How Do Viruses Trigger Cough In Asthmatic Children, Even Without Allergies

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Giovanni Piedimonte, MD Steven and Nancy Calabrese Endowed Chair for Excellence in Pediatric Care, Research, and Education Professor & Chair of Pediatrics Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine Case Western Reserve University

Dr. Piedimonte

Giovanni Piedimonte, MD
Steven and Nancy Calabrese Endowed Chair for Excellence in Pediatric Care, Research, and Education
Professor & Chair of Pediatrics
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine
Case Western Reserve University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This study proves that asthmatic children already have a hyperactive calcium channel that’s extremely sensitive to environmental triggers.

If these children contract a virus, such as RSV, the hyperactive channel causes more severe symptoms that may require care in a hospital setting.

When a child developed asthma or bronchitis in the past, doctors thought these conditions could only be triggered by environmental allergens. There was no explanation why two out of three children ages five and under who wheeze and cough – and still test negative for allergies.

We needed to explore the mechanisms of the calcium molecule and the epithelial cells, which seem to trigger these symptoms without an allergic reaction. If the molecule’s behavior is producing the cough, we just need to figure out how to control the molecule to properly deactivate the cough mechanism in the asthmatic child

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Chronic Hives In Children Resolve Slowly

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Hives-Urticaria Wikipedia image

Hives-Urticaria
Wikipedia image

Elena Netchiporouk, MD, FRCPC, MSc
Dermatology Resident – PGY5 and
Dr. Moshe Ben-Shoshan, MD, FRCPC, MSc
McGill University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: We have followed a pediatric cohort of 139 patients with chronic urticaria (CU) (hives) between 2013 and 2015 in a single tertiary care center and assessed the comorbidities, the rate of resolution and determined predictors of resolution.

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Small Kit Can Easily Detect Food Allergens On-Site

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Lee, Hakho, PhD Department of Systems Biology Harvard Medical School Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. Lee

Lee, Hakho, PhD
Department of Systems Biology
Harvard Medical School
Boston, Massachusetts

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The incidence of food allergy is increasing worldwide, particularly among children, and yet no handy test is available for general public. We wanted to solve this issue. Our pilot test showed wide variation in allergen contents in packaged food products and restaurant meals. Hidden allergens (like gluten in salad dressing, likely from additives) were also found.

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When Should Babies Be Introduced To Peanuts, Eggs and Cow’s Milk?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Malcolm Sears, Professor  MB, ChB, FRACP, FRCPC, FAAAAI Co-director of the CHILD Study Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, McMaster Universi

Dr. Sears

Dr. Malcolm Sears, Professor
MB, ChB, FRACP, FRCPC, FAAAAI
Co-director of the CHILD Study
Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine,
McMaster University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study is a longitudinal birth cohort study commenced in 2008 with 3,495 families across Canada.  We recruited the mothers during pregnancy and are following their children to age 5 with the intent of determining the underlying developmental causes of allergy and asthma.

In the current analysis, we have looked at the relationship between the timing of first introduction of three “allergenic” foods (milk products, egg and peanut) and the likelihood of sensitization to these foods at age 1 year.  We found that earlier introduction was associated with a reduced risk of sensitization, which is consistent with some recent randomized controlled trials.  For instance, infants who avoided cow’s milk product in their first year of life were nearly four times as likely to be sensitized to cow’s milk compared with infants who did consume cow’s milk products before age 12 months.  Similarly, infants who avoided egg or peanut in the first year were nearly twice as likely to be sensitized to those foods compared to infants who consumed them before 12 months of age.

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Asthma Outcomes Worse in Low Income Groups

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Wanda Phipatanakul, MD, MS Associate Professor of Pediatrics Harvard Medical School Director, Asthma Clinical Research Center Boston Children's Hospital Asthma, Allergy and Immunology Boston, MA 02115

Dr. Phipatanakul

Wanda Phipatanakul, MD, MS
Associate Professor of Pediatrics
Harvard Medical School
Director, Asthma Clinical Research Center
Boston Children’s Hospital
Asthma, Allergy and Immunology
Boston, MA 02115

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Observational studies have limitations in their ability to examine disparities in asthma, as these studies have relied on self-reported measures of medication use, asthma diagnosis, severity, outcomes, and access to care.

Using data collected from a randomized controlled trial, we found that subjects with lower income had a significantly higher number of asthma treatment failures and asthma exacerbations, independent of race, BMI, education, perceived stress, baseline lung function, hospitalizations, inhaled corticosteroid adherence, inhaled corticosteroid dose, environmental allergen sensitization, and second-hand smoke exposure.

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Vitamin D Supplements Will Probably Not Help Asthma or Atopic Dermatitis

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Brent Richards, MD, MSc</strong> Associate Professor of Medicine William Dawson Scholar / FRQS Clinical Research Scholar Departments of Medicine, Human Genetics, Epidemiology and Biostatistics McGill University Senior Lecturer, King's College London (Honorary)

Dr. Brent Richards

Brent Richards, MD, MSc
Associate Professor of Medicine
William Dawson Scholar / FRQS Clinical Research Scholar
Departments of Medicine, Human Genetics, Epidemiology and Biostatistics McGill University
Senior Lecturer, King’s College London (Honorary)

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Some previous epidemiological studies have suggested that low vitamin D levels are associated with increased rates of asthma, atopic dermatitis—an itchy inflammation of the skin—and elevated levels of IgE, an immune molecule linked to atopic disease (allergies). In our study, we looked at genetic and health data on more than 100,000 individuals from previous large studies to determine whether genetic alterations that are associated with vitamin D levels predispose people to the aforementioned conditions.

We found no statistically significant difference between rates of asthma (including childhood-onset asthma), atopic dermatitis, or IgE levels in people with and without any of the four genetic changes associated with lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the form of vitamin D routinely measured in the blood.

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Exposure To Furry Pets During Pregnancy and Babyhood May Help Keep Your Child Lean

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Anita Kozyrskyj, PhD Department of Pediatrics Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry University of Alberta

Dr. Anita Kozyrskyj

Anita Kozyrskyj, PhD
Department of Pediatrics
Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry
University of Alberta

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We have known for a while that early-life exposure to household pets can reduce risk for allergic disease; new studies also suggest a benefit in preventing overweight. Our pilot study in 2013 showed that postnatal pet exposure increases the number of different beneficial microbes in the infant gut. My team of 12, including first author and Albert Innovates-Health Solutions (AIHS) postdoctoral fellow Hein Min Tun, took the science one step closer to understanding this connection in our recently published work in the Microbiome journal. In a study of 746 infants from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development Study (CHILD) birth cohort, we investigated the impact of pet exposure during pregnancy or afterwards on infant gut microbes, and whether this depended on how infants were born.

In infants born vaginally or by cesarean section, pet exposure during pregnancy or pre and postnatally up to 3 months after birth increased the amounts of 2 bacteria found on dogs and cats. One is Ruminococcus, linked to lower rates of allergies in children. The other is a relatively unknown microbe, Oscillospira, reported to promote leanness. Another important finding suggested that contact with pets during pregnancy could reduce transmission of vaginal GBS (group B Streptococcus) during birth.

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Could Babies From Wealthier Families Reduce Egg Allergies By Eating Them Earlier?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Debra Palmer (BSc, BND, PhD) on behalf of my fellow co-authors on this publication Childhood Allergy and Immunology Research University of Western Australia

Dr. Debra Palmer

Dr. Debra Palmer (BSc, BND, PhD)
on behalf of my fellow co-authors on this publication
Childhood Allergy and Immunology Research
University of Western Australia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We conducted a multicentre trial, Starting Time of Egg Protein (STEP) involving 820 infants, and found a 25% risk reduction in egg allergy with early regular egg intake from 4-6.5 months compared with egg avoidance to 10 months of age, although this did not achieve statistical significance.

So we also investigated in exploratory analyses whether the effect of regular egg introduction in solid foods was modified by any maternal, family or infant characteristics. Our results found that infants from families of higher socioeconomic status and those families who consume few eggs per week could benefit by less egg allergy at 12 months of age from regular egg intake once they start eating solid foods.

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Number Of Epipen Prescriptions for Kids Skyrockets

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Lavanya Diwakar, FRCPath

Honorary consultant in immunology
Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, and
Research fellow in health economic
University of Birmingham
Birmingham UK

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The rate of anaphylaxis (serious, potentially life threatening manifestation of allergy) has increased in the last decade. There have been some reports from other countries about an increase in the number of adrenaline autoinjectors being prescribed in children, but this has not been systematically examined in the UK.
We looked at a database of patient records from over 500 general practices, THIN (the Health Improvement Network), between 2000 and 2012. We found nearly 24,000 children who had been identified as being at risk of anaphylaxis by General Practitioners and prescribed epipens.

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Many Summer Camps Need More Training On Food Allergy Treatment

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Margaret T. RedmondMD
Nationwide Children’s Hospital
Columbus, Ohio 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Food allergies are becoming more prevalent and can cause a life threatening reaction if not managed correctly. Much of the previous focus has been on food allergy in the school setting and little was known about the camp setting.

Analysis of survey data from camp directors, medical personnel and staff reveal that there are deficiencies of training and policy at camps that could place food allergic campers at increased risk of reaction. A prospective registry of epinephrine administration from 51 camps revealed an increased rate of epinephrine administration compared to school data. Continue reading