Married Head/Neck Cancer Patients Less Likely To Smoke, More Likely To Live Longer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Nosayaba Osazuwa-Peters, BDS, MPH, CHES Instructor, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Saint Louis University School of Medicine Member, Saint Louis University Cancer Center St Louis, Missouri

Nosayaba Osazuwa-Peters

Nosayaba Osazuwa-Peters, BDS, MPH, CHES
Instructor, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
Saint Louis University School of Medicine
Member, Saint Louis University Cancer Center
St Louis, Missouri 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Several studies have shown that there is an adverse effect of smoking on head and neck cancer survival; however, there are studies that show no effect between smoking and head and neck cancer. We wanted to investigate this problem using a single institution’s cancer dataset. Additionally, we wanted to understand the role of marital status in the smoking behavior of head and neck cancer patients, and to understand if smoking played any role in head and neck cancer survival.

Our study confirmed that head and neck cancer patients who were smokers at the time of diagnosis had lower survival rates than nonsmokers. We also found that married head and neck cancer patients were less likely to be smokers and more likely to survive longer than those unmarried.

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Improved DNA Analysis Reduces False Positive Prenatal DNA Testing For Trisomy Conditions

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Professor Sir Nicholas Wald FRCP FRS Professor of Preventive Medicine Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry Queen Mary University of London London

Prof. Wald

Professor Sir Nicholas Wald FRCP FRS
Professor of Preventive Medicine
Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine
Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry
Queen Mary University of London
London

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Prenatal screening for Down’s syndrome (trisomy 21), Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18) and Patau syndrome (trisomy 13) by maternal plasma DNA analysis has an improved screening performance compared with conventional screening but is too expensive to be performed routinely and has a technical failure rate.

The aim of the study was to take advantage of the improved screening performance of the DNA analysis in conjunction with the existing methods thereby providing a seamless testing interface between the “old” and the “new” methods that would detect a larger proportion of affected pregnancies with a much lower false-positive rate, at a much reduced cost compared with universal DNA testing and with no failed tests. The novel approach was to conduct a conventional screening test using a screening cut-off level that identifies about 10% of women with the highest risks of having an affected pregnancy (much higher than in conventional screening) and then to perform a DNA test using a portion of the original blood sample collected for the conventional test. Progressing to the DNA test was automatic for these high risk women without their having to be recalled for counseling and a fresh blood sample (ie as a reflex response hence the term “reflex DNA screening”).

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Matching Time of Day To Patient’s Biorhythm May Improve Surgical Outcomes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Prof David Montaigne MD

Faculté de Médecine de Lille H Warembourg
Lille, France

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: It is well known for many decades that cardiovascular diseases exhibit a diurnal variation with for instance higher incidence of myocardial infarction in the early morning as opposed to the evening. Although studies on circadian gene knock-out and mutant mice argue for a biorhythm in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion tolerance, whether a biorhythm in the myocardial tolerance to ischemia, exists in humans was unclear because of conflicting reports in the context of myocardial infarction.

We demonstrated for the first time in humans that the myocardial tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion is different along the day, in line with rodent experiments performed in the early 2010s.

We demonstrated that this biorhythm is clinically meaningful and that it can be targeted as a cardioprotective strategy.

In this topic, Rever-alpha is of specific interest. It belongs at the same time to circadian genes and nuclear receptor families: being a nuclear receptor, it is a feasible pharmacological target, conversely to other circadian genes.

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Personalizing Human-Robot Interactions Can Facilitate Rehabilitation

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev student researcher Shir Kashi interacts with robotic arm as part of her research in personalizing human-robot interactions to develop an interactive movement protocol for rehabilitation.

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev student researcher Shir Kashi interacts with robotic arm as part of her research in personalizing human-robot interactions to develop an interactive movement protocol for rehabilitation.

Shelly Levy-Tzedek, PhD
Head of the Cognition, Aging and Rehabilitation Lab
Faculty of Health Sciences, Dept. of Physical Therapy
& The Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience
The Ben Gurion University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Following brain injury, patients who need to practice their physical therapy exercises at home. Many don’t practice enough or at all at home, and so we are designing robot companions to encourage them to practice and to track their progress. This study is a first step towards this goal. Here, we studied how people played a leader-follower mirror game with a robotic arm, where a person and robot took turns following each other’s joint movements patterns. When the robotic arm was leading, it performed movements that were either sharp, like dribbling a ball, or smooth, like tracing a circle.

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Regular Use of Artificial Sweeteners May Worsen Blood Glucose Control

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Richard L. Young PhD Associate Professor Adelaide Medical School The University of Adelaide Group Leader, Intestinal Nutrient Sensing Group Centre for Nutrition & Gastrointestinal Diseases South Australian Health & Medical Research Institute North Terrace, Adelaide | SA 

Dr. Young

Dr. Richard L. Young PhD
Associate Professor Adelaide Medical School
The University of Adelaide
Group Leader, Intestinal Nutrient Sensing Group
Centre for Nutrition & Gastrointestinal Diseases
South Australian Health & Medical Research Institute
North Terrace, Adelaide | SA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This study was a clinical trial in healthy subjects dosed a sweetener combination (sucralose and acesulfame-K) at a  dose to equal 1.5 L of artificial sweetened drink per day. This was given in capsules to dissolve in the proximal intestine (3 capsules per day, 2 weeks) and was a randomised, placebo-controlled double-blind study.

Sweetener treatment increased glucose absorption (assessed by serum 3-O-methy glucose), increased glycemic responses to duodenal glucose infusion and decreased GLP-1 responses.

These data show that intake of these sweeteners in healthy subjects may increase glycemic responses, and are the first to document an effect of these sweeteners to increase glucose absorption in humans.

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Phase III Study of Stivarga (Regorafenib) For Progressed Hepatocellular Carcinoma

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Jordi Bruix, MD Professor of Medicine University of Barcelona Director of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) Group Liver Unit Hospital Clinic of Barcelona

Dr. Bruix

Dr. Jordi Bruix, MD
Professor of Medicine
University of Barcelona
Director of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) Group Liver Unit
Hospital Clinic of Barcelona

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The RESORCE Phase III pivotal trial is an international, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial which investigated the efficacy of Stivarga (regorafenib) in adults with Child-Pugh A and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stage Category B or C hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had documented disease progression following first-line treatment with Nexavar (sorafenib).

Trial participants were administered a daily oral 160mg dose (three weeks on/ one week off) of regorafenib plus best supportive care (BSC), or placebo plus BSC.

Results from the trial demonstrated that participants treated with regorafenib experienced a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in the study’s primary endpoint—overall survival (OS). Participants treated with regorafenib demonstrated a median overall survival of 10.6 months vs. 7.8 months with placebo.

At ASCO 2017, an exploratory analysis evaluated the impact of baseline alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and c-Met as predictors of poor prognosis in patients enrolled in the RESORCE trial (Abstract #4078).

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How Well Do Personal Sound Amplifiers Compare To Conventional Hearing Aides?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Nicholas S. Reed, AuD Instructor | Department of Otolaryngology-Head/Neck Surgery PhD Candidate  | Graduate Training Program in Clinical Investigation Center on Aging and Health Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health

Dr. Nicholas Reed

Nicholas S. Reed, AuD
Instructor | Department of Otolaryngology-Head/Neck Surgery
PhD Candidate  | Graduate Training Program in Clinical Investigation
Center on Aging and Health
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Hearing Aids are medical devices regulated by the FDA which must be purchased through a licensed individual while personal sound amplification products (PSAPs) are essentially unregulated devices some of which can manipulate and increase sound similar to a hearing aid but cannot market themselves are devices for hearing loss. PSAPs can be purchased online or in the back of a store and are generally less expensive than hearing aids.

We aimed to explore a select group of PSAPs to see if they helped someone with mild to moderate hearing loss improve speech understanding (i.e. ability to repeat back sentences) in the presence of mild background noise (think a lunch crowd at a restaurant) as well as a hearing aid. We selected four PSAP devices that were technologically strong (i.e. meet many standards a hearing aid might be asked to meet) and one PSAP that was technologically fairly poor (i.e. lots of sound distortion) after an in-house electroacoustic analysis of devices. Our hearing aid was selected because it was a popular choice at a university audiology clinic. Forty-two people completed the speech testing unaided (i.e. with no device) and then with each of the five PSAPs and one hearing aid (order of devices was randomized).

We looked at improvement with the devices from unaided. We found that some PSAPs help people understand speech about as well as a hearing aid in this controlled environment while one PSAP actually hindered participants’ ability to understand speech due to sound distortion – imagine how difficult it can be when listening on a poor cell phone signal.

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PCSK9 Inhibitor Praluent Added to Statins Improved Lipid Profile in Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr-Robert-R-Henry.jpg

Dr. Henry

Robert R. Henry, M.D.
Professor of Medicine
Member of the ODYSSEY DM Steering Committee and
Director of the Center for Metabolic Research
VA San Diego Healthcare System

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The ODYSSEY DM-DYSLIPIDEMIA trial was a randomized, open-label, parallel-group study designed to evaluate the superiority of Praluent versus usual care in 413 patients with type 2 diabetes with mixed dyslipidemia at high cardiovascular (CV) risk, not adequately controlled with maximally tolerated dose (MTD) statins. The primary endpoint was percent change in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) from baseline to week 24.

In ODYSSEY DM-DYSLIPIDEMIA, Praluent 75 mg was added to MTD statins, with dose adjusted at week 12 to 150 mg every two weeks if their non-HDL-C was greater than or equal to 100 mg/dL at week 8. Approximately 64 percent of patients reached their lipid goals with the Praluent 75 mg dose.

Results from the ODYSSEY DM-DYSLIPIDEMIA study found that Praluent added to MTD statins showed significant reduction in non-HDL-C and other lipid parameters compared to those on usual care.

Praluent was superior to usual care in lowering non-HDL-C (37.3 percent and 4.7 percent, for the usual care arm). The mean difference between the two treatment arms was -32.5 percent (p<0.0001).

Praluent in combination with MTD statins reduced LDL-C by 43 percent from baseline compared to a 0.3 percent increase for usual care (p<0.0001). Treatment with Praluent also improved the overall lipid profile.

There is a large unmet need for improving cholesterol lowering in patients with diabetes. Despite current standard of care, nearly 70 percent of people age 65 or older with diabetes die from some form of heart disease; and 16 percent die of stroke. Furthermore, in spite of current standard of care, many people with diabetes continue to have persistent lipid abnormalities resulting in high residual CV risk.

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Opioids Withdrawal in Babies Adding Millions To Health Care Costs

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Tammy E. Corr, D.O. Assistant Professor of Pediatrics Division of Newborn Medicine Penn State Hershey College of Medicine

Dr. Corr

Tammy E. Corr, D.O.
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
Division of Newborn Medicine
Penn State Hershey College of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Recent literature has revealed hospital charges related to neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) have increased. However, there are no data available regarding costs of an NAS admission. Because charges are variable and influenced by a number of factors, provider costs to care for a patient offer more meaningful information.

Therefore, we endeavored to determine the incidence of NAS in the United States and estimate the total annual costs and hospital length of stay for an neonatal abstinence syndrome admission as well as the incremental costs and hospital days of admission for an NAS patient compared to a non-NAS admission.

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Study Suggests Isolated Systolic Hypertension In Young Adults Should Be Treated To Prevent Damage To Aorta

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Wanpen Vongpatanasin, M.D.</strong> Professor of Medicine Norman & Audrey Kaplan Chair in Hypertension Fredric L. Coe Professorship in Nephrolithiasis and Mineral Metabolism Research Director, Hypertension Section, Cardiology Division, UT Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, TX 75390-8586

Dr. Vongpatanasin

Wanpen Vongpatanasin, M.D.
Professor of Medicine
Norman & Audrey Kaplan Chair in Hypertension
Fredric L. Coe Professorship in Nephrolithiasis and Mineral Metabolism Research
Director, Hypertension Section,
Cardiology Division,
UT Southwestern Medical Center
Dallas, TX 75390-8586

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: It is well know that treatment of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), a subtype of hypertension with elevated systolic BP 140 or above but normal diastolic BP of < 90 mmHg, improves cardiovascular outcomes in older adults after the sixth decade of life. However, it is controversial if ISH in young adults requires treatment because it was suggested that elevated systolic BP in these individuals are related to high stroke volume, rather than increased aortic stiffness. In earlier case series, ISH in young adults were particularly common in athletes with long arms and legs, suggesting that pulse wave amplification coupled with high stroke volume were responsible for elevated brachial systolic blood pressure but the true central BP was normal. Thus,  isolated systolic hypertension was proposed to be a spurious condition in young adults that can be ignored.

However, previous studies used only indirect technique in assessing aortic structure and function. Furthermore, none of these studies were conducted in the U.S. Population.

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Re-Operations After Gastric Band Surgery Are Common and Costly

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Andrew Ibrahim, M.D., M.Sc</strong> Institute for HealthCare Policy and Innovation University of Michigan

Dr. Ibrahim

Andrew Ibrahim, M.D., M.Sc
Institute for HealthCare Policy and Innovation
University of Michigan

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The laparoscopic gastric band was approved by the FDA in 2001 and widely adopted for the surgical treatment of morbid obesity. Reported rates of reoperation to revise or remove the device ranged from 4 to 60 percent in small scale studies, but no population estimates in the United States existed.

In a review of Medicare Claims data between 2006 and 2013, we observed that reoperation was common with 18% of patients requiring at least one reoperation. More over, we found that on average, patients who did need a reoperation often underwent an average of 3.8 additional procedures. Taken together, nearly half (47%) of the $470 million paid by Medicare for device related procedures was for reoperations.

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Do Our Genes Influence Our Attraction to Social Media?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Chance York, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Mass Communication Kent State University

Dr. Chance York

Chance York, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Mass Communication
Kent State University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This research used twin study survey data from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) to investigate the relative influence of genetics and environment on social media use.

While the research cannot directly examine the gene-level influence on social media behavior, I was able to leverage known levels of genetic relatedness between identical and fraternal twins to suss out how much genetic traits and environmental factors impact frequency of using social media.

The results showed that between one- and two-thirds of variance in social media use is explained by genes, while environmental factors (parental socialization, peers, work, school, individual characteristics, etc.) explained the rest. In other words, this very specific communication behavior—social media use—is partially guided by our genetic makeup.

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Consequences of Interpersonal Violence Against Child Athletes Persist into Adulthood

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Tine Vertommen, Criminologist Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Universiteitsplein 1 Antwerp, Belgium

Tine Vertommen

Tine Vertommen, Criminologist
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Universiteitsplein 1
Antwerp, Belgium

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: A recent prevalence study into interpersonal violence against child athletes in the Netherlands and Belgium showed that 6% experienced severe sexual violence, 8% experienced severe physical violence, and 9% of respondents experienced severe psychological violence in sport (Vertommen et al., 2016). While general literature has repeatedly shown that exposure to interpersonal violence during childhood is associated with mental health problems in adulthood, this relationship has not yet been demonstrated in (former) athletes. Thus, the objective of the current study is to assess the long-term consequences of these experiences on adult mental health and quality of life.

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Newly Recognized Connection Between Immune System and Sperm Opens Window to Some Male Infertility and Cancer Vaccine Failures

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Kenneth S. K. Tung, M.D.
Professor of Pathology and Microbiology
Director of UVA Research Histology Core
Beirne B. Carter Center for Immunology Research
University of Virginia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The immune system needs to see tissue antigens to avoid responding to them in order to prevent autoimmune disease development. The current dogma, stated in all Immunology and Reproductive Biology textbooks, considers the sperm antigens in the testis to be exempted from this process. They are considered totally hidden behind a tissue barrier, and are invisible to the immune system.

Because sperm antigens are treated as foreign molecules, they should stimulate strong immune response when employed in cancer vaccines against antigens common to sperm and cancers. It is also believed that sperm molecules are protected by local factors that inhibit inflammation, whereas systemic mechanisms such as regulatory T cells would not exist.

The paradigm has restrained ongoing research on systemic tolerance to sperm, and the need to understanding systemic regulation in infertility research

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Home Health Care Providers Increase, But Geographic Variability Persists

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Sheila Eckenrode RN, CPHQ
Quality Improvement Consultant
The New England QIN-QIO
Qualidigm, Wethersfield, Connecticut

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Post-acute care has become a focus for improving quality and cost effectiveness of healthcare in the United States. Changes in Medicare payment systems such as bundled payments and the emergence of Affordable Healthcare Organizations will most likely lead to expansion of post-acute care services and decrease in  acute care hospitalizations. Approximately  30% of hospitalized Medicare beneficiaries were referred to home health care at discharge in 2012.  In 2013, home health agencies served  3.5 million beneficiaries with Medicare paying  $18 billion for these services. Home health care has been emphasized under the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014 to provide and improve care at individual patient and community levels. In anticipation of increasing utilization of home care services, our study aimed to demonstrate the overall growth in home care availability as well as identify geographical variation and potential gaps in service.

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Diabetic Retinopathy: OCTA May Improve Staging, Diagnosis and Monitoring

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

José Cunha-Vaz, M.D., Ph.D. Emeritus Professor of Ophthalmology University of Coimbra, Portugal President of AIBILI Association for Innovation and Biomedical Research on Light and Image Editor-in-Chief of Ophthalmic Research Coordinator, Diabetic Retinopathy and Retinal Vascular Diseases, European Vision Institute Clinical Research Network (EVICR.net)

Dr. Cunha-Vaz

José Cunha-Vaz, M.D., Ph.D.
Emeritus Professor of Ophthalmology
University of Coimbra, Portugal
President of AIBILI
Association for Innovation and Biomedical Research on Light and Image
Editor-in-Chief of Ophthalmic Research
Coordinator, Diabetic Retinopathy and Retinal Vascular Diseases,
European Vision Institute Clinical Research Network (EVICR.net) 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In this study, we evaluated the clinical utility of quantitative measures of microvasculature in optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA). Although several studies have demonstrated the potential value of measures of microvasculature in the management of diabetic retinopathy (DR), our study uses the ROC curve to compare the overall value of different approaches. In this age matched population with a range of disease, the mean vessel density measured in the SRL had the highest AUC, indicating that it is best among the methods tested at differentiating normal eyes from eyes with diabetic retinopathy.

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HUD Housing Assistance, But Not Vouchers, Linked To Improvement in Health Measurements

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Andrew Fenelon PhD Assistant Professor, Department of Health Services Administration University of Maryland School of Public Health. College Park, MD 20742

Dr. Andrew Fenelon

Andrew Fenelon PhD
Assistant Professor, Department of Health Services Administration
University of Maryland School of Public Health.
College Park, MD 20742

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Despite the relatively large public investment in housing assistance at the federal level, there have been few nationwide analyses of the impacts of these programs on health and well-being. And as policymakers seek solutions to health disparities that incorporate some of the non-medical determinants of health (such as housing quality), our study can make an important contribution to both health and housing policy.

We use an innovative data linkage program which links individuals in a federal household health survey and administrative housing records from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). We examine the health impacts of three HUD housing programs: public housing, housing choice vouchers, and multifamily housing. We find that public housing and multifamily housing lead to an improvement in self-reported health status, and public housing leads to a reduction in serious psychological distress. We do not find health impacts associated with housing choice vouchers.

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Schizophrenia: SynCav1 As Potential Target To Restore Neuron Function

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Brian P. Head, MS, PhD Associate Professor, UCSD Research Scientist, VASDHS Department of Anesthesiology VA San Diego Healthcare System San Diego, CA 92161-9125

Dr. Brian Head

Brian P. Head, MS, PhD
Associate Professor, UCSD
Research Scientist, VASDHS
Department of Anesthesiology
VA San Diego Healthcare System
San Diego, CA 92161-9125

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: DISC1 is a schizophrenia associated gene originally identified in a Scottish family. DISC1 protein is highly expressed in the developing brain and in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus, and is involved in neuritogenesis and neuronal signaling. DISC1 is located in multiple intracellular locations including axons and synapses, and loss of DISC1 function causes deficits in neural development, neuronal proliferation, axonal growth, and cytoskeleton modulation, which are consistent with abnormal neural development in schizophrenia.

SynCav1 means synapsin-driven caveolin construct. Synapsin promoter is neuronal specific which allows us to increase caveolin expression-specifically in neurons. We have previously shown that SynCav1 increases neuronal signaling and dendritic growth and arborization in vitro (Head BP JBC 2011), and when delivered in vivo augments functional neuroplasticity and improves learning and memory in adult and aged mice (Mandyam CD Biol Psych 2015).

Since loss of DISC1 function equates to schizophrenic-like symptoms, then decreased DISC1 expression in Cav-1 KO mice agrees with this premise. Thus, loss of Cav-1 increases their likelihood of developing schizophrenia-like symptoms. Because re-espression of Cav-1 restored DISC1 expression as well as expression of key synaptic proteins, this proof-of-concept findings not only builds upon our previously results demonstrating that Cav-1 is critical for neuronal signaling and functional synaptic plasticity but also strongly links Cav-1 with maintaining normal DISC1 expression levels and potentially attenuating schizophrenia-like symptoms.

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Child Abuse By Members of Military May Be Grossly Underreported

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Joanne N. Wood, MD, MSHP  Assistant Professor of Pediatrics Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania Research Director, SafePlace Faculty, PolicyLab The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

Dr. Joanne Wood

Joanne N. Wood, MD, MSHP
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
Research Director, SafePlace
Faculty, PolicyLab
The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Each year the U.S. Army Family Advocacy program (FAP) investigates between 6000 to 9000 reports of alleged abuse or neglect involving children of Army service members.   In approximately 48% of reported cases FAP determines a child was a victim of maltreatment, substantiates the report, and collaborates with local civilian child protection service (CPS) agencies in providing services and ensuring safety. Thus, FAP plays a key role in supporting Army families and protecting children.  But FAP can only investigate and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect about which they are aware.

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Taking Happy Photos Can Improve Mood and Reduce Stress

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Yu Chen, Ph.D. Post-doc researcher Department of Informatics University of California, Irvine

Dr. Yu Chen

Yu Chen, Ph.D.
Post-doc researcher
Department of Informatics
University of California, Irvine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: College students are facing increasing amount of stress these days. We are interested in leveraging information technology to help them become happier. We week to implement happiness-boosting exercises in positive psychology using technology in a lightweight way. Since college students frequently take photos using their smartphones, we started to investigate how to use smartphone photography to help students conduct the happiness-boosting exercises.

Participants were divided into three groups and instructed to take a photo per day in one of the following three conditions:

1) a smiling selfie;
2) a photo of something that makes himself/herself happy;
3) a photo of something that makes another person happy, which is then sent to that person.

We found that participants have become more positive after purposefully taking the assigned type of photo for three weeks. Participants who took photos that make others happy also became calmer. Some participants who took smiling selfies reported becoming more confident and comfortable with their smiles. Those who took photos to make themselves happy reported becoming more reflective and appreciative. Participants who took photos to make others happy found connecting with strong ties help them reduce stress.

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Optune as Standard Treatment Option for Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma

Novocure is the developer of Optune, which uses Tumor Treating Fields to treat cancer. Tumor Treating Fields, or TTFields, are low intensity, alternating electric fields within the intermediate frequency range. TTFields disrupt cell division through physical interactions with key molecules during mitosis. This non-invasive treatment targets solid tumors.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) has recommended Optune as a standard treatment option for newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) in its Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®) for Central Nervous System Cancers. NCCN panel members designated Optune together with temozolomide as a category 2A treatment for newly diagnosed GBM for patients with good performance status, indicating uniform consensus among panel members to add Optune to the guidelines for newly diagnosed GBM. Optune has been included in the NCCN Guidelines as a category 2B treatment option for recurrent GBM since 2015. The recommendation follows the publication of Novocure’s EF-14 phase 3 pivotal trial data in The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) in December, 2015. The EF-14 phase 3 pivotal trial demonstrated that adding TTFields to maintenance temozolomide chemotherapy significantly prolonged progression-free and overall survival in newly diagnosed GBM.
Glioblastoma, also called glioblastoma multiforme, or GBM, is a type of primary brain cancer. Approximately 12,500 GBM tumors, or tumors that may transform into GBM, are diagnosed in the U.S. each year. GBM is the most common type of primary brain cancer in adults. It is more likely to appear in older adults and to affect men than women. GBM is one of the deadliest forms of cancer, with patients typically not surviving beyond 15 months after diagnosis.

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HIV Treatment Does Not Reduce Cardiovascular Risk of HIV Infection

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Steven Grinspoon, MD Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School MGH Endowed Chair in Neuroendocrinology and Metabolism Director, MGH Program in Nutritional Metabolism and Nutrition Obesity Research Center at Harvard MGH Boston, MA 02114

Dr. Steven Kyle Grinspoon

Steven Grinspoon, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
MGH Endowed Chair in Neuroendocrinology and Metabolism
Director, MGH Program in Nutritional Metabolism
and Nutrition Obesity Research Center at Harvard
MGH
Boston, MA 02114

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Grinspoon: Numerous epidemiologic studies have shown that people living with HIV face a 1.5 to 2-fold increased risk of heart attack, or myocardial infarction, as compared to individuals without the virus. Mechanisms underlying the increased risk of myocardial infarction in HIV are incompletely understood. It is possible that among people living with HIV, increased systemic immune activation fuels arterial inflammation. Arterial inflammation may, in turn, promote the development of high-risk morphology coronary atherosclerotic plaque, which is liable to rupture and result in myocardial infarction.

For people diagnosed with HIV, the overall health benefits of immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART) are clear. However, the effects of newly-initiated antiretroviral therapy on arterial inflammation have not previously been studied. In this study, we set out to assess among a cohort of treatment-naive HIV-infected subjects, the effects of newly-initiated ART with a contemporary regimen on both immune function and arterial inflammation. We found that among treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals without clinical cardiovascular disease, newly initiated combined antiretroviral therapy has discordant effects to restore immune function without reducing the degree of arterial inflammation.

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Nasal Spray Desmopressin – Noctiva- Reduces Nighttime Voiding in Patients With Nocturia

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Jed Kaminetsky - MD Clinical Assistant Professor Department of Urology NYU Langone Medical Center

Dr. Jed Kaminetsky

Dr. Jed Kaminetsky MD
Clinical Assistant Professor
Department of Urology
NYU Langone Medical Center 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Kaminetsky: Nocturia is a voiding disorder not well treated by available drugs for overactive bladder and benign prostatic hypertrophy. Desmopressin stimulates the kidneys to concentrate the urine which results in a greatly reduced volume of urine formation for a period of time. Serenity Pharmaceuticals has spent many years developing a low dose nasal spray version of desmopressin called Noctiva specifically for nocturia. The study reported now is a large, placebo controlled phase 3 trial to confirm the statistical efficacy and clinical benefit of this treatment for nocturia.

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Autism Spectrum Disorders Linked To Depression in Adults

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Rebecca A. Charlton PhD Senior Lecturer in Psychology; Undergraduate Admissions Tutor Department of Psychology Goldsmiths, University of London New Cross London, UK

Dr. Rebecca Charlton

Dr. Rebecca A. Charlton PhD
Senior Lecturer in Psychology; Undergraduate Admissions Tutor
Department of Psychology
Goldsmiths, University of London
New Cross London, UK

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Charlton: Although Autism Spectrum Disorders are classified as developmental disorders, they last throughout life. Autism Spectrum Disorders were first identified in the 1940s, but it was only from the 1960s onwards that awareness of the condition began to increase. Initial research into Autism focused on the area of greatest need, i.e. childhood and education. Only now that those individuals first diagnosed with Autism are reaching old age are studies able to examine what happens in late-life. Although there are an increasing number of older adults with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders, it is often difficult to identify individuals willing to participate in research. One alternative is to explore Autism traits in the general population, this is known as the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP). These BAP traits occur in relatives of those with Autism and in the general population. By examining the BAP in community-dwelling older adults, we can begin to understand whether these traits confer additional risk to in ageing.

MedicalResearch.com: What did you do in the study? What are the main findings?
Dr. Charlton: Adults aged over 60 years old were recruited to take part in the study. They completed questionnaires reporting on presences of  Broad Autism Phenotype traits, executive functions (the ability to plan and organise behaviour), mood (depression and anxiety), and social support.

Of the 66 individuals who participated, 20 individuals reported significant BAP traits – classified as the  Broad Autism Phenotype group. Individuals in the BAP group reported more problems with executive functions, higher rates of depression and anxiety, and less social support than those in the non-BAP group. Further analyses demonstrated that having  Broad Autism Phenotype traits was the factor that most explained presence of depression and anxiety symptoms among these older adults.

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Vaginal Seeding After C-Section Can Transfer Harmful Germs To Baby

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Aubrey Cunnington Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medicine Clinical Senior Lecturer Imperial College, London

Dr. Aubrey Cunnington

Dr. Aubrey Cunnington
Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medicine
Clinical Senior Lecturer
Imperial College, London

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Cunnington: We noticed that increasing numbers of women who were having Caesarean section deliveries at our hospitals were requesting for their vaginal fluid to be swabbed onto their babies after birth – a process often termed “vaginal seeding”. The idea behind this, is that it transfers all the natural bacteria (microbiota) from the mother’s vagina to the baby. We know that early on in life, babies born by Caesarean section have different bacteria living on their bodies and in their guts to those of babies born by vaginal delivery. Some people think these differences in the microbiota may be responsible for differences in long-term health, although a causal link is unproven. The hope is that vaginal seeding might reduce the risk of the baby developing some diseases like obesity and asthma in the future. Unfortunately we are a long way from having the evidence to show that this is possible, and we do not know whether vaginal seeding is really safe. Babies born by elective Caesarean section are at lower risk of transfer of some potentially harmful bacteria and viruses from the birth canal, but these harmful bacteria and viruses could be transferred to the baby on a swab and potentially cause a devastating infection.

MedicalResearch.com Editor’s note:  ‘Vaginal Seeding’ is also known as “microbirthing”,   

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Individuals With History of Child Abuse May Be More Likely To Enter Military

Tracie O. Afifi, PhD Associate Professor of Epidemiology CIHR New Investigator (2013-2018) Departments of Community Health Sciences and Psychiatry College of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences University of Manitoba

Dr. Tracie Afifi

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Tracie O. Afifi, PhD
Associate Professor of Epidemiology
CIHR New Investigator (2013-2018)
Departments of Community Health Sciences and Psychiatry
College of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences
University of Manitoba 


Medical Research: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Afifi: Recent studies in the US have examined predictors and correlates of suicide among solider, but none of these studies have investigated the potential role that child abuse exposure may play in suicide-related outcomes. In addition no representative military and civilian comparisons from any country have examined possible differences in the prevalence of child abuse exposure and the potential differences in the relationships between child abuse exposure and suicide-related outcomes in these populations. This study uses nationally representative military and civilian samples from Canada.

Medical Research: What are the main findings?

Dr. Afifi: Child abuse was more prevalent among Regular Forces personnel (47.7%) and Reserve Forces personnel (49.4%) compared to the Canadian general population (33.1%).

Child abuse exposure was associated with an increased likelihood of suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts in military and civilian populations, with associations weaker for many outcomes in military personnel relative to civilians.

Deployment-related trauma was associated with past-year suicidal thoughts and suicide plans. However, relative to deployment-related trauma, child abuse exposure had a more robust association with suicide-related outcomes.

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Adverse Childhood Experiences Contribute To Poor Health Outcomes in LBG Adults

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Anna Austin, MPH
PhD Student
UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health

MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Several studies have examined experiences of childhood abuse among individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB), but there has been relatively little research exploring experiences of other types of childhood trauma, like witnessing domestic violence between parents or growing up with a parent who is an alcoholic, among LGB individuals. We know from the study on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) conducted by Kaiser Permanente and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that the greater number of childhood traumas and adversities an individual experiences, the greater the risk for poor health later in life. There have also been a number of studies that have demonstrated health disparities by sexual orientation, with LGB adults typically having worse health than heterosexual adults. We were interested in the role that multiple types of adverse childhood experiences play in the development of poor adult health outcomes among LGB individuals.

In this study, we captured 8 categories of ACEs. We captured 3 categories of childhood abuse (sexual, physical, and emotional abuse) and 5 categories of household dysfunction (adult mental illness, substance abuse, and domestic violence in the household; incarceration of a household member; and parental divorce or separation). LGB adults were more likely to report each of these 8 categories of ACEs than heterosexuals, with the largest differences found for sexual abuse, adult mental illness in the household, and incarceration of a household member. LGB adults were also more likely to report having experienced multiple ACEs. Forty-two percent of LGB adults compared to 24 percent of heterosexual adults reported having experienced between 3 to 8 ACEs.

We also found that LGB adults were more likely to report poor adult health like smoking, HIV risk behaviors, 14 or more days of poor physical or mental health in the past 30 days, asthma, depression, and disability than heterosexuals. However, after we accounted for the number of ACEs each individual reported, LGB adults were no longer more likely to report smoking, binge drinking, and 14 or more days of poor physical health in the past 30 days.

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Study Addresses Optimal C-Section Rate for Maternal and Fetal Health

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Alex Haynes, MD, MPH
Assistant Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School
Assistant in Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital Division of Surgical Oncology
Associate Program Director, Safe Surgery, Ariadne Labs
Research Associate Harvard School of Public Health and
George Molina, MD, MPH
Surgical Research Resident
Massachusetts General Hospital 

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We have previously done work looking at the global volume of operations, and in particular the surgical volume at a country level. This work was based on the hypothesis that a certain level of surgical care is necessary for healthy populations. In doing this work, we found that cesarean delivery makes up a large proportion of all operations that happen globally.

In the mid-1980’s, based on existing data the World Health Organization made the recommendation that at a country-level, the cesarean delivery rate should not exceed 10 to 15 per 100 live births. We wanted to see if this recommendation was still applicable using current data. In order to answer this question, we used multiple imputation to estimate country-level cesarean delivery rates for all 194 countries in the world in 2012 to investigate the association between country-level cesarean delivery rates and maternal and neonatal mortality.

We found that at a population level, as the cesarean delivery rate increased up to about 19 per 100 live births, there was a decrease in country-level maternal and neonatal mortality. However, as country-level cesarean delivery rates rose above this level there were no associated changes in maternal or neonatal mortality.

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Young Children Most Likely To Severe Injury and Death From Abuse

Dr. Ffion C Davies Consultant in Emergency Medicine & Paediatric Lead University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust Leicester Royal Infirmary Leicester UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Ffion C Davies
Consultant in Emergency Medicine & Paediatric Lead
University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust
Leicester Royal Infirmary
Leicester UK

Medical Research: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Davies: This study is from the Trauma Audit Research Network data, which is a major trauma database receiving data from nearly all hospitals in England and Wales. A 2012 TARN report on major trauma in children showed a peak of injuries resulting from child abuse in the younger age group. In this study we analysed the database in more detail, in order to profile this peak of injuries from non-accidental injury (NAI).

Medical Research: What are the main findings?

Dr. Davies: The main findings are that severe injury and death resulting from non-accidental injury occurs nearly always in the under 5 year old age group, and 75% of cases are under 1 year old. This contrasts with reports in the media, whereby high profile deaths in children from non-accidental injury are often older children. This probably reflects reporting bias, because those children experienced a prolonged period of abuse, despite involvement of health and social services. Our study shows that very small infants are the most likely to die, or to sustain severe head injuries.

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Resveratrol May Help Convert Bad Fat to Good

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Min Du Ph.D
Department of Animal Sciences
Washington Center for Muscle Biology
Washington State University
Pullman, WA

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The beige fat is only recently identified and is highly inducible. we observed that polyphenolic compounds including resveratrol enhances AMPK activity, and hypothesized that resveratrol might enhance the formation of beige fat through activation of AMPK. Therefore, we used resveratrol, a very well characterized polyphenolic compound as a representative of polyphenolic compounds in fruits, to check its effects on the formation of beige fat. We found that resveratrol induced the formation of beige adipocytes both in vitro and in vivo. We further found that the lipid oxidation rate was enhanced due to the formation of beige fat, which is correlated with the anti-obesity effect of resveratrol.

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Human Trafficking During Global Sporting Events Needs More Study

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Rebecca Finkel PhD Queen Margaret University Edinburgh, Scotland, UK and
Dr. Rebecca Finkel PhD
Queen Margaret University
Edinburgh, Scotland, UK and
Madelon Finkel, Ph.D. Director Professor of Clinical Public Health Weill Cornell Medical College, NY, NYMadelon Finkel, Ph.D.
Director Professor of Clinical Public Health
Weill Cornell Medical College, NY, NY

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Drs. Finkel: Human trafficking is as complex human rights and public health issue. One of the authors (RF) studied the issue at the Vancouver Olympic Games and felt that there needed to be more research on this topic. Much of the problem is that the issue of human trafficking for sexual exploitation at mega global sporting events is difficult to quantify given the clandestine nature of the industry. This is not to say that human trafficking for sexual exploitation does not occur. It almost certainly exists, but to what extent is the big question and to what extent do global events have an impact (if at all)? Our article shows that there are few well-designed empirical studies that address the issue of human trafficking, especially as it relates to mega sporting events.

The extant literature presents gaps in:
a) understanding the actual scope of the international human trafficking situation;
b) establishing links between human trafficking and mega sporting events despite anecdotal testimonies and moral panics often fueled by international media; and,
c) public health implications for victims of human trafficking.

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Elder Abuse as a Risk Factor for Hospitalization in Older Persons

MedicalResearch.com eInterview with XinQi Dong, MD MPH

APSA Congressional Policy Fellow/Health and Aging Policy Fellow
Chair, IOM Global Violence Prevention Forum on Elder Abuse
Senior Policy and Research Advisor, Administration on Aging
Senior Policy Advisor (OCSQ), Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services
Director, Chinese Health, Aging and Policy Program
Associate Director, Rush Institute for Healthy Aging
Associate Professor of Medicine, Nursing and Behavioral Science
Rush University Medical Center
Chicago, IL 60612
www.chinesehealthyaging.org

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: Dong and Simon investigated the prospective association between elder abuse and rate of hospitalization in a Chicago community population. From the Chicago Health and Aging Project, the study surveyed 6,674 older adults. After consideration of potential confounding factors, elder abuse victims compared to those without elder abuse had 2.7 times more frequent rate of hospitalizations in this Medicare population. Older adults who suffered psychological abuse, financial exploitation and caregiver neglect also had more frequent rate of hospitalization. Health care professionals should consider screening for elder abuse in hospital settings. Future research is needed to quantify impact of elder abuse and broader health service utilization in community-dwelling older persons.
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