Majority of Murdered Women Are Killed By Current or Former Partners

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

EmikoPetrosky MD M.P.H Science Officer, National Violent Death Reporting System at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emory University Rollins School of Public Health

Dr. Petrosky

EmikoPetrosky MD M.P.H
Science Officer, National Violent Death Reporting System at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Emory University Rollins School of Public Health

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Homicide is one of the leading causes of death for women aged 44 years and younger. In 2015, 3,519 girls and women died by homicide in the United States.  It is the 5th leading cause of death for women under 45 years age (defining women as 18-44 years of age).

The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) links together data from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, and law enforcement reports, resulting in more information about the circumstances of death than what is available elsewhere.

Continue reading

Breastfeeding Rates Increase But Racial Gaps Persist

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Erica H. Anstey PhD Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion  Immunization Services Division National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases CDC

Dr. Anstey

Dr. Erica H. Anstey PhD
Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
Immunization Services Division
National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that infants are breastfed exclusively for about the first 6 months and that breastfeeding continue for at least 12 months, and thereafter for as long as mother and baby desire. Although breastfeeding initiation and duration rates have increased overall in the United States, breastfeeding rates vary by geographic location, socioeconomic, and race/ethnic groups. Breastfeeding initiation and duration have been historically and consistently lower among black infants compared with white and Hispanic infants.

There are many factors that influence a woman’s decision to start and continue breastfeeding. These include knowledge about breastfeeding, cultural and social norms, family and social support, and work and childcare environments. Some barriers to breastfeeding are disproportionately experienced by black women, including earlier return to work, inadequate receipt of breastfeeding information from providers, and lack of access to professional breastfeeding support.

Continue reading

Opioid Prescriptions Decrease But Still Elevated Compared To 20 Years Ago

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Deborah Dowell, MD, MPH Chief Medical Officer, Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Dr. Dowell

Deborah Dowell, MD, MPH
Chief Medical Officer, Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: CDC analyzed retail prescription data from QuintilesIMS which provides estimates of the number of opioid prescriptions dispensed in the United States from approximately 59,000 pharmacies, representing 88% of prescriptions in the United States. CDC assessed opioid prescribing in the United States from 2006 to 2015, including rates, amounts, dosages, and durations prescribed. CDC examined county-level prescribing patterns in 2010 and 2015.
Continue reading

Cancer Death Rates Higher in Rural America

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Lisa C. Richardson, MD, MPH, Oncologist Director,Division of Cancer Prevention and Control CDC

Dr. Richardson

Lisa C. Richardson, MD, MPH, Oncologist
Director,Division of Cancer Prevention and Control
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: This MMWR report is the first complete description of cancer incidence and mortality comparing rural and urban America.  From previous reports we know that rural residents are more likely to be older, have more comorbid conditions and participate in high risk behaviors that can lead to cancer. CDC researchers were interested in how these factors were related to new cancers and cancer deaths in rural counties compared to metropolitan counties.

Researchers found that rates of new cases for lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and cervical cancer were higher in rural America. In contrast, rural areas were found to have lower rates of new cancers of the female breast, and prostate. Rural counties had higher death rates from lung, colorectal, prostate, and cervical cancers.

Continue reading

More Adults Walking For Transportation or Leisure, But Demographic Deparities Remain

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Emily Neusel Ussery, MPH PhD Epidemiologist, Physical Activity and Health Branch CDC

Dr. Ussery

Emily Neusel Ussery, MPH PhD
Epidemiologist, Physical Activity and Health Branch
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Walking is an easy way for most people to start and maintain a physically active lifestyle. Step It Up! The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Promote Walking and Walkable Communities identifies walking as an important public health strategy to increase physical activity levels in the U.S. A previous report found that the percentage of adults who reported walking for transportation or leisure increased by 6 percentage points between 2005 and 2010, but it is unknown if this increase has continued. This report examined trends in the proportion of U.S. adults who reported walking for transportation or leisure for at least one 10-minute period in the past week, using nationally representative data from the 2005, 2010, and 2015 National Health Interview Surveys. We also examined differences in walking trends by sociodemographic characteristics.

Continue reading

Health-Related Quality of Life Varies Among US Workers

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Taylor M. Shockey MPH

CDC/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Our study examined health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among 22 major occupation groups using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. The BRFSS is an annual telephone survey that collects data from U.S. residents on their health-related risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, and use of preventive services.

HRQOL is an individual’s self-perception of their physical and mental health over time and it provides a valuable measure of well-being. HRQOL is used by a variety of different fields, outside of public health, including psychology, social work, economics, and urban planning. HRQOL is a measure capable of linking these different fields and is used to determine disease burden, to monitor progress in achieving the Healthy People goals, to guide policy and legislation, to develop interventions, and to allocate resources where they are most needed. The Healthy People goals are 10-year targets for improving the health of Americans through health promotion activities and disease prevention efforts.

In relation to occupation, prior research that has evaluated HRQOL has typically focused on employment status, but not on specific job type. It’s been established, however, that job characteristics such as high demand, low control, role stress, bullying, work hours, etc., are associated with greater risk for common mental health problems as well as physical outcomes like headaches, fatigue, and gastrointestinal problems.

Our study wanted to determine if differences in HRQOL would exist among occupation groups.

Continue reading

Unorthodox Treatment of Presumed Chronic Lyme Disease Can Be Deadly

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Christina Nelson, MD MPH Medical epidemiologist, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases CDC

Dr. Nelson

Dr. Christina Nelson, MD MPH
Medical epidemiologist, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases
CDC 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Patients who are given a diagnosis of “chronic Lyme disease” have been offered a variety of treatments that have not been shown to be effective.  Many patients are treated with prolonged courses of antibiotics (for months or years), which have not been shown to provide substantial long-term benefit to patients.  Anecdotal reports about adverse outcomes associated with these treatments for chronic Lyme disease are common, but there have not been systematic efforts to collect data about the frequency of these events.

MedicalResearch.com: Why is the diagnosis of ‘Chronic Lyme Disease’ so common?

Response: The term “chronic Lyme disease” (CLD) has been used to describe people with different illnesses. While the term is sometimes used to describe illness in patients with Lyme disease, in many occasions it has been used to describe symptoms in people who have no evidence of a current or past infection with Lyme disease.  Because of the confusion in how the term CLD is employed, experts in this field do not support its use.

Continue reading

Legionnaires’ Disease Is Widespread and Deadly in US Health Care Facilities

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Elizabeth A. Soda, MD
Epidemic Intelligence Service
Divison of Bacterial Diseases
National Center of Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Legionella is a waterborne bacterium responsible for Legionnaires’ disease, an often severe pneumonia. Legionnaires’ disease primarily affects certain groups of individuals such as those ≥50 year of age, current or former smokers, and those with chronic diseases or weakened immune systems. Health care facilities often have large and complex water systems and care for vulnerable populations that are susceptible to developing Legionnaires’ disease. Thus preventing hospitalized patients from developing Legionnaires’ disease is the ultimate goal. This analysis aimed to describe health care-associated Legionnaires’ disease in 2015 from the 21 U.S. jurisdictions that completely reported their health care-associated Legionnaires’ disease cases to the CDC’s Supplemental Legionnaires’ Disease Surveillance System (SLDSS).

Over 2,800 cases of Legionnaires’ disease cases were reported to SLDSS by the 21 jurisdictions, and 553 (20%) were considered health care associated. The analysis showed 16 of the 21 (76%) jurisdictions had at least one case of Legionnaires’ disease definitely related to a stay in a hospital or long-term care facility. In total there were 85 (3%) definite health care-associated Legionnaires’ disease cases (as defined by continuous exposure to a hospital or long-term facility for the entire 10 days before symptom onset) that resulted from 72 different health care facilities.

Additionally, 20 of 21 jurisdictions (95%) reported 468 (17%) possible health care-associated Legionnaires’ disease cases (as defined by any exposure to a health care facility for a portion of the 10 days before symptom onset) that resulted from approximately 415 different health care facilities.

While approximately 9% of Legionnaires’ disease cases overall are fatal, this report showed a case fatality of 25% for definite health care-associated cases.

Continue reading

Study Finds No Link Between First Trimester Influenza Vaccination and Major Structural Birth Defects

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Elyse Olshen Kharbanda, MD MPH HealthPartners Institute Minneapolis, MN

Dr. Kharbanda

Dr. Elyse Olshen Kharbanda, MD MPH

HealthPartners Institute
Minneapolis, MN

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Pregnant women who get the flu are at an increased risk for severe illness. To protect pregnant women, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends women receive inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) during any trimester of their pregnancy.

This study used data from the Vaccine Safety Datalink to evaluate if there was an increased risk for selected major structural birth defects for infants whose mothers received IIV in the first trimester of pregnancy versus infants who were unexposed to IIV. Among over 425,000 live births, including 52,856 whose mothers received IIV during first trimester, we evaluated risks for major structural birth defects.  In this large observational study, we did not observe increased risks for major structural birth defects in offspring following first trimester maternal inactivated influenza vaccine exposure.

Continue reading

Directly Observed Therapy Linked To Lower Mortality In Multi-Drug Resistant TB

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Jorge Salinas MD
Epidemic intelligence service officer
Division of Tuberculosis Elimination
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Because multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) treatment regimens are less effective, more complex, and are more likely to have side effects that are difficult to tolerate than regimens for drug-susceptible TB, patients with MDR TB are at a higher risk of dying. Directly observed therapy (a therapy by which patients meet with a healthcare worker at a regularly scheduled time and place so the healthcare worker can observe the patient taking their TB medication) is recommended to treat all forms of TB disease, including MDR TB.

Continue reading