentary behavior is associated with diabetic retinopathy has yet to be evaluated in the literature before our study. Our findings provided some suggestive evidence that more sedentary behavior was associated with a higher odds of having diabetic retinopathy.

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Relatively Brief Physical Activity Can Offset Adverse Effects of Prolonged Sitting

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ulf Ekelund, PhD FACSM Professor Department of Sports Medicine Norwegian School of Sport Sciences

Prof. Ulf Ekelund

Ulf Ekelund, PhD FACSM
Professor
Department of Sports Medicine
Norwegian School of Sport Sciences 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?
Response: It is known that long sitting hours may be detrimental to health and previous studies have suggested associations between sitting time and all-cause mortality.However, it is not known whether physical activity can eliminate the increased risk of death associated with long sitting time.

We found that at least one hour of physical activity every day appear to offset the increased risk associated with more than eight hours of sitting. We also found that those who were physically inactive and sat for less than 4 hours every day were at greater risk compared with those who were physically active and sat for more than 8 hours providing further evidence on the benefits of physical activity.

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Pandemic of Global Physical Inactivity Costs Lives and Money

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ding Ding (Melody), Ph.D., MPH NHMRC Early Career Senior Research Fellow/Sydney University Postdoctoral Research Fellow Prevention Research Collaboration Sydney School of Public Health The University of Sydney

Dr. Melody Ding

Ding Ding (Melody), Ph.D., MPH
NHMRC Early Career Senior Research Fellow
Sydney University Postdoctoral Research Fellow
Prevention Research Collaboration
Sydney School of Public Health
The University of Sydney

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Understanding the true burden of a pandemic is indispensable for informed decision making. After decades of research, we now have established knowledge about how physical inactivity contributes to pre-mature deaths and chronic diseases, but the economic burden of physical inactivity remains unquantified at the global level. Through estimating the economic burden of physical inactivity for the first time, we hope to create a business case for investing in cost-effective actions to promote physical activity at the global levels.

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Poor Cardiovascular Health Linked to Increased Diabetes Risk Especially African Americans and Hispanics

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Joshua J. Joseph, MD
Christopher D. Saudek M.D. Fellow in Diabetes Research
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What does your study explore?

Response: Our study explores two basic questions:

(a) Are multi-ethnic people with higher levels of cardiovascular health less likely to develop diabetes based on the AHA ideal cardiovascular health metric?

(b) Do these associations vary by race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, Chinese American, African American, and Hispanic American)?

MedicalResearch.com: Why did you choose this topic to explore?

Response: The literature has shown a strong association between lifestyle factors and elevated risk of diabetes in majority non-Hispanic white studies. One study of American Indians showed that meeting a greater number of ideal cardiovascular health goals was associated with a reduced risk of diabetes. We aimed to assess the association of baseline ideal cardiovascular health with incident diabetes within a multi-ethnic population, due to variation of ideal cardiovascular health by race/ethnicity.

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