Mild Hypothermia During Prolonged Surgery May Reduce Complications

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Brett A. Miles, DDS MD FACS Associate Professor of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Co-Chief Division Head and Neck Oncology Fellowship Director Head and Neck Oncologic and Microvascular Reconstructive Surgery Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY 10029

Dr. Miles

Brett A. Miles, DDS MD FACS
Associate Professor of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Co-Chief Division Head and Neck Oncology
Fellowship Director
Head and Neck Oncologic and Microvascular Reconstructive Surgery
Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
New York, NY 10029 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The ideal core temperature for patients undergoing prolonged major head and neck surgery remains unknown. Previous data indicates the low temperatures may increase the risk of developing postoperative complications such as tissue loss, hematomas, or surgical infections.(1) Other studies have indicated that high temperatures may also influence outcomes and lead to increased complications such as bleeding.(2)

This study was a study of 519 patients who underwent major head and neck surgery at the Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, New York. The study looked at the core temperature of the patients during prolonged surgery for head and neck cancer in order to identify the optimal temperature range for these patients to prevent complications.

The study found that higher intraoperative temperatures were associated with worse outcomes in terms of tissue loss, wound complications, and infection. Our study suggests an optimal temperature range of 35.3C-37.6C. If patients were above or below that range for a significant period of time, their complications increased. Therefore maintaining this temperature range (mild hypothermia) may improve flap outcomes in this population.

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Risk Factors For Reoperation and Readmission After Parathyroidectomy Identified

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Raymond L. Chai, MD Assistant Professor of Otolaryngology Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.

Dr. Rai

Raymond L. Chai, MD
Assistant Professor of Otolaryngology
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder affecting up to 1% of the general population. Surgical intervention is the only known durable cure for the disease. Untreated primary hyperparathyroidism can lead to number of health problems, including progressive osteoporosis and kidney stones. Although parathyroidectomy is a commonly performed surgical procedure by otolaryngologists, limited data exists regarding risk factors and rates of reoperation and readmission following surgery.

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Volunteers Plus Free Hearing Aids Can Supply Adequate Auditory Care

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Aileen Wertz, MD

Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
University of Michigan 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The key finding of this study is: free, comprehensive audiologic care, including hearing aids and fitting, is feasible within a well-established free clinic model.

We found that donated hearing aids and volunteer health care providers were able to run the clinic and that 20 patients have thus far been fit with hearing aids.

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Laypeople Perceive Facelift To Give More Youthful, Healthier Appearance

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Lisa E. Ishii, MD, MHS
Associate Professor of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
John Hopkins Medicine

Lisa Earnest Ishii, M.D. Associate Professor of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Johns Hopkins Medicine

Dr. Ishii

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: There was a gap in our knowledge about what the average lay person thought about the impact of a facelift.  We had information about what experts thought, and some about what patients themselves thought, but nothing about lay people.
Patients who choose to have a facelift are typically concerned about the opinions of:

1) Themselves when they look in the mirror, and

2) Laypeople they encounter socially in society.

Our study showed for the first time that laypeople find people who have had a facelift to appear more attractive, more youthful, healthier and more successful than they were before their facelift.

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Obstructive Sleep Apnea More Common In Obese Adolescents With Enlarged Tonsils

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ron B. Mitchell, MD Professor and Vice Chairman, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery William Beckner Distinguished Chair in Otolaryngology Chief of Pediatric Otolaryngology UT Southwestern and Children's Medical Center Dallas Dallas, TX 75207

Dr. Ron Mitchell

Ron B. Mitchell, MD
Professor and Vice Chairman,
Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
William Beckner Distinguished Chair in Otolaryngology
Chief of Pediatric Otolaryngology
UT Southwestern and Children’s Medical Center Dallas
Dallas, TX 75207

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) has not been widely studies in adolescents. This is one of a few studies that was targeted at 12-17 year olds who were referred for a sleep study for possible OSA. The study included 224 adolescents (53% male). aged 12 to 17 years. The mean BMI was 33.4 and most were either Hispanic or African American (85.3%). A total of 148 (66.1%) were obese. Most adolescents referred for a sleep study (68%), had  Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Normal-weight adolescents were least likely to have OSA at 48%, while obese children were most likely at 77%. Severe OSA was most likely in obese males with tonsillar hypertrophy.

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DNA Methylation Allows Head and Neck Tumors To Be SubClassified

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jacek Majewski PhD Associate Professor Department of Human Genetics McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre Montreal, Canada

Dr. Jacek Majewski

Jacek Majewski PhD
Associate Professor
Department of Human Genetics
McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre
Montreal, Canada 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Our lab, in collaboration with Dr. Nada Jabado, has been investigating the molecular genetics of pediatric glioblastoma – a deadly brain cancer. Several years ago, in the majority of our patients’ tumors we discovered mutations in genes that encode histone proteins. Those mutations disrupt the epigenome – that is the way the DNA is modified, silenced, or activated in the cancer cells. It appears that epigenome-modifying mutations are particularly important in pediatric cancers, and our hypothesis is that they act by diverting the normal developmental pathways into unrestrained proliferation. Many other studies have highlighted the significance of epigenome disruption in a number of cancers.

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Iron Deficiency Anemia Linked to Hearing Loss

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Kathleen Schieffer, BS, PhD Candidate
Biomedical Sciences and Clinical and Translational Science
Clinical and Translational Science Fellow
Hershey, PA 17033

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Hearing loss is common in the United States, with its prevalence increasing with each decade of life. Iron deficiency anemia is a common, reversible condition, associated with negative health outcomes. The inner ear is highly sensitive to ischemic damage and previous animal studies have shown that iron deficiency anemia alters the inner ear physiology. Understanding the association between iron deficiency anemia and hearing loss may open new possibilities for treatment.

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Vestibular or Inner Ear System Weakens After Age 40

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Daniel M. Merfeld, Ph.D. Professor of Otolaryngology Harvard Medical School Massachusetts Eye and Ear Director, Jenks Vestibular Physiology Laboratory Senior Scientist

Dr. Daniel M. Merfeld

Daniel M. Merfeld, Ph.D.
Professor of Otolaryngology
Harvard Medical School
Massachusetts Eye and Ear
Director, Jenks Vestibular Physiology Laboratory
Senior Scientist

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Nearly half of the population will see a clinician at some point in their lives with symptoms related to the vestibular system (e.g., dizziness, vertigo, imbalance and blurred vision). The vestibular system, made up of tiny fluid-filled membranes in the inner ear, is responsible for receiving information about motion, balance and spatial orientation. With the goal of determining whether age affected the function of the vestibular system, our research team administered balance and motion tests to 105 healthy people ranging from 18 to 80 years old and measured their vestibular thresholds (“threshold” refers to the smallest possible motion administered that the subject is able to perceive correctly).

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Post-Op Radiotherapy Improved Survival In Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Michelle M. Chen, MD/MHS Department of Otolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery Stanford University

Dr. Michelle Chen

Michelle M. Chen, MD/MHS
Department of Otolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery
Stanford University 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The benefit of post-operative radiotherapy (PORT) for patients with T1-T2 N1 oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer without adverse pathologic features is unclear. Starting in 2014, the national guidelines no longer recommended consideration of post-operative radiotherapy for N1 oropharyngeal cancer patients, but left it as a consideration for N1 oral cavity cancer patients. We found that post-operative radiotherapy was associated with improved survival in both oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers, particularly in patients younger than 70 years of age and those with T2 disease.

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Epidemic of HPV Associated Throat Cancer in Men

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Eric M Genden, MD, FACS Isidore Friesner Professor and Chairman Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Dr. Eric Genden

Eric M Genden, MD, FACS
Isidore Friesner Professor and Chairman
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this report? How has the clinical picture of HPV infections of oral and throat cancers changed over the past two decades?

Response: There has been no change however there has been a epidemic of viral induced throat cancer in men. The HPV virus has been established a the causative agent in cervical cancer in women. It has now been identified as a major causative agent in tonsillar and base of tongue cancer.

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