Malignancies More Common In Men With BRCA Germline Mutations

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Roy Mano, MD and
David Margel, MD, PhD
Department of Urology, Rabin Medical Center
Petach Tikva, Israel

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: According to previous reports, male BRCA mutation carriers have a higher risk of developing malignancies of the prostate, pancreas, breast, colon and melanoma. While malignancy screening protocols for female BRCA carriers are well established and widely implemented, little is known about the optimal screening protocol for male BRCA carriers, and current screening protocols focus on malignancies of the breast and prostate rather than offer a comprehensive screening protocol for all BRCA associated malignancies.

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Taking Testosterone Doesn’t Increase Prostate Cancer Risk

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Stacy Loeb, MD, MScDepartment of Urology, Population Health, and Laura and Isaac Perlmutter Cancer CenterNew York University, New York

Dr. Stacy Loeb

Dr. Stacy Loeb MD Msc
Assistant Professor of Urology and Population Health
New York University Langone Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The association between exposure to testosterone replacement therapy and prostate cancer risk is controversial.  The purpose of our study was to examine this issue using national registries from Sweden, with complete records on prescription medications and prostate cancer diagnoses.  Overall, we found no association between testosterone use and overall prostate cancer risk. There was an early increase in favorable cancers which is likely due to a detection bias, but long-term users actually had a significantly reduced risk of aggressive disease.

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Regional Variation in Chemotherapy Prescriptions For Metastatic Prostate Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Megan Elizabeth Veresh Caram MD Clinical Lecturer Internal Medicine, Hematology & Oncology University of Michigan

Dr. Caram

Megan Elizabeth Veresh Caram MD
Clinical Lecturer
Internal Medicine, Hematology & Oncology
University of Michigan

 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Abiraterone and enzalutamide are oral medications that were approved by the Food & Drug Administration in 2011 and 2012 to treat men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Most men with advanced prostate cancer are over age 65 and thus eligible for Medicare Part D. We conducted a study to better understand the early dissemination of these drugs across the United States using national Medicare Part D and Dartmouth Atlas data.

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Using a Spacer During Prostate Radiation May Help Preserve Sexual Function

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Daniel A. Hamstra, MD PhD The Texas Center for Proton Therapy Irving, TX

Dr. Hamstra

Daniel A. Hamstra, MD PhD
Radiation Oncologist
Beaumont Hospital
Dearborn Michigan

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for the The SpaceOAR phase 3 trial study and the hydrogel spacer?

Response: External beam radiation therapy is commonly used to treat men with prostate cancer. As part of this treatment, side effects can occur involving bowel, urinary, and sexual symptoms.

This study was performed to test if an absorbable hydrogel placed between the prostate and rectum (using a simple outpatient procedure) could move the rectum away from the prostate and thus result in sparing of the rectum and decreased bowel toxicity. The study randomized 222 men and the three-year data were just published (The International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology and Physics). With three years of follow-up, we saw that the spacer did improve the radiation plans and decreased both rectal toxicity and urinary toxicity.

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Prostate Cancer: No Association Between Androgen Deprivation Therapy and Dementia

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Farzin Khosrow-Khavar, M.Sc. Ph.D. Candidate
Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University
Center for Clinical Epidemiology – Jewish General Hospital
Montreal, QC 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Previous studies have shown an association between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. However, these studies had methodological limitations that may account for this positive association. Using appropriate study design and methodology, we found no association between androgen deprivation therapy and risk of dementia (including Alzheimer’s disease) in patients with prostate cancer. These results were consistent by cumulative duration of  androgen deprivation therapy use and by ADT modality.

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Cancer Susceptibility Gene Mutations in Individuals With Colorectal Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Matthew B Yurgelun, M.D

Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: It has long been known that hereditary factors play a key role in colorectal cancer risk. It is currently well-established that approximately 3% of all colorectal cancers arise in the setting of Lynch syndrome, a relatively common inherited syndrome that markedly increases one’s lifetime risk of colorectal cancer, as well as cancers of the uterus, ovaries, stomach, small intestine, urinary tract, pancreas, and other malignancies. Current standard-of-care in the field is to test all colorectal cancer specimens for mismatch repair deficiency, which is a very reliable means of screening for Lynch syndrome. The prevalence of other hereditary syndromes among patients with colorectal cancer has not been known, though other such factors have been presumed to be quite rare.

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Physical Activity Linked to Improved Survival from Metastatic Colon Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Brendan John Guercio, M.D. Clinical Fellow in Medicine (EXT) Brigham and Women's Hospital

Dr. Brendan Guercio

Brendan John Guercio, M.D.
Clinical Fellow in Medicine (EXT)
Brigham and Women’s Hospital

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Sedentary lifestyle is a known risk factor for the development of colon cancer and has been associated with increased disease recurrence and mortality in patients with early stage colorectal cancer. This is the first study to our knowledge to show an association between increased physical activity (i.e. non-sedentary lifestyle) and improved survival and progression-free survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

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Genetic Determinants of Cisplatin Resistance in Patients With Advanced Germ Cell Tumors

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Darren R. Feldman, MD Medical Oncologist Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

Dr. Darren Feldman

Darren R. Feldman, MD
Medical Oncologist
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: There is limited knowledge as to why a minority of patients with advanced germ cell tumors are resistant to chemotherapy while the majority achieve complete responses. Patients with cisplatin-resistant disease require intensive salvage treatment and are at high risk of dying from their disease. We sought to determine whether certain genomic alterations within tumors might be associated with cisplatin-resistance in GCT. We also wanted to identify the spectrum of genomic alterations in this population which might represent novel targets for existing or new drug development in this disease.

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One Size Fits All Strategy No Longer Works For Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Larissa A. Meyer, MD MPH F.A.C.O.G. Assistant Professor Dept of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine Houston, TX 77030-1362

Dr. Larissa Meyer

Larissa A. Meyer, MD MPH F.A.C.O.G.
Assistant Professor
Dept of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine
Houston, TX 77030-1362

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Despite the completion of two randomized controlled trials, controversy regarding the optimal approach for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer remains. Our observational study highlights the importance of thoughtful selection of individuals for primary cytoreductive surgery for advanced ovarian cancer. Our results suggest that primary cytoreductive surgery may improve survival for patients with stage IIIC ovarian cancer who are likely to achieve an optimal cytoreduction, while neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be the preferred option for many women with stage IV ovarian cancer.

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Cancer Caregivers Report More Stress Than For Non-Cancer Conditions

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Erin Kent, PhD, MS Program Director Outcomes Research Branch of the Healthcare Delivery Research Program National Cancer Institute

Dr. Erin Kent

Erin Kent, PhD, MS
Program Director
Outcomes Research Branch of the Healthcare Delivery Research Program
National Cancer Institute

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Informal or family caregivers assist loved ones by providing care which is typically uncompensated, takes place typically at home, and often involves significant efforts for an extended period of time. Caregiving can require the performance of demanding tasks, which include managing symptom burden, monitoring for side effects from treatment, coordinating care, administering medication, and managing a care recipient’s financial and social obligations. In addition, there are many unique aspects of cancer that can place unique demands on caregivers, including sometimes a rapid deterioration of health, the receipt of multi-modal therapy (eg. surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation), and the possibility of cancer recurrence.

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With Some Exceptions, Care at Veterans’ Hospitals Comparable to Other Health Systems

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Claire O’Hanlon, MPP
Pardee RAND Graduate School and
Courtney Gidengil, MD, MPH
RAND Corporation

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Providing high-quality health care is central to our nation’s commitment to veterans, but the quality of care provided in Veterans Affairs health care system (VA) is a longstanding area of concern. Part of the 2014 Veterans Access, Choice and Accountability Act (VACAA) mandated an independent assessment of VA’s health care capabilities and resources of the Veterans Health Administration, including a comprehensive evaluation of health care quality. As part of this evaluation we conducted this systematic review of journal articles that compare quality of care at the VA to other settings as an update to a 2009 review on this subject.
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Adding Plinabulin To Chemotherapy Reduces Toxicity, Improves Efficacy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Lan Huang PhD Co-founder and Chief Executive Officer BeyondSpring Pharmaceuticals, Inc

Dr. Lan Huang

Dr. Lan Huang PhD
Co-founder, Chairman and CEO
BeyondSpring Pharmaceuticals, Inc

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The background for this study is the toxicity of Docetaxel chemotherapy causes inadequate dosing with Docetaxel due to dose delay, reduction or discontinuation, thus leaving the patient with inadequate chemotherapy treatment.

A main finding is a statistically significant p value of 0.002 in lower rates of grade 3 and 4 Neutropenia for patients dosed with a combination of BeyondSpring’s Plinabulin and Docetaxel compared to those patients dosed with Docetaxel alone. As a result, approximately 14 percent more patients stayed on the adequate (dense) dose of Docetaxel in the Docetaxel + Plinabulin arm as compared to Docetaxel alone.

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