MedicalResearh.com Interview with: Gianluca Iacobellis MD PhD
Professor of Clinical Medicine
Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine,
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?
Dr. Iacobellis: Our study suggests that epicardial fat, the fat pad in direct contiguity to the heart, is a good predictor of liver steatosis in obese subjects
MedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Ketil Stordal
National Institute of Public Health
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Stordal: Mothers who used iron supplementation during pregnancy had an increased risk for having children with a diagnosis of celiac disease. This association was not caused by maternal anemia during pregnancy, anemia was not a predictor of celiac disease in the offspring. The risk for celiac disease when the mother had used the highest doses and for the longest period.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr Valerie Sung MBBS(Hons) FRACP MPH NHMRC PhD Candidate
Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, and
Community Health Services Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute Paediatrician, Centre for Community Child Health
The Royal Children’s Hospital
Parkville | 3052 | Victoria Australia
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Sung: The systematic review identified 12 studies (1825 infants) that investigated the use of probiotics to treat or prevent infant colic (excessive crying of unknown cause in babies less than 3 months old). Three of the 5 treatment trials concluded probiotics effectively treat colic in breastfed babies; one suggested possible effectiveness in formula-fed babies with colic, and one suggested ineffectiveness in breastfed babies with colic. The three effective trials used the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri in breastfed babies only; in two of these trials, the mothers were on a dairy-free diet. Five of the 7 prevention trials suggested probiotics to be ineffective in preventing colic.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ketil Stordal
National Institute of Public Health
MedicalResearch.com:What are the main findings of the study?Answer: The study identified 324 children with celiac disease from a cohort of 82 000. Start of gluten in the diet later than 6 months was associated with a 27% increased risk of celiac disease compared to those starting during the 5th or 6th month of life. Breastfeeding was not protective; the duration of breastfeeding was slightly longer among children with celiac disease (10.4 vs 9.9 months) and breastfeeding at the time of gluten introduction was not associated with the later risk of celiac disease. The participating mothers had submitted detailed data since pregnancy including infant feeding practices, and these were collected before onset of the disease.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Joel H. Rubenstein, MD, MSc, FACG, FASGE
Research Scientist, Veterans Affairs Center for Clinical Management Research
Assistant Professor, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan Medical School
VA Medical Center Ann Arbor, MI 48105
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Rubenstein: In a set of case-control studies within the same population, we found that H. pylori was inversely associated with erosive esophagitis, and with Barrett’s esophagus, but we did not find such a relation with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:John P. Cooke MD PhD
Chair, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences
Director, Center for Cardiovascular Regeneration
Houston Methodist Research Institute
6670 Bertner St MS: R6-414, Houston, TX 77030
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: We discovered that the proton pump inhibitors PPIs), as a class, impair vascular relaxation. The PPIs have this effect by suppressing the activity of a key enzyme required for cardiovascular health. The enzyme is known as DDAH (for dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase). This enzyme is critical in clearing ADMA (asymmetric dimethylarginine) from tissues and the circulation. Because ADMA is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, accumulation of ADMA impairs vascular relaxation and vascular homeostasis. Previously, we and others have found that, by inhibiting endothelium-derived nitric oxide, ADMA accelerates vascular disease in preclinical models. In humans, ADMA is linked to the severity of vascular disease, and is an independent risk factor for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Thus, the effect of PPIs to inhibit DDAH would be anticipated to impair cardiovascular health, and to increase the risk of MACE.
Prof. Steve Allen
Professor of Paediatrics and International Health; RCPCH International Officer and David Baum Fellow
Room 314, The College of Medicine, Swansea University,
Swansea, SA2 8PP, UK.
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: Overall, diarrhoea occurred in just over 10% participants and diarrhoea caused by C. difficile in about 1%. These outcomes were equally common in those taking the microbial preparation and those taking placebo.
Other outcomes (e.g. common GI symptoms, length of hospital stay, quality of life) were also much the same in the two groups. So, there was no evidence that the microbial preparation had prevented diarrhoea or had led to any other health benefit.
In agreement with previous research, serious adverse events were also similar in the two groups – so we found no evidence that the microbial preparation caused any harm.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with Frederic D. Bushman, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Microbiology
Department of Microbiology
Perelman School of Medicine
University of Pennsylvania
426A Johnson Pavilion 3610 Hamilton Walk
Philadelphia, PA 19104
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Bushman: Viral populations in the human gut are huge, and some of the viruses change rapidly over time.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Keith Summa MD/PhD StudentNorthwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
Disruption of the Circadian Clock in Mice Increases Intestinal Permeability and Promotes Alcohol-Induced Pathology and InflammationMedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: The main findings of the study were that disruption of circadian rhythms, which we achieved using independent genetic and environmental strategies in mice, leads to impaired function of the intestinal epithelial barrier. This loss of epithelial barrier integrity, which has been associated with numerous diseases, results in "gut leakiness," a phenomenon in which endotoxin from gut bacteria can cross the intestinal wall and enter circulation, promoting inflammation. In particular, using in a disease model of gut-derived endotoxemia and inflammation, alcoholic liver disease, we found the circadian disruption interacted with alcohol, leading to increased gut leakiness, inflammation and liver damage.
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