Rapid Increase in ER Visits For Young Girls With Self-Inflicted Injuries

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Melissa C. Mercado PhD, MSc, MA Behavioral scientist Division of Violence Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control CDC

Dr. Mercado

Dr. Melissa C. Mercado PhD, MSc, MA
Behavioral scientist
Division of Violence Prevention
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Suicide ranks as the 10th leading cause of death for all age groups combined and has been among the top 12 leading causes of death since 1975 in the U.S. In 2015, across all age groups, suicide was responsible for 44,193 deaths in the U.S., which is approximately one suicide every 12 minutes.

Suicide was the second leading cause of death among U.S. youth aged 10-24 years in 2015. Self-inflicted injury is one of the strongest risk factors for suicide.

This study examined trends in non-fatal self-inflicted injuries treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs) among youth aged 10 to 24 years in the United States from 2001-2015.  The overall weighted age-adjusted rate for this group increased by 5.7% annually during the 2008 to 2015 period.  Age-adjusted trends for males overall and across age groups remained stable throughout 2001-2015.  However, rates among females increased significantly, by 8.4% annually. The largest increase among females was observed among those aged 10-14 years, with an increase of 18.8% annually from 2009 to 2015.

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US Heat-Related Deaths Disproportionately Affect Non-Citizens

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Wood for Heat” by Alternative Heat is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Ethel V. Taylor, DVM, MPH
Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects
National Center for Environmental Health,
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta, GA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: CDC sought to identify and measure whether or not differences exist for deaths associated with extreme heat among non-citizens, who had been identified by previous studies as higher risk due to occupation.

CDC compared heat-related deaths among non-US and US citizens from 2005-2014. Heat-related deaths accounted for 2.4% of all deaths among non-U.S. citizens (n=999) compared to 0.02% of U.S. citizens (n=4196).

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Nearly Half of Adolescents Had At Least One Sunburn In Past Year

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Dymchurch Beach - May 2012 - Sunburn with Matching Bikini” by Gareth Williams is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Dawn M. Holman, MPH
Behavioral Scientist
Division of Cancer Prevention and Control
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Scientific evidence clearly shows that even one sunburn during adolescence can increase a person’s chances of developing skin cancer as an adult. Surprisingly, little research has been done to understand the factors associated with sunburn during this phase of life. The CDC wanted to examine beliefs, behaviors, and demographic characteristics that might be associated with adolescent sunburns in hopes that the findings could inform future intervention efforts. We used data from the 2015 YouthStyles survey (adolescents aged 12 to 17 years) to explore this research question

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Kidney Failure From Diabetes Decreasing Across US

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Nilka Ríos Burrows, MPH, MT (ASCP)
Lead, Chronic Kidney Disease Initiative
CDC Division of Diabetes Translation. 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Kidney failure treated with dialysis or a kidney transplant is called end-stage renal disease (ESRD).  ESRD is a costly and disabling condition often resulting in premature death.

During 2000–2014, kidney failure from diabetes among U.S. adults with diabetes decreased by 33%, and it declined significantly in most states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. No state experienced an increase in kidney failure from diabetes. Continued awareness and interventions to reduce risk factors for kidney failure, improve diabetes care, and prevent type 2 diabetes might sustain these positive trends.

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Half Of People Who Died of Opioid Overdoses Tested Positive For Fentanyl

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“no drugs” by Anderson Mancini is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Julie K. O’Donnell, PhD
Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The opioid overdose epidemic has killed over 300,000 Americans from 1999 to 2015—including 33,091 in 2015. Over this time, the epidemic has evolved from being primarily driven by prescription opioids to increasingly being driven by illicit opioids. The first wave of the epidemic began in 1999 with a steep increase in deaths involving prescription opioids, such as hydrocodone, oxycodone, and morphine. The second wave began in 2010 with rapid increases in overdose deaths involving heroin. The third wave of the epidemic began in 2013, with significant increases in overdose deaths involving synthetic opioids—particularly those involving illicitly-manufactured fentanyl (IMF), which are commonly laced into heroin products. Most recently, the IMF market continues to evolve, with an ever-widening array of illicitly manufactured fentanyl analogs being distributed.

This report indicates that over half of people in 10 states who died of opioid overdoses tested positive for fentanyl during the second half of 2016. The report found that out of a total of 5,152 opioid overdose deaths, almost 3,000 tested positive for fentanyl, and over 700 tested positive for drugs that have similar chemical structures to fentanyl (fentanyl analogs) – including the extremely potent fentanyl analog, carfentanil, which is used to sedate large animals.

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Overdose Deaths Increase Across Urban Status, Sex and Race Lines

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Pills” by Kurtis Garbutt is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Christopher M. Jones, PharmD
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation
Office of the Secretary
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Drug overdoses are the leading cause of injury death in the United States, resulting in approximately 52,000 deaths in 2015. Although prescription drugs, in particular opioid pain relievers, were primarily responsible for the rapid expansion of this large and growing public health crisis, illicit drugs (heroin, illicit fentanyl, cocaine, and methamphetamines) now are contributing substantially to the problem. Understanding differences in illicit drug use, illicit drug use disorders, and overall drug overdose deaths in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is important for informing public health programs, interventions, and policies.

We found that the prevalence of self-reported past-month use of illicit drugs increased significantly across urban status (large metropolitan, small metropolitan, and nonmetropolitan) between 2003-2005 and 2012-2014. Prevalence was higher for males than females, however, in the large metropolitan group, the percentage increase in prevalence from 2003–2005 to 2012–2014 was greater for females (23.4%) than for males (21.6%). There were notable differences by age. During 2012–2014, respondents aged 18–25 years had the highest prevalence of past-month use of illicit drugs for all urban levels. For respondents in this age group, the prevalence increased slightly from 2003–2005 to 2012–2014 in large metropolitan areas while the prevalence remained stable among small metropolitan area respondents and nonmetropolitan area respondents. Past-month use of illicit drugs declined over the study period for the youngest respondents (aged 12–17 years), with the largest decline among small metropolitan area youth.

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More Evidence for Zika as a Causal Agent Of Guillain-Barré Syndrome

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Emilio Dirlikov, PhD Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer CDC 

Dr. Dirlikov

Emilio Dirlikov, PhD
Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer
CDC 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In December 2015, Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported its first confirmed locally acquired case of Zika virus disease. In February 2016, PRDH reported the first person diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) who also had evidence of Zika virus infection. At the time, scientific evidence of the potential association between Zika virus infection and GBS was lacking, and rigorous studies were needed.

Through a collaboration between PRDH, CDC, and the University of Puerto Rico (UPR), we conducted a case-control study to determine risk factors for GBS during the 2016 Zika virus epidemic. By prospectively enrolling case-patients, we shortened the time to enrollment, increasing the likelihood of detecting Zika virus nucleic acids to confirm Zika virus infection.

As a result, we found that an acute Zika virus infection confirmed by laboratory testing is a risk factor for developing Guillain-Barré syndrome. This is the first case-control study to find laboratory evidence showing this given the difficulty of confirming Zika virus infection among people diagnosed with GBS.

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Antibiotics Prescribed By Dentists May Contribute To C.diff Infections

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Stacy Holzbauer, DVM, MPH, DACVPM CDC Career Epidemiology Field Officer (CEFO) Commander, USPHS Minnesota Department of Health St. Paul, MN

Dr. Holzbauer

Stacy Holzbauer, DVM, MPH, DACVPM
CDC Career Epidemiology Field Officer (CEFO)
Commander, USPHS
Minnesota Department of Health
St. Paul, MN

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

  • Antibiotics are not harmless drugs—Clostridium difficile infection, which can sometimes cause a deadly diarrhea, is a complication of antibiotic use and can occur after even one dose of an antibiotic.
  • The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) is part of the larger Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Emerging Infections Program (EIP). The healthcare-associated infection component of CDC’s EIP engages a network of state health departments and their academic medical center partners to help answer critical questions about emerging HAI threats including Clostridium difficile also known as “C. diff.”
  • In Minnesota, the majority of C. diff infections occur outside the hospital and are driven by antibiotic use in community or outpatient settings. In addition to routine surveillance data, we interview patients with C. diff who were not hospitalized prior to their infection to identify potential risks for developing C. diff infection, including identifying antibiotics received outside of routine healthcare settings.
  • Dentists prescribe approximately 10% of the antibiotics in outpatient settings, which was over 24 million prescriptions in 2013. When asked about their prescribing practices in a 2015 survey with the Minnesota Dental Association, 36% of dentists surveyed prescribed antibiotics for dental conditions that are generally not recommended to receive antibiotics according to American Dental Association (ADA) guidelines.

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Employer Health Plans Spend At Least $6 Billion Per Year On Preterm Infant Care

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Scott D. Grosse, PhD National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities CDC 

Dr. Scott Grosse

Scott D. Grosse, PhD
National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities
CDC 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 2007 published estimates of the economic costs associated with preterm birth. That report is publicly available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20669423. The total societal cost over a lifetime of a single year’s cohort of infants born preterm was estimated as $26 billion in 2005 US dollars. The study in Pediatrics sought to provide more current estimates of one component of those costs: medical care between birth and 12 months and to answer two additional questions:

  1. What costs are specifically incurred by employer-sponsored private health plans?
  2. How much of the overall cost burden of prematurity is attributable to infants born preterm with major birth defects (congenital malformations and chromosome abnormalities)?

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Half of Menopausal Women Report Getting Insufficient Quality Sleep

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Anjel Vahratian PhD MPH Maternal and Child Health Epidemiologist Branch Chief at the National Center For Health Statistics   Centers for Disease Control and PreventionDr. Anjel Vahratian PhD MPH

Maternal and Child Health Epidemiologist
Branch Chief at the National Center For Health Statistics
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

MedicalResearch.com: Why did you conduct this study?

Response: Our research focuses on the health of women as they age and transition from the childbearing period. During this time, women may be at increased risk for chronic health conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

As insufficient sleep is a modifiable behavior that is associated with these chronic health conditions, we wanted to examine how sleep duration and quality varies by menopausal status.

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Pneumococcal Vaccine Rates Still Too Low Among Adults With Work-Related Asthma

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Katelynn Dodd MPH Respiratory Health Division National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morgantown WV 26505

Katelynn Dodd

Katelynn Dodd MPH
Respiratory Health Division
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Morgantown WV 26505

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Adults with asthma are at increased risk for pneumococcal infection. Adults with asthma who get pneumococcal pneumonia are at risk for additional complications including asthma exacerbation and invasive pneumococcal disease. Our results indicated that adults with work-related asthma were more likely to have received a pneumococcal vaccine than adults with non-work-related asthma—54 percent compared to 35 percent respectively; however, pneumococcal vaccination coverage among all adults with asthma, work-related or not, who have ever been employed in this study falls short of achieving the coverage public health experts recommend. Among adults with work-related asthma, pneumococcal vaccine coverage was lowest among Hispanics (36 percent), those without health insurance (39 percent), and adults aged 18 to 44 years (42 percent).

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Opioid Overdoses Biggest Cause of Decreasing Life Expectancy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Deborah Dowell, MD MPH
Senior Medical Advisor
Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Increases in U.S. life expectancy at birth have leveled off from an average of 0.20 years gained per year from 1970 to 2000 to 0.15 years gained per year from 2000 to 2014. U.S. life expectancy decreased from 2014 to 2015 and is now lower than in most high-income countries, with this gap projected to increase.
Drug poisoning (overdose) death rates more than doubled in the United States from 2000-2015; those involving opioids more than tripled. Increases in poisoning have been reported to have reduced life expectancy for non-Hispanic white Americans from 2000-2014. Specific contributions of drug, opioid, and alcohol poisoning to changes in U.S. life expectancy since 2000 were unknown.

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Healthy Behaviors and Academic Success Go ‘Hand in Hand’

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Catherine N. Rasberry, PhD Health Scientist, Division of Adolescent and School Health CDC Atlanta

Dr.Raspberry

Catherine N. Rasberry, PhD
Health Scientist, Division of Adolescent and School Health
CDC Atlanta

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: For many years, researchers have documented links between health-related behaviors and educational outcomes such as letter grades, test scores, and other measures of academic achievement. However, many of those studies are becoming out-of-date or have used samples that were not nationally representative. The aim of this study was to see if previous findings held in a current, national sample of high school students.

Consistent with previous studies, our findings revealed that regardless of sex, race/ethnicity and grade-level, high school students who received mostly A’s, mostly B’s, or mostly C’s had higher levels of most protective health-related behaviors and lower levels of most health-related risk behaviors. For example, we found that:

  • Students who reported receiving mostly Ds and Fs, were nine times more likely than students who received mostly As to report having ever injected any illegal drugs.
  • Also, students who reported receiving mostly Ds and Fs were more than four times more likely than students who received mostly As to report that they had four or more sexual partners.
  • Conversely, students who reported receiving mostly As were twice as likely as students who received mostly Ds and Fs to report eating breakfast every day in the past week.

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CDC Reports Progress In Reducing Strokes Has Stalled

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Quanhe Yang, PhD Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion CDC

Dr. Yang

Quanhe Yang, PhD
Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The prominent decline in U.S. stroke death rates observed for more than 4 decades has slowed in recent years. CDC examined trends and patterns in recent stroke death rates among U.S. adults aged ≥ 35 years by age, sex, race/ethnicity, state, and census region.

Declines in stroke death rates have slowed down in 3 out of every 4 states from 2000 to 2015, and the stroke death rates increased significantly in southern states and among Hispanics from 2013 to 2015.

An estimated 30,000 excess stroke deaths might have occurred because of the unfavorable changes in the rate of decline in stroke mortality during 2013–2015.

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Third Dose of MMR Vaccine Reduced Risk of Mumps in University Students

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Cristina V. Cardemil, M.D., M.P.H. Pediatrics, Primary Care, Public Health Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, GA 30333

Dr. Cardemil

Cristina V. Cardemil, M.D., M.P.H.
Pediatrics, Primary Care, Public Health
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta, GA 30333 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The effect of a third dose of the measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) vaccine in stemming a mumps outbreak is unknown. During an outbreak among vaccinated students at the University of Iowa, health officials implemented a widespread MMR vaccine campaign. We evaluated the effectiveness of a third dose of MMR vaccine in preventing mumps cases during the outbreak, and assessed for waning immunity.

Of 20,496 university students enrolled in the 2015-16 academic year, 259 developed mumps. Prior to the outbreak, 98.1% of students had received two or more doses of MMR vaccine. During the outbreak, 4,783 students received a third dose.

The attack rate was lower among students who received a third dose of MMR vs. 2-dose recipients (6.7 vs. 14.5 per 1,000, respectively). Students had at least nine times greater risk of getting mumps if they received their second dose of MMR 13 years or more prior to the outbreak. Individuals who received a third MMR vaccine dose had a 78% lower risk for mumps than individuals who had received only two doses. This study demonstrates a lower risk of mumps in 3-dose MMR vaccine recipients, suggesting the MMR vaccine dose campaign prevented cases and may have helped stop the spread of the outbreak. Waning immunity likely contributed to the spread of the outbreak.

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Risky Behaviors Linked To Contact Lens–Related Eye Infections Among Adults and Adolescents

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Jennifer R. Cope MD Medical Officer Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases CDC

Dr. Cope

Dr. Jennifer R. Cope MD
Medical Officer
Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Wearing contact lenses can increase your chances of getting a severe eye infection. Eye infections can lead to serious problems, including blindness. All contact lens wearers can help prevent serious eye infections by correctly wearing and caring for their contact lenses.

Eighty-one percent of young adults, 85% of adolescents, and 88% of older adults regularly did at least one risky behavior related to their contact lenses. The most frequently reported risk behaviors in adolescents were not visiting an eye doctor as least annually, sleeping or napping in lenses, and swimming in lenses.

Among young adults and older adults, the most frequently reported risk behaviors were replacing lenses at intervals longer than those prescribed, replacing lens storage cases at intervals longer than those recommended, swimming in lenses, and sleeping or napping in lenses.

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Many Young Adults Have One or More Modifiable Cancer Risk Factors

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Mary C. White, ScD MPH Epidemiology and Applied Research Branch Division of Cancer Prevention and Control CDC Atlanta GA 30341

Dr. White

Mary C. White, ScD MPH
Epidemiology and Applied Research Branch
Division of Cancer Prevention and Control
CDC
Atlanta GA 30341

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Most cancers are caused not by just one thing, but instead by a combination of different factors over many years. Early adulthood is a time of many life changes and stresses, and exposure to harmful products and unhealthy habits during early adulthood can set the stage for developing cancer at older ages. We analyzed responses from a national sample of young adults to questions about diet, physical activity, tobacco products, alcohol, indoor tanning, sleep, the HPV vaccine, and obesity. These factors have been linked to higher risks of different types of cancer.

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Single Measurement May Underestimate HIV Viral Suppression

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Nicole Crepaz PhD
Behavioral Scientist
Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The most common measure of viral suppression in clinical and surveillance studies is the most recent viral load in past 12 months. This single-value measure does not capture the viral load dynamics over time. We examined durable viral suppression, never virally suppressed, and cumulative HIV burden (measured in the viremia copy-year) to help us better understand viral suppression and transmission risk potential.

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Why Is HIV More Common in African American Women?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Tiffany Aholou Behavioral Scientist Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention CDC

Dr. Aholou

Dr. Tiffany Aholou
Behavioral Scientist
Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Women accounted for 24% of people living with HIV in the United States at the end of 2013 and 19% of HIV diagnoses in 2014. Of these diagnoses, 78% were among black women and Latinas. HIV diagnoses among women are overwhelmingly attributed to heterosexual contact with a person known to have, or to be at high risk for, HIV infection. Of note, new HIV diagnoses among US women declined 40% over a 10 year period (2005-2014), yet we continue to see significant racial/ethnic disparities due largely to a complex web of demographic, individual, social and contextual factors with the environment that enables HIV risk behaviors to occur.

While the decline in new HIV diagnoses among US women is noteworthy, in our review of the literature, we found research studies that specifically focus on women and HIV from a domestic perspective were scarce. To fill this gap and sharpen our understanding about sexual behaviors that are associated with heterosexual transmission of HIV, this study used data from three cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth (2006-2008, 2008-2010, and 2011-2013) to examine HIV-related sexual risk and protective behaviors – concurrent sex partnerships, non-monogamous sex partners, and condom use at either last vaginal sex  or anal sex  – among sexually active women aged 18-44 years by race/ethnicity and over time.

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Majority of Murdered Women Are Killed By Current or Former Partners

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

EmikoPetrosky MD M.P.H Science Officer, National Violent Death Reporting System at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emory University Rollins School of Public Health

Dr. Petrosky

EmikoPetrosky MD M.P.H
Science Officer, National Violent Death Reporting System at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Emory University Rollins School of Public Health

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Homicide is one of the leading causes of death for women aged 44 years and younger. In 2015, 3,519 girls and women died by homicide in the United States.  It is the 5th leading cause of death for women under 45 years age (defining women as 18-44 years of age).

The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) links together data from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, and law enforcement reports, resulting in more information about the circumstances of death than what is available elsewhere.

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Breastfeeding Rates Increase But Racial Gaps Persist

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Erica H. Anstey PhD Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion  Immunization Services Division National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases CDC

Dr. Anstey

Dr. Erica H. Anstey PhD
Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
Immunization Services Division
National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that infants are breastfed exclusively for about the first 6 months and that breastfeeding continue for at least 12 months, and thereafter for as long as mother and baby desire. Although breastfeeding initiation and duration rates have increased overall in the United States, breastfeeding rates vary by geographic location, socioeconomic, and race/ethnic groups. Breastfeeding initiation and duration have been historically and consistently lower among black infants compared with white and Hispanic infants.

There are many factors that influence a woman’s decision to start and continue breastfeeding. These include knowledge about breastfeeding, cultural and social norms, family and social support, and work and childcare environments. Some barriers to breastfeeding are disproportionately experienced by black women, including earlier return to work, inadequate receipt of breastfeeding information from providers, and lack of access to professional breastfeeding support.

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Opioid Prescriptions Decrease But Still Elevated Compared To 20 Years Ago

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Deborah Dowell, MD, MPH Chief Medical Officer, Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Dr. Dowell

Deborah Dowell, MD, MPH
Chief Medical Officer, Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: CDC analyzed retail prescription data from QuintilesIMS which provides estimates of the number of opioid prescriptions dispensed in the United States from approximately 59,000 pharmacies, representing 88% of prescriptions in the United States. CDC assessed opioid prescribing in the United States from 2006 to 2015, including rates, amounts, dosages, and durations prescribed. CDC examined county-level prescribing patterns in 2010 and 2015.
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Cancer Death Rates Higher in Rural America

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Lisa C. Richardson, MD, MPH, Oncologist Director,Division of Cancer Prevention and Control CDC

Dr. Richardson

Lisa C. Richardson, MD, MPH, Oncologist
Director,Division of Cancer Prevention and Control
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: This MMWR report is the first complete description of cancer incidence and mortality comparing rural and urban America.  From previous reports we know that rural residents are more likely to be older, have more comorbid conditions and participate in high risk behaviors that can lead to cancer. CDC researchers were interested in how these factors were related to new cancers and cancer deaths in rural counties compared to metropolitan counties.

Researchers found that rates of new cases for lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and cervical cancer were higher in rural America. In contrast, rural areas were found to have lower rates of new cancers of the female breast, and prostate. Rural counties had higher death rates from lung, colorectal, prostate, and cervical cancers.

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More Adults Walking For Transportation or Leisure, But Demographic Deparities Remain

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Emily Neusel Ussery, MPH PhD Epidemiologist, Physical Activity and Health Branch CDC

Dr. Ussery

Emily Neusel Ussery, MPH PhD
Epidemiologist, Physical Activity and Health Branch
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Walking is an easy way for most people to start and maintain a physically active lifestyle. Step It Up! The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Promote Walking and Walkable Communities identifies walking as an important public health strategy to increase physical activity levels in the U.S. A previous report found that the percentage of adults who reported walking for transportation or leisure increased by 6 percentage points between 2005 and 2010, but it is unknown if this increase has continued. This report examined trends in the proportion of U.S. adults who reported walking for transportation or leisure for at least one 10-minute period in the past week, using nationally representative data from the 2005, 2010, and 2015 National Health Interview Surveys. We also examined differences in walking trends by sociodemographic characteristics.

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Health-Related Quality of Life Varies Among US Workers

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Taylor M. Shockey MPH

CDC/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Our study examined health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among 22 major occupation groups using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. The BRFSS is an annual telephone survey that collects data from U.S. residents on their health-related risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, and use of preventive services.

HRQOL is an individual’s self-perception of their physical and mental health over time and it provides a valuable measure of well-being. HRQOL is used by a variety of different fields, outside of public health, including psychology, social work, economics, and urban planning. HRQOL is a measure capable of linking these different fields and is used to determine disease burden, to monitor progress in achieving the Healthy People goals, to guide policy and legislation, to develop interventions, and to allocate resources where they are most needed. The Healthy People goals are 10-year targets for improving the health of Americans through health promotion activities and disease prevention efforts.

In relation to occupation, prior research that has evaluated HRQOL has typically focused on employment status, but not on specific job type. It’s been established, however, that job characteristics such as high demand, low control, role stress, bullying, work hours, etc., are associated with greater risk for common mental health problems as well as physical outcomes like headaches, fatigue, and gastrointestinal problems.

Our study wanted to determine if differences in HRQOL would exist among occupation groups.

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Unorthodox Treatment of Presumed Chronic Lyme Disease Can Be Deadly

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Christina Nelson, MD MPH Medical epidemiologist, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases CDC

Dr. Nelson

Dr. Christina Nelson, MD MPH
Medical epidemiologist, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases
CDC 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Patients who are given a diagnosis of “chronic Lyme disease” have been offered a variety of treatments that have not been shown to be effective.  Many patients are treated with prolonged courses of antibiotics (for months or years), which have not been shown to provide substantial long-term benefit to patients.  Anecdotal reports about adverse outcomes associated with these treatments for chronic Lyme disease are common, but there have not been systematic efforts to collect data about the frequency of these events.

MedicalResearch.com: Why is the diagnosis of ‘Chronic Lyme Disease’ so common?

Response: The term “chronic Lyme disease” (CLD) has been used to describe people with different illnesses. While the term is sometimes used to describe illness in patients with Lyme disease, in many occasions it has been used to describe symptoms in people who have no evidence of a current or past infection with Lyme disease.  Because of the confusion in how the term CLD is employed, experts in this field do not support its use.

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Legionnaires’ Disease Is Widespread and Deadly in US Health Care Facilities

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Elizabeth A. Soda, MD
Epidemic Intelligence Service
Divison of Bacterial Diseases
National Center of Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Legionella is a waterborne bacterium responsible for Legionnaires’ disease, an often severe pneumonia. Legionnaires’ disease primarily affects certain groups of individuals such as those ≥50 year of age, current or former smokers, and those with chronic diseases or weakened immune systems. Health care facilities often have large and complex water systems and care for vulnerable populations that are susceptible to developing Legionnaires’ disease. Thus preventing hospitalized patients from developing Legionnaires’ disease is the ultimate goal. This analysis aimed to describe health care-associated Legionnaires’ disease in 2015 from the 21 U.S. jurisdictions that completely reported their health care-associated Legionnaires’ disease cases to the CDC’s Supplemental Legionnaires’ Disease Surveillance System (SLDSS).

Over 2,800 cases of Legionnaires’ disease cases were reported to SLDSS by the 21 jurisdictions, and 553 (20%) were considered health care associated. The analysis showed 16 of the 21 (76%) jurisdictions had at least one case of Legionnaires’ disease definitely related to a stay in a hospital or long-term care facility. In total there were 85 (3%) definite health care-associated Legionnaires’ disease cases (as defined by continuous exposure to a hospital or long-term facility for the entire 10 days before symptom onset) that resulted from 72 different health care facilities.

Additionally, 20 of 21 jurisdictions (95%) reported 468 (17%) possible health care-associated Legionnaires’ disease cases (as defined by any exposure to a health care facility for a portion of the 10 days before symptom onset) that resulted from approximately 415 different health care facilities.

While approximately 9% of Legionnaires’ disease cases overall are fatal, this report showed a case fatality of 25% for definite health care-associated cases.

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Study Finds No Link Between First Trimester Influenza Vaccination and Major Structural Birth Defects

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Elyse Olshen Kharbanda, MD MPH HealthPartners Institute Minneapolis, MN

Dr. Kharbanda

Dr. Elyse Olshen Kharbanda, MD MPH

HealthPartners Institute
Minneapolis, MN

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Pregnant women who get the flu are at an increased risk for severe illness. To protect pregnant women, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends women receive inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) during any trimester of their pregnancy.

This study used data from the Vaccine Safety Datalink to evaluate if there was an increased risk for selected major structural birth defects for infants whose mothers received IIV in the first trimester of pregnancy versus infants who were unexposed to IIV. Among over 425,000 live births, including 52,856 whose mothers received IIV during first trimester, we evaluated risks for major structural birth defects.  In this large observational study, we did not observe increased risks for major structural birth defects in offspring following first trimester maternal inactivated influenza vaccine exposure.

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Directly Observed Therapy Linked To Lower Mortality In Multi-Drug Resistant TB

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Jorge Salinas MD
Epidemic intelligence service officer
Division of Tuberculosis Elimination
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Because multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) treatment regimens are less effective, more complex, and are more likely to have side effects that are difficult to tolerate than regimens for drug-susceptible TB, patients with MDR TB are at a higher risk of dying. Directly observed therapy (a therapy by which patients meet with a healthcare worker at a regularly scheduled time and place so the healthcare worker can observe the patient taking their TB medication) is recommended to treat all forms of TB disease, including MDR TB.

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Most Health Care Personnel Not Getting Tdap Vaccination

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Anup Srivastav, DVM, MPVM, PhD

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta GA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk for being exposed to pertussis (whooping cough) and spreading the disease to patients in their work settings. CDC recommends tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination for healthcare personnel to reduce their risk of getting the disease and spreading it to patients. This is the first report of Tdap vaccination coverage among healthcare personnel by occupational setting.

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Lifetime Risk of Symptomatic Hand Osteoarthritis Higher in Whites

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jin Qin, ScD, MS Epidemiologist Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Chamblee, GA 30341

Dr. Jin Qin

Jin Qin, ScD, MS
Epidemiologist
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Chamblee, GA 30341 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The hand is one of the sites most commonly affected by osteoarthritis (OA) but is often understudied compared with knee and hip OA. Many people with hand OA have significant symptoms, impaired hand strength and function, and disability in activities of daily living, like using a smart phone or a computer keyboard, and opening a jar. Lifetime risk is the probability of developing a condition over the course of a lifetime.

In this study, we estimated that 40% of adults will develop symptomatic hand OA in their lifetimes. Nearly one in two women (47%) and one in four men (25%) will develop the condition. Whites have a 41% lifetime risk, compared with 29% for blacks. The lifetime risk among individuals with obesity is 47%, which is 11 percentage points higher than those without obesity.

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Younger Breast Cancer Patients Have More Later-Stage Disease and Higher Financial Costs

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Benjamin Allaire MS RTI International Research Triangle Park Durham, NC, 27709

Benjamin Allaire

Benjamin Allaire MS
RTI International
Research Triangle Park
Durham, NC, 27709

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: More than 22,000 women younger than 45 years of age were diagnosed with breast cancer in 2013. Although less than 10 percent of all breast cancers are diagnosed among women younger than age 45, the types of breast cancer these younger women face are typically more aggressive, are diagnosed at more advanced stages, and result in poorer survival compared to breast cancer in older women. Younger women may also require more intense treatment, exhibit cancers that are less responsive to treatment, and have distinct and more prevalent side effects from treatment than older women. These side effects can include poorer quality of life, fertility problems, and depression.

As a result, breast cancer treatment for younger women is expensive, making them vulnerable to financial hardship. Recent research has shown that 31.8 percent of cancer survivors are likely to have cancer treatment-induced financial troubles, with higher rates among younger cancer patients. These financial difficulties cause some survivors to forego or delay necessary medical treatments.

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Cervical Cancer Is Not Just a Young Woman’s Disease: Older Women Should Have PAP Smears Too

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Mary C. White, ScD Epidemiology and Applied Research Branch Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, CDC Atlanta GA 30341

Dr. Mary White

Mary C. White, ScD
Epidemiology and Applied Research Branch
Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, CDC
Atlanta GA 30341

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: For women between the ages of 21 to 65, Pap testing every three years, or Pap testing with HPV co-testing every five years, can prevent cervical cancers and deaths.

Current recommendations state that women 65 and older and not otherwise at special risk can skip Pap tests, but only if they have had three consecutive negative Pap screening tests or two consecutive negative co-tests over the past 10 years, with the most recent done within the past five years.

We used data from two federal cancer registry programs to examine how cervical cancer risk changes with age, after excluding women who have had a hysterectomy. We also examined data from a federal national health survey to examine the proportion of women who either had never been tested or had not been tested in the last 5 years.

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Many Teens Use Less Effective Contraceptives After Pregnancy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Deborah L. Dee, PhD
Division of Reproductive Health
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Although the national teen birth rate has dropped to a historic low (22.3 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years in 2015), many teens continue to have repeat births. Because repeat teen births are more likely than first teen births to be preterm and low birth weight, and giving birth more than once as a teenager can significantly limit a mother’s ability to attend school and obtain work experience, it’s important to assess patterns in repeat teen births and better understand contraceptive use within this population. Continue reading

Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease In US Tops 30 Million

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jennifer L. Bragg-Gresham, MS, PhD Assistant Research Scientist Kidney Epidemiology and Cost Center Department of Internal Medicine - Nephrology University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Dr. Bragg-Gresham

Jennifer L. Bragg-Gresham, MS, PhD
Assistant Research Scientist
Kidney Epidemiology and Cost Center
Department of Internal Medicine – Nephrology
University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: While a trend toward stabilization in CKD prevalence had been detected over the past decade, the most recent data from NHANES (2013-2014) suggests this trend may be ending.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: Data from 2013-2014 shows that 15.5% of the US population has reduced kidney function, up from 14.1% (2011-2012) and 12.0% (1988-1994). Over the same time period we have witnessed an increase in risk factors for CKD (age and diabetes, in particular). Adjusting for this fact accounted for much, but not all, of the increase in CKD prevalence.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Despite this finding, we should not become complacent in our fight against kidney disease, as the absolute number of individuals with CKD has increased from approximately 19.2 million (1988-2004) to 33.6 million (2013-2014) in our latest estimates. We must continue to improve awareness and detection of early stages of CKD, as well as improve treatment for CKD risk factors.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study?

Response: We must continue to improve awareness and detection of early stages of CKD, as well as improve treatment for CKD risk factors.

MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add?

Response: Health surveillance is paramount to the success of all public health initiatives to understand current data and varied aspects of disease, which supports correct allocation of resources.

Disclosures: This poster was supported by the Supporting, Maintaining and Improving the Surveillance System for Chronic Kidney Disease in the U.S., Cooperative Agreement Number, U58 DP006254, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or the Department of Health and Human Services.
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Citation:

Abstract presented at the Spring 2017 National Kidney Foundation Meeting
RISING CKD PREVALENCE IN THE UNITED STATES (1988-2014)

Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions.

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Rapid Tests For Foodborne Infections Can Provide Faster Treatment But Curtail Important Outbreak Data

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ms. Ellyn Marder MPH</strong> Surveillance Epidemiologist, CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, Georgia

Ellyn Marder

Ms. Ellyn Marder MPH
Surveillance Epidemiologist, CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta, Georgia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: CDC’s Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) report provides the most up-to-date information about foodborne illnesses in the United States. Each year, FoodNet publishes a report that includes preliminary data compared with data from the previous three years. FoodNet has been monitoring illness trends since 1996 and collects data on about 15 percent of the U.S. population.

Campylobacter and Salmonella caused the most reported bacterial foodborne illnesses in 2016, according to preliminary data. FoodNet sites alone reported 24,029 foodborne infections, 5,512 hospitalizations, and 98 deaths in 2016. The numbers of reported illnesses by germ are: Campylobacter (8,547), Salmonella (8,172), Shigella (2,913), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (1,845), Cryptosporidium (1,816), Yersinia (302), Vibrio (252), Listeria (127) and Cyclospora (55).

This is the first time the report also includes in the total number of infections those foodborne bacterial infections diagnosed only by rapid diagnostic tests in FoodNet sites. Previously, the report counted foodborne bacterial infections confirmed only by traditional culture-based methods in the total numbers.

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Risk Factors and Stroke Rising Among Young Adults

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Mary G. George, MD, MSPH Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, Georgia

Dr. George

Mary G. George, MD, MSPH
Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta, Georgia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States, killing more than 130,000 Americans each year—that’s 1 of every 20 deaths—and costs the nation $33 billion annually, including the cost of health care services, medications, and lost productivity.

And, stroke is leading cause of serious disability. An ischemic stroke, sometimes called a brain attack, is a stroke that occurs when there is a blockage of the blood supply to the brain.

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Most Newly Arrived Refugees Have Overseas Vaccination Documentation

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Deborah Lee, MPH

Division of Global Migration and Quarantine
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We wanted to assess whether documentation for vaccines provided to refugees overseas was received by clinicians in the US and if doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine were integrated into the vaccine schedule as recommended for adults and children by the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.

CDC recommends that US-bound refugees receive vaccinations prior to arrival in the United States. Vaccinations are documented on the Vaccination Documentation Worksheet (DS-3025), which refugees bring with them to the United States, and made available to state and local refugee health programs through CDC’s Electronic Disease Notification (EDN) system. Thirty to 90 days after arrival, most refugees have a post-arrival health assessment performed by clinicians affiliated with the state and local refugee health programs.

Our assessment indicated that most refugees had overseas vaccination documentation available at the post-arrival health assessments (87%), and that MMR vaccine was given when needed (83%). Furthermore, many refugees (90%) in our assessment did not require an additional MMR dose because they had received vaccination before entering the United States.

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High Risk Individuals Are Testing For HIV More Frequently

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Qian An, PhD

Epidemiologist/statistician
Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Since 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recommended HIV testing for all persons aged 13-64 years old. Persons at high risk for HIV infection should be tested more frequently. Among sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM), repeat testing is recommended at least annually. An analysis in 2011 suggested that MSM might benefit from more frequent than annual testing.(1)

Among non-MSM, repeat testing is recommended at least annually for persons at high risk, including persons who inject drugs (PWID) and their sex partners, those who have sex in exchange for money or drugs, heterosexuals who have had more than one sex partner since their most recent HIV test, and those whose partners are living with HIV..

Using statistical models based on renewal theory, we estimate the mean HIV inter-test interval (ITI) — meaning the average time period (in months) between two successive HIV tests — to describe temporal trends in HIV testing frequency among MSM, PWID and high-risk heterosexuals (HRH) and differences in testing frequency by age and race/ethnicity. A decrease in ITI means individuals are testing more frequently.

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Cigarettes Continue To Vastly Outweigh Sales Of E-Cigarettes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Kristy Marynak Master of Public Health Public Health Analyst at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Duke University

Kristy Marynak

Kristy Marynak, Master of Public Health
Public Health Analyst at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Duke University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The background for our study is that in recent years, self-reported cigarette smoking has declined among youth and adults, while electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased. However, sales trends for these products are less certain. Our study assessed national and state patterns of U.S. cigarette and e-cigarette unit sales using retail scanner data from convenience and grocery stores; mass merchandisers like Walmart; drug, dollar, and club stores; and military commissaries.

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Long-Term Opioid Use Increases With Each Additional Day On Opioid Therapy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Anuj Shah (B.Pharm)

Doctoral Student
Division of Pharmaceutical Evaluation and Policy
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The CDC guideline on opioid prescribing, published in March 2016, included recommendations for initiation of opioid therapy. The guideline noted that there is a lack of data describing how acute opioid use transitions to long-term opioid use. This report seeks to address this gap by determining characteristics of initial opioid prescribing prognostic of long-term use, among opioid naïve cancer-free adults.
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High Schools Less Likely To Adopt Sun Safety Practices

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Sherry Everett Jones PhD, MPH, JD, FASHA Health Scientist, Division of Adolescent School Health Centers for Disease Control & Prevention

Dr. Sherry Everett Jones

Sherry Everett Jones PhD, MPH, JD, FASHA
Health Scientist, Division of Adolescent School Health
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. Results from the School Health Policies and Practices Study found that in 2014, most schools lacked practices that could protect children and adolescents from sun exposure while at school. Positive attitudes and beliefs about sun safety behavior, which would make such behavior more likely, can be promoted and supported by school system policies and practices.

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Indoor Tanning By High School Students Drops By Half

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Gery P. Guy Jr., PhD, MPH Senior Health Economist Division of Unintentional Injury CDC

Dr. Gery Guy

Gery P. Guy Jr., PhD, MPH
Senior Health Economist
Division of Unintentional Injury
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The incidence of skin cancer is increasing in the United States, and individuals who indoor tan are at an increased risk of skin cancer. Treating skin cancer costs $8.1 billion annually.

The number of high school students who indoor tan dropped by half from 2009 to 2015. In 2015, 1.2 million high school students indoor tanned, down from 2.5 million in 2009. This is a much bigger decrease than we have seen in the past and is an encouraging finding. We also found that 82% of indoor tanners reported sunburn in the past year compared with 54% of those who did not engage in indoor tanning.

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Frequent Cause of Infertility, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Often Goes Unrecognized

Dr. Kirsten Kreise

Dr. Kristen Kreisel

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Kristen Kreisel PhD
Epidemiologist at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), an infection of the female reproductive tract often associated with STDs, is putting millions of women at risk for infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain. Our study looked at data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to estimate the national burden of PID. Findings show an estimated 4.4 percent of sexually-experienced women aged 18-44, or approximately 2.5 million woman nationwide reported a history of PID.

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Persistence of Zika Virus in Body Fluids — Preliminary Report

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Gabriela Paz-Bailey MD PhD

Senior Epidemiologist
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Zika virus is recognized as a cause of microcephaly and other severe birth defects when a woman is infected during pregnancy. Additionally, it has been associated with potentially fatal complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. It is not well understood how often Zika virus particles can be detected in semen and other body fluids and for how long they remain detectable. Existing evidence is based on case reports and cross-sectional observations, primarily from returning travelers. A more comprehensive description of the dynamics of the early stages of Zika virus infection, observed within infected people over time, is needed to inform diagnostic testing as well as prevention recommendations and interventions.
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Hepatitis C Screening of Baby-Boomers Still Underutilized

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Cheryl Isenhour, DVM, MPH

Epidemiologist |Prevention Branch
Division of Viral Hepatitis | NCHHSTP
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: It is estimated that there are over 3 million people in the United States living with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Risk factors for infection include, but are not limited to, injection drug use, history of incarceration, HIV coinfection, and blood transfusion prior to July 1992. Several direct acting antiviral medications have recently been approved to treat, and in the majority of cases, cure HCV.

The first step in identifying infected persons so that they may be cured of this infection is a blood test for antibodies to HCV.
The greatest burden of HCV is among persons born from 1945 through 1965; the baby boomer birth cohort. Therefore, in 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published updated HCV antibody testing recommendations to include one-time testing of persons in the birth cohort. The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) published similar recommendations the following year. Additionally, in recent years there has been an increase in HCV infections related to injection drug use among younger people.

We used commercial insurance claims data to describe trends in HCV antibody testing over a 10-year period (2005 – 2014), both to assess the impact of the CDC and USPSTF testing recommendations, and to better understanding how trends varied by gender, age group, and geography.

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Almost 40% of Assisted Reproductive Infants Are Multiple Births

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Saswati Sunderam, PhD

Division of Reproductive Health
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
CDC.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance – United States, 2014, the surveillance summary published this week in CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), presents state-specific data on assisted reproductive technology (ART) use and outcomes.

The report compares ART infant outcome data with outcomes for all infants born in the U.S. in 2014, and provides data on the contributions of  Assisted Reproductive Technology to total infants born, multiple birth infants, low birth weight infants, and preterm infants for each U.S. state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.

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African American Women Remain Disproportionately Affected By HIV

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Donna Hubbard McCree, PhD MPH, RPh
Association Director for Health Equity/Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: HIV diagnosis rates among women declined 40% between 2005 and 2014 with the largest decline, 42%, occurring in black women. However, in 2015 black women represented 61% of HIV diagnoses among women. Our goal in this analysis was to determine whether the decline resulted in a decrease in the disparities among African American, Hispanic and white women between 2010 and 2014. There is currently not a standard method for measuring HIV-related disparity.

However, for this analysis we used three different measures – the absolute rate difference (the difference between the group with the lowest rate and the group with the highest rate); 2) the diagnosis disparity ratio (the ratio of the difference between the group rate and the overall population rate to the overall rate); and 3) the Index of Disparity (the average of the differences between rates for specific groups and the total rate divided by the total rate, expressed as a percentage). The absolute rate difference between black women and white women decreased annually, from 36.9 in 2010 to 28.3 in 2014. The diagnosis disparity ratio for black women compared to the total population decreased from 1.7 in 2010 to 1.2 in 2014. The Index of Disparity increased during 2010–2011, and then decreased each year during 2012–2014. Although disparities still exist, these findings indicate improvement.

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Do Financial Conflicts Influence CDC Guidelines For Prescription Opioids?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dora Lin, MHS
Sr. Research Assistant
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Center for Drug Safety and Effectiveness
Baltimore, MD 21205 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In response to the opioid epidemic and growing number of overdose deaths each year, the CDC released draft guidelines to improve the safe use of opioids in primary care. The draft guidelines were open to public comment, and many organizations, ranging from professional societies to consumer advocates to local governmental organizations, submitted comments regarding the guidelines. We examined the levels of support or non-support for the draft guidelines among the 158 organizations who submitted comments.   We also examined each organization’s relationship to opioid manufacturers. Most organizations supported the guidelines, regardless of whether or not they had a financial relationship to a drug company. However, organizations receiving funding from opioid manufacturers were significantly more likely to be opposed to the guidelines than those who did not receive such funding.

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Lyme Disease Ticks Common in Eastern US National Parks

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Tammi L. Johnson PhD, Microbiologist

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks, also called deer ticks. Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vectorborne illness in the United States, with approximately 300,000 humans becoming infected each year.

While Lyme disease infections are highly concentrated in the northeast and upper Midwest, the number of counties in which the blacklegged tick has become “established” has more than doubled in the past two decades. Established populations of these ticks are found in 35 states.

Knowing that Lyme disease is increasing both in numbers of infections and in geographic range in the United States, we did this study to determine if people are at risk of encountering infected ticks while recreating in eastern national parks. This is the first large-scale survey in multiple national parks, and though suspected, it had not been confirmed that ticks in many of these parks were infected.

So the purpose of the study was to survey national park units across six Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States and the District of Columbia, ranging from Maine in the north to Virginia in the south and characterize the risk of human exposure to ticks-borne bacteria.

Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Park Service evaluated frequently used trails in Acadia National Park, Catoctin Mountain Park, Fire Island National Seashore, Gettysburg National Military Park, Manassas National Battlefield Park, Monocacy National Battlefield, Prince William Forest Park, Rock Creek Park, and Shenandoah National Park.

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