Weight Shaming Can Cause Physical As Well As Mental Harm

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Rebecca L. Pearl PhD
Department of Psychiatry, Center for Weight and Eating Disorders
Perelman School of Medicine
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? 

Response: Weight bias is a pervasive form of prejudice that leads to weight-based discrimination, bullying, and the overall stigmatization of obesity. Some individuals with obesity may internalize weight bias by applying negative weight stereotypes to themselves and “self-stigmatizing.” Exposure to weight bias and stigma increases risk for poor obesity-related health (in part by increasing physiological stress), but little is known about the relationship between weight bias internalization and risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

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More Gun Violence in PG-13 Than R-Rated Films

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Daniel Romer, PhD Annenberg Public Policy Center University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Dr. Daniel Romer

Daniel Romer, PhD
Annenberg Public Policy Center
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We have been studying trends in health compromising behaviors in popular films that were released since 1950, and in 2013 we reported that films rated PG-13 had just passed the rate of portrayed gun violence shown in popular R-rated films in 2012. In this report, we updated the trends in gun violence through 2015 and found that the trend has continued. In addition, we noted the strong contribution to this trend of films with comic book heroes whose heavy use of guns omits the harmful and otherwise realistic consequences of blood and suffering.

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Bundled Payment For Joint Replacements Saved Hospitals and CMS Money

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Amol Navathe, MD PhD University of Pennsylvania Staff Physician, CHERP, Philadelphia VA Medical Center Assistant Professor of Medicine and Health Policy, Perelman School of Medicine Senior Fellow, Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, The Wharton School Co-Editor-in-Chief, HealthCare: the Journal of Delivery Science and Innovatio

Dr. Amol Navathe


Amol Navathe, MD PhD

University of Pennsylvania
Staff Physician, CHERP,
Philadelphia VA Medical Center
Assistant Professor of Medicine and Health Policy, Perelman School of Medicine
Senior Fellow, Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, The Wharton School
Co-Editor-in-Chief, HealthCare: the Journal of Delivery Science and Innovation

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Bundled payments pay a fixed price for an episode of services that starts at hospital admission (in this case for joint replacement surgery) and extends 30-90 days post discharge (30 days in this study). This includes physician fees, other provider services (e.g. physical therapy), and additional acute hospital care (hospital admissions) in that 30 day window.

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Child Abuse By Members of Military May Be Grossly Underreported

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Joanne N. Wood, MD, MSHP  Assistant Professor of Pediatrics Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania Research Director, SafePlace Faculty, PolicyLab The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

Dr. Joanne Wood

Joanne N. Wood, MD, MSHP
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
Research Director, SafePlace
Faculty, PolicyLab
The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Each year the U.S. Army Family Advocacy program (FAP) investigates between 6000 to 9000 reports of alleged abuse or neglect involving children of Army service members.   In approximately 48% of reported cases FAP determines a child was a victim of maltreatment, substantiates the report, and collaborates with local civilian child protection service (CPS) agencies in providing services and ensuring safety. Thus, FAP plays a key role in supporting Army families and protecting children.  But FAP can only investigate and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect about which they are aware.

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Tocilizumab High Active For Refractory Graft vs Host Disease

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Alex Ganetsky

Dr. Alex Ganetsky

Alex Ganetsky, PharmD, BCOP
Clinical Pharmacy Specialist – Hematology/BMT
Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

• Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients with steroid-refractory gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease (GI-GVHD) have poor outcomes.
• There is no consensus for optimal treatment of these patients.
• We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, for the treatment of steroid-refractory GI-GVHD.
• 10/11 (91%) patients achieved a complete response after a median time of 11 days (range, 2 – 18) from tocilizumab initiation.
• The median time to response onset, defined as improvement in GVHD stage by at least 1, was 1 day (range, 1 – 6).
• At a median follow-up of 3 months (range, 1.1 – 12.8) from tocilizumab initiation, 8 of 11 patients are alive and free of the their underlying hematologic malignancy.
• No associations between serum levels of IL-6 and tocilizumab response could be identified.
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Penn Takes First Step in Development of Antibodies to HIV and Cure

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Katharine J Bar, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine Attending Physician, Infectious Diseases, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania Physician, International Travel Medicine, Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine Director, Penn CFAR Viral and Molecular Core

Dr. Katharine J Bar

Katharine J Bar, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Attending Physician, Infectious Diseases, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
Physician, International Travel Medicine, Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine
Director, Penn CFAR Viral and Molecular Core

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The passive administration of monoclonal antibodies has revolutionized many fields of medicine. Anti-HIV monoclonal antibodies are being explored as components of novel therapeutic and curative strategies, as they can both neutralize free virus and kill virus-infected cells. We sought to determine whether passive administration of an anti-HIV monoclonal antibody, VRC01, to chronically HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral medications (ART) would be safe and well tolerated and could delay virus rebound after discontinuation of their ART.

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Substituting Less Well Trained Assistants For Nurses Increased Hospital Mortality

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Linda H Aiken PhD, FAAN, FRCN, RN Claire M. Fagin Leadership Professor in Nursing Professor of Sociology, School of Arts & Sciences Director, Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research Philadelphia, PA 19104

Dr Linda H Aiken

Dr Linda H Aiken PhD, FAAN, FRCN, RN
Claire M. Fagin Leadership Professor in Nursing
Professor of Sociology, School of Arts & Sciences
Director, Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research
University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing
Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research
Philadelphia, PA 19104

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The idea that adding lower skilled and lower wage caregivers to hospitals instead of increasing the number of professional nurses could save money without adversely affecting care outcomes is intuitively appealing to mangers and policymakers but evidence is lacking on whether this strategy is safe or saves money.
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Bystander CPR Associated With Improved Outcomes in Pediatric Cardiac Arrest

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Maryam Y. Naim, MD Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Physician The Cardiac Center The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia Perelman School of Medicine The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

Dr. Maryam Y. Naim

Maryam Y. Naim, MD
Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Physician
The Cardiac Center
The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
Perelman School of Medicine
The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? 

Response: In adults bystander compression only CPR has similar outcomes to bystander conventional COR therefore the The American Heart Association recommends untrained lay rescuers perform compression only CPR in adults that have an out of hospital cardiac arrest. In children respiratory arrests are more common therefore conventional CPR with chest compressions and rescue breaths are recommended for out of hospital cardiac arrest.

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Biomarker NLR Found Not Predictive of Bladder Cancer Survival

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Eric Ojerholm, MD Resident, Radiation Oncology Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania

Dr. Eric Ojerholm

Eric Ojerholm, MD
Resident, Radiation Oncology
Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Multiple studies reported that a blood test —the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR)—might be a helpful biomarker for bladder cancer patients. If this were true, NLR would be very appealing because it is inexpensive and readily available. However, previous studies had several methodological limitations.

MedicalResearch.com: What did you do in this study

Response: We therefore put NLR to the test by performing a rigorous “category B” biomarker study—this is a study that uses prospectively collected biomarker data from a clinical trial. We used data from SWOG 8710, which was a phase III randomized trial that assessed surgery with or without chemotherapy for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We tested two questions.

First, could NLR tell us how long a bladder cancer patient would live after curative treatment?

Second, could NLR predict which patients would benefit from chemotherapy before surgery?

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Androgen Deprivation For Prostate Cancer Linked to Dementia

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Kevin T. Nead, MD, MPhil

Resident, Radiation Oncology
Perelman School of Medicine
Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Androgen deprivation therapy is a primary treatment for prostate cancer and works by lowering testosterone levels. There is a strong body of research suggesting that low testosterone can negatively impact neurovascular health and function. We were therefore interested in whether androgen deprivation therapy is associated with dementia through an adverse impact on underlying neurovascular function.

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Penn Reports Successful Pilot Study of Liquid Biopsy To Monitor Advanced Lung Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Erica L. Carpenter, MBA, PhD Research Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine Director, Circulating Tumor Material Laboratory Division of Hematology/Oncology Abramson Cancer Center Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania

Dr. Erica Carpenter

Erica L. Carpenter, MBA, PhD
Research Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine
Director, Circulating Tumor Material Laboratory
Division of Hematology/Oncology
Abramson Cancer Center
Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The advent of precision medicine practices for cancer patients, including the use of drugs that target specific tumor mutations, has necessitated improved diagnostics with real-time molecular monitoring of patients’ tumor burden. While biopsy material, obtained surgically or through fine needle aspirate, can provide tissue for next generation sequencing (NGS) and mutation detection, this requires an invasive often painful procedure for the patient. In many cases, especially in more advanced disease when multiple metastases are present, such tissue cannot be obtained or can only be obtained from a single tumor site, thus limiting the sensitivity of tissue-based biopsy.

Here we report on a prospective cohort of 102 consecutively enrolled patients with advanced non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) for whom a non-invasive liquid biopsy was used for real-time detection of therapeutically targetable mutations. Tissue samples were only obtainable for 50 of the 102 patients, and these tissue biopsies were analyzed using a 47-gene Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) panel at Penn’s Center for Personalized Diagnostics. Concordance of results for the 50 patients who received both tests was close to 100% when the samples were obtained concurrently.

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New Approach May Cure Autoimmune Diseases By Targeting Just Autoantibody Cells

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

 credit Paul Foster, Penn Medicine for the photo.

from left to right:
Aimee Payne, MD, PhD – co-senior author
Christoph Ellebrecht, MD – first author
Michael Milone, MD, PhD – co-senior author

Aimee S. Payne, M.D., Ph.D.
Albert M. Kligman Associate Professor of Dermatology
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Payne: Autoimmunity occurs when the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks itself, instead of foreign viruses and bacteria. The most common way we treat autoimmunity is to suppress the immune system, but that can be dangerous, with risk of serious and even fatal infections. We have developed a method to use the body’s own immune system to specifically kill the disease-causing autoimmune cells, while sparing the “good” immune cells that protect from infection.

If you think about the way we used to treat cancer, we had no way of targeting the cancer cells specifically, so we just targeted all dividing cells, but this approach led to terrible side effects and even death from therapy. Over the last several decades, tremendous advances have been made identifying cell markers and signaling pathways that are specific to cancer cells, which has greatly reduced the toxicity of cancer treatments. Recently, researchers discovered that they could direct the body’s own immune cells to seek out and kill cancer cells, using a so-called “chimeric antigen receptor” or CAR, a breakthrough in medical technology that has cured previously incurable cancers.

We have re-engineered the CAR approach to specifically target the autoantibody-producing cells, by using the disease autoantigen in a “chimeric autoantibody receptor” or CAAR. We are hopeful that this approach might similarly prove to be a breakthrough in autoimmune disease therapy, since the concept can be extended to any autoantibody-mediated disease for which the autoantigen is known.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Dr. Payne:  Ideally, the CAAR targeted therapy approach would be a one-time disease treatment that would cure autoantibody-mediated diseases, without the risks of generalized immune suppression. In contrast, our current therapies use chronic immune suppression for the goal of disease control, which can greatly reduce the quality of life for affected patients.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study?

Dr. Payne: We are actively seeking to move this technology forward into human clinical trials. Our immediate focus is to use CAAR technology to cure pemphigus in dogs. Dogs are one of the only animals other than humans that naturally develop pemphigus. If we could safely treat and potentially cure pemphigus in dogs, that would be compelling evidence to encourage doctors and patients to enroll for clinical trials of CAAR therapy.

MedicalResearch.com: Thank you for your contribution to the MedicalResearch.com community.

Citation:

Reengineering chimeric antigen receptor T cells for targeted therapy of autoimmune disease

Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions.

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