Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Cancer Research, Dental Research, Esophageal, Gastrointestinal Disease / 24.07.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mingyang Song, MD, ScD. Division of Gastroenterology Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School Department of Nutrition and Department of Epidemiology Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Boston, Massachusetts MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Recent studies showed a presence of dysbiotic oral microbiome in patients with esophageal and gastric cancer, suggesting a link between oral health and these cancers. However, how periodontal disease and tooth loss may influence the risk of these cancers has been inconsistent.  MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Response: Our findings support a possible role of oral health in the development of upper GI cancer. Individuals with periodontal disease and tooth loss are at higher risk of developing esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma. The risk is particularly high for individuals with both periodontal disease and tooth loss.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Esophageal, NEJM, Surgical Research / 11.01.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Guillaume Piessen, MD, PhD University Hospital Centre Lille, Franc MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Patients requiring surgery for esophageal cancer fare better after undergoing a hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy (HMIE) with a combined laparoscopy+thoracotomy procedure compared to an open esophagectomy (OE), according to results of the MIRO trial published in the last issue of the New England Journal Of Medicine (link article). This French prospective multi-center randomized controlled study was funded by the French National Cancer Institute (Grant n° 1907). The study was conducted by Pr Mariette who sadely passed away in 2017 and Pr Piessen (Department of Digestive and Oncological Surgery, CHU Lille), under the hauspice of FRENCH (Fédération de Recherche EN Chirurgie) and FREGAT (French Eso-Gastric Tumors) working group (https://www.fregat-database.org/fr/). Postoperative morbidity, especially pulmonary complications, affects more than half of patients after open esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy (HMIE) combines a laparoscopic abdominal phase with an open thoracotomy, which may have specific advantages including lower rate of pulmonary complications, without laparoscopic tumor dissection limiting potential tumor spillage and easier reproducibility of the technique [12]. Postoperative morbidity, especially pulmonary complications, affects more than half of patients after open esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy (HMIE) combines a laparoscopic abdominal phase with an open thoracotomy, which may have specific advantages including lower rate of pulmonary complications, without laparoscopic tumor dissection limiting potential tumor spillage and easier reproducibility of the technique [12]. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Esophageal, Nutrition / 05.02.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: “Hot tea #steam” by Thomas Ricker is licensed under CC BY 2.0Jun / 吕筠 Professor, Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center Beijing 100191  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Esophageal cancer (EC) remains a global concern because of its increasing incidence and persistently poor survival. It poses a bigger threat to less developed regions and men. Tea is one of the most common beverages worldwide and usually consumed at elevated temperature. Existing evidence remains inconclusive as to the association between tea consumption and EC risk. Tea consumers, especially in Chinese men, are more likely to smoke and drink alcohol. Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, as well as the chemical compounds and adverse thermal effect of high-temperature tea, considerably complicate the association between tea consumption and esophageal cancer risk. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Esophageal, Gastrointestinal Disease, JAMA / 21.12.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Edward D. McCoul, MD, MPH Ochsner Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Population-level data suggests a link between gastroesophageal reflux disease and cancer of the throat and sinuses in adults over 65 years of age.  T he strength of association between reflux and cancer is strongest for anatomic sites closest to the esophagus, where acid and other stomach contents may have the greatest exposure. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Esophageal, Genetic Research / 19.08.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Trevor A Graham, MSc, MRes, PhD Lead, Evolution and Cancer Laboratory Centre for Tumour Biology Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London John Vane Science Centre London MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Barrett’s Oesophagus is a common condition that affects an estimated 1.5 million people in the UK alone, although many are undiagnosed . This condition involves normal cells in the oesophagus (food pipe) being replaced by a different, unusual cell type called Barrett’s Oesophagus, and the replacement of the cells is thought to be a consequence of chronic reflux (heartburn). People with Barrett’s have an increased risk of developing oesophageal cancer - a cancer that sadly still has a five year survival of 15% . But although the overall lifetime risk of developing oesophageal cancer in people with Barrett’s is significant (some estimates suggest the risk is comparable to that associated with smoking and lung cancer), the risk for each patient per year is very low. This presents a big problem - most Barrett’s patients will never develop cancer in their lifetime, but the unfortunate few develop an aggressive cancer. Doctors urgently need better tools to distinguish which people with Barrett’s are actually at risk of developing cancer, so that they can receive the best treatment, and everyone else at low risk of cancer can be reassured and not need to endure unnecessary treatment. But because good a way to distinguish high-risk people doesn’t exist, all people with Barrett's have regular (every 3 years or thereabouts) endoscopy; a camera pushed into the oesophagus to look for early signs of cancer. Together with Prof Sheila Krishnadath  and her colleagues at the Amsterdam Medical Centre, Holland, we confirmed that we can identify people at high risk of developing cancer from pre-cancerous condition Barrett’s oesophagus by measuring the genetic diversity of Barrett’s cells. Importantly, we also showed level of genetic diversity amongst a person’s Barrett’s cells essentially being fixed over time – no significant changes in genetic diversity were found during the ~4 years that the patients were followed. This means that whenever someone’s Barrett’s is tested, it looks like their future risk of developing cancer can be predicted regardless of how long it’s been since the abnormal Barrett’s cells began to appear. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dental Research, Esophageal, Infections / 02.03.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Huizhi Wang Assistant Professor Department of Oral Immunology and Infectious Diseases University of Louisville School of Dentistry Louisville, KY  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Wang: Esophageal cancer is the eighth most frequent tumor and sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide, characterized by rapid development and poor prognosis, including high mortality. Whereas the majority of cases occur in Asia, particularly in central China, recent data suggest that the frequency of new cases is rising in Western Europe and the USA. Mounting evidence suggests a causal relationship between specific bacterial infections and the development of certain malignancies. However, the possible role of the keystone periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was unknown before our study. We found P. gingivalis infects epithelium of cancerous tissues up to 61%, as compared with 12% of adjacent tissues and non-infected in normal esophageal mucosa. A similar distribution of lysine-specific gingipain, a catalytic endoprotease uniquely secreted by P. gingivalis, and P. gingivalis DNA was observed. Moreover, we found infection of P. gingivalis was positively associated with the multiple clinicopathologic characteristics, including differentiation status, metastasis, and overall survival rate.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Esophageal, Lung Cancer, Radiology, Surgical Research, University of Michigan / 25.02.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mark A. Healy, MD Department of Surgery Center for Healthcare Outcomes & Policy, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI   Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Healy: In our study, we found high overall use of PET as a primary study for recurrence detection in lung and esophageal cancers, with substantial hospital-based variation in the use of PET. Despite this, there was not a significant difference in survival for patients across high and low PET use hospitals. (more…)
Author Interviews, Esophageal, JAMA, University of Michigan / 01.10.2014

Megan A. Adams, MD Gastroenterology Fellow University of MichiganMedicalResearch.com Interview with Megan A. Adams, MD Gastroenterology Fellow University of Michigan   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Adams: Surveys of doctors indicate that their fear of a malpractice lawsuit for missing a diagnosis of esophageal cancer might drive the overuse of tests called upper endoscopies in patients who are at low risk for the cancer. To examine whether this perception of medical liability risk accurately reflects the real likelihood of a malpractice claim, we looked at a national database of malpractice claims, and compared the rate of claims for delay in diagnosis of esophageal cancer in patients without alarm symptoms (weight loss, dysphagia, iron deficiency anemia), with the rate of claims alleging performance of an upper endoscopy without a good reason for performing the procedure. The database contained 278,220 claims filed against physicians in 1985-2012. The incidence of reported medical liability claims for failure to screen for esophageal cancer in patients without alarm features was quite low (19 claims in 11 years, 4 paid). In contrast, there were 17 claims in 28 years for complications of upper endoscopies with questionable indication (8 paid). (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Esophageal, Gastrointestinal Disease / 28.09.2014

Dr. Aaron P. Thrift PhD Public Health Sciences Division Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Seattle, WA.MedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Dr. Aaron P. Thrift PhD Public Health Sciences Division Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Seattle, WA. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Thrift: We conclude that height is inversely associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma, both in men and women. The association is not due to confounding from known risk factors or bias. (more…)
Case Western, Esophageal, Gastrointestinal Disease, University of Michigan / 11.09.2013

Joel H. Rubenstein, MD, MSc, FACG, FASGE Research Scientist, Veterans Affairs Center for Clinical Management Research Assistant Professor, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan Medical School VA Medical Center 111-D 2215 Fuller Rd. Ann Arbor, MI 48105MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joel H. Rubenstein, MD, MSc, FACG, FASGE Research Scientist, Veterans Affairs Center for Clinical Management Research Assistant Professor, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan Medical School VA Medical Center Ann Arbor, MI 48105 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rubenstein: In a set of case-control studies within the same population, we found that H. pylori was inversely associated with erosive esophagitis, and with Barrett’s esophagus, but we did not find such a relation with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Esophageal, Nutrition / 08.06.2013

DR. RAUL ZAMORA-ROS, PhD. POSDOCTORAL FELLOW UNIT OF NUTRITION, ENVIRONMENT AND CANCER CATALAN INSTITUTE OF ONCOLOGY (ICO) – BELLVITGE BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (IDIBELL) BARCELONA, SPAIN MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Zamora-Ros:  Our study shows that diets rich on flavonoids (polyphenols ubiquitously distributed in the plant kingdom, such as in fruit, vegetables, tea, wine and chocolate), particularly flavonols, are associated with less esophageal cancer risk, especially in current smokers. Tobacco smoking causes oxidative stress, and both oxidative stress and smoking tobacco are related to increased esophageal cancer risk. Therefore, our data suggest that the possible protective mechanism of dietary flavonoids may be related to their antioxidant properties, which may not be attributed to the direct antioxidant action, but to the ability to modulate antioxidant enzymatic pathways. (more…)