Asthma, Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Vitamin D / 12.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47908" align="alignleft" width="133"]Bo Chawes, MD, PhD, DMScAssociate ProfessorC‌openhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in ChildhoodH‌erlev and G‌entofte H‌ospitalU‌niversity of C‌openhagen Dr. Chawes[/caption] Bo Chawes, MD, PhD, DMSc Associate Professor C‌openhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood H‌erlev and G‌entofte H‌ospital U‌niversity of C‌openhagen MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: There has been a global surge in vitamin D deficiency happening in parallel with an increase in prevalence of childhood asthma, which suggests that low maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy may increase asthma risk in the child. Due to that we conducted a randomized double-blinded controlled trial within the Danish COPSAC2010 cohort (www.copsac.com) of 7-fold (2,800 IU/d) vs. standard dose (400 IU/d) of vitamin D supplementation from pregnancy week 24 aiming to reduce offspring asthma risk. At age 3, we observed a non-significant 24% reduced risk of recurrent asthma-like symptoms, ie. recurrent wheeze, in the high-dose vitamin D group. In the current study, we followed 545 of the 581 children in the study till age 6, where an asthma diagnosis can be established and observed no effect of the high-dose vitamin D supplement on the child's risk of asthma. 
Alcohol, Author Interviews, JAMA, Weight Research / 12.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alice R Carter MSc Doctor of Philosophy Student MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit Population Health Science, Bristol Medical School University of Bristol MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: Higher body mass index and alcohol intake have been shown to increase the risk of liver disease. Some studies have looked at their combined effect by comparing the risk of liver disease between individuals with both high BMI and high alcohol intake and individuals with low BMI and low alcohol intake. However, these studies have produced mixed results. Some possible reasons for that are errors in self-reported BMI and alcohol intake, other factors confounding the association of BMI & alcohol intake with liver disease risk and changes in lifestyle that individuals with ill health may have been advised to adopt. One way to overcome these limitations is to use a technique called Mendelian randomisation. This method uses genetic differences between individuals that influence their characteristics (e.g. their body mass and how much alcohol they drink) to help understand whether these characteristics are causally related to diseases. Our study used this method to explore the joint effects of BMI and alcohol consumption on liver disease and biomarkers of liver injury. 
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, Infections, JAMA / 12.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47886" align="alignleft" width="125"]Chanu Rhee, MD,MPHAssistant Professor of Population MedicineHarvard Medical School / Harvard Pilgrim Health Care InstituteAssistant Hospital EpidemiologistBrigham and Women’s Hospital Dr. Rhee[/caption] Chanu Rhee, MD,MPH Assistant Professor of Population Medicine Harvard Medical School / Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute Assistant Hospital Epidemiologist Brigham and Women’s Hospital  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Sepsis is the body’s reaction to a serious infection that results a cascade of inflammation in the body and organ dysfunction, such as low blood pressure, confusion, or failure of the lungs, kidneys, or liver.   Sepsis is a major cause of death, disability, and cost in the U.S. and around the world.  Growing recognition of this problem has led to numerous sepsis performance improvement initiatives in hospitals around the country.  Some of these efforts have also been catalyzed by high-profile tragic cases of missed sepsis leading to death, which may have contributed to a perception that most sepsis deaths are preventable if doctors and hospitals were only better at recognizing it. However, the extent to which sepsis-related deaths might be preventable with better hospital-based care is unknown.  In my own experience as a critical care physician, a lot of sepsis patients we treat are extremely sick and even when they receive timely and optimal medical care, many do not survive.  This led myself and my colleagues to conduct this study to better understand what types of patients are dying from sepsis and how preventable these deaths might be. 
Author Interviews, FDA, JAMA / 06.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47817" align="alignleft" width="200"]Craig Alexander Garmendia, PhDOffice of Bioresearch Monitoring Operations, Office of Regulatory AffairUS Food and Drug AdministrationMiami, Florida Dr. Garmendia[/caption] Craig Alexander Garmendia, PhD Office of Bioresearch Monitoring Operations Office of Regulatory Affairs US Food and Drug Administration Miami, Florida MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Clinical trials under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) purview have been shown to suffer from falsified data. While the FDA warns researchers when falsified data are discovered, these data still make their way into medical literature. In this novel study, Dr. Garmendia and colleagues conducted a systematic review to examine the effects of publications containing falsified data on meta-analyses using sensitivity analyses. Almost half of all meta-analyses had conclusions altered by publications containing falsified data, while nearly one-third of all analyses had considerable changes in outcomes.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Exercise - Fitness, JAMA, Lifestyle & Health, Weight Research / 05.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Giuseppe Pugliese, MD, PhD for the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study 2 (IDES_2) Investigators Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine ‘‘La Sapienza’’ University Diabetes Unit, Sant’Andrea University Hospital Rome, Italy MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: There is a growing epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes worldwide, which are causally related to the increasing prevalence of “physical inactivity”, i.e., an insufficient amount of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity according to current guidelines, and “sedentariness”, i.e., too many hours, especially if uninterrupted, spent in a sitting or reclined position.  These two unhealthy behaviors exert their detrimental effects independently of each other and are very common among people suffering from type 2 diabetes, who would therefore benefit from increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time, as recommended by current guidelines. However, such a behavior change is generally difficult for a number of internal and external barriers and requires behavioral interventions targeting both physical activity and sedentary habits.  Unfortunately, there is no definitive evidence that this is indeed feasible and, particularly, that, if adopted, change in behavior can be maintained in the long term. 
Author Interviews, Clots - Coagulation, Heart Disease, JAMA / 05.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47707" align="alignleft" width="144"]Geoffrey Barnes, MD, MScAssistant ProfessorVascular and Cardiovascular MedicineUniversity of Michigan Dr. Barnes[/caption] Geoffrey Barnes, MD, MSc Assistant Professor Vascular and Cardiovascular Medicine University of Michigan MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Both aspirin and warfarin are commonly used medications meant to prevent thrombotic complications, but might increase rates of bleeding complications. We used a multi-center anticoagulation collaborative to explore how often patients being treated with warfarin were also taking aspirin but without a clear indication. We found that more than one-third (37.5%) of warfarin-treated patients without a clear reason for aspirin therapy were receiving aspirin. And these patients on both warfarin and aspirin experienced higher rates of bleeding and emergency department visits for bleeding than the patients taking warfarin alone. There were no differences in the rate of thrombotic events between the patients taking warfarin alone or those taking warfarin plus aspirin. 
Author Interviews, Dermatology, Heart Disease, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 04.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47582" align="alignleft" width="150"]Francis Alenghat, MD, PhD Assistant Professor of Medicine Section of Cardiology University of Chicago Dr. Alenghat[/caption] Francis Alenghat, MD, PhD Assistant Professor of Medicine Section of Cardiology University of Chicago MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Psoriasis has been associated with higher rates of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), potentially due to higher-than-normal levels of systemic inflammation. Whether this association varies by race was unknown. Also, it was unclear whether patients with psoriasis have more frequent ASCVD because of higher rates of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia) or because of components intrinsic to psoriasis itself. We found that, amongst a large population of patients with psoriasis, patients of both sexes and most ages had elevated ASCVD rates compared to those without psoriasis. Overall, African American patients with psoriasis had a 15% ASCVD prevalence, whereas it was 10% in white patients with psoriasis. Increased ASCVD associated with psoriasis occurred at earlier ages in African American patients compared to white patients. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were common in patients with psoriasis and appeared to play a large role in the driving the higher rates of ASCVD in these patients, but even in patients with psoriasis but without any documented traditional risk factors, ASCVD rates were elevated compared to patients without psoriasis. 
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Health Care Systems, JAMA, Mental Health Research / 04.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47775" align="alignleft" width="125"]Mark S. Bauer, M.D.Professor of Psychiatry, EmeritusHarvard Medical SchoolCenter for Healthcare Organization and Implementation Research (CHOIR)VA Boston Healthcare System-152MBoston, MA 02130 Dr. Bauer[/caption] Mark S. Bauer, M.D. Professor of Psychiatry, Emeritus Harvard Medical School Center for Healthcare Organization and Implementation Research VA Boston Healthcare System-152M Boston, MA 02130 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Collaborative Chronic Care Models (CCMs) have extensive evidence for their effectiveness in a wide variety of mental health conditions.  CCMs are frameworks of care that include several or all of the following six elements:  work role redesign for anticipatory, continuous care; self-management support for individuals in treatment; provider decision support; information system support for population-based and measurement-guided care; linkage to community resources; and organization and leadership support. However, evidence for Collaborative Chronic Care Model effectiveness comes almost exclusively from highly structured clinical trials.  Little is known about whether CCMs can be implemented in general clinical practice settings, and the implementation evidence that does exist derives primarily from studies of the CCM used in primary care settings to treat depression. We conducted a randomized, stepped wedge implementation trial using implementation facilitation to establish CCMs in general mental health teams in nine US Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers. We found that establishing Collaborative Chronic Care Models was associated with reduced mental health hospitalization rates and, for individuals with complex clinical presentations, improvements in mental health status.  Additionally, standardized assessment of team clinicians indicated that facilitation improved clinician role clarity and increased focus on team goals.
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Heart Disease, JAMA, Stroke / 04.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47709" align="alignleft" width="200"]Sarah Parish, MSc, DPhil Professor of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology MRC Population Health Research Unit Nuffield Department of Population Health University of Oxford Dr. Parish[/caption] Sarah Parish, MSc, DPhil Professor of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology MRC Population Health Research Unit Nuffield Department of Population Health University of Oxford MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Acquiring reliable randomized evidence of the effects of cardiovascular interventions on cognitive decline is a priority. In this secondary analysis of 3 randomized intervention trials of cardiovascular event prevention, including 45 029 participants undergoing cognitive testing, we estimated the association of the avoidance of vascular events with differences in cognitive function in order to understand whether reports of non-significant results exclude worthwhile benefit. 
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, JAMA, Pharmacology, University of Pittsburgh / 01.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47508" align="alignleft" width="150"]Alvaro San-Juan-Rodriguez Alvaro San-Juan-Rodriguez[/caption] Alvaro San-Juan-Rodriguez, PharmD Pharmacoeconomics, Outcomes and Pharmacoanalytics Research Fellow Pharmacy and Therapeutics School of Pharmacy University of Pittsburgh MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Response: Currently, there are 4 antidementia drugs approved by the FDA for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, including 3 acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs)—donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine—and the N-methyl-D-aspartic receptor antagonist memantine. On the one hand, evidence about the effect of these drugs at delaying nursing home admission is still sparse and conflicting. On the other, all these antidementia medications have been associated with several cardiovascular side effects, such as bradycardia, ventricular tachycardia, syncope, QT interval prolongation, atrioventricular block or even myocardial infarction. In this study, we aimed to compare time to nursing home admission and time to cardiovascular side effects across all drug therapies available for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. In doing so, we used 2006-2014 medical and pharmacy claims data from Medicare Part D beneficiaries with a new diagnosis Alzheimer’s disease who initiated antidementia drug therapy.
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, CT Scanning, JAMA, Lung Cancer, Medical Imaging / 01.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47730" align="alignleft" width="200"]Martin C. Tammemägi   PhDSenior Scientist | Cancer Care Ontario | Prevention & Cancer Control | Scientific Lead | Lung Cancer Screening Pilot for People at High RiskProfessor (Epidemiology) | Brock University | Department of Health SciencesOntario  Canada Dr. Tammemägi[/caption] Martin C. Tammemägi PhD Senior Scientist Cancer Care Ontario | Prevention & Cancer Control Scientific Lead Lung Cancer Screening Pilot for People at High Risk Professor (Epidemiology) | Brock University Department of Health Sciences Ontario, Canada MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Some prediction models can accurately predict lung cancer risk (probability of developing lung cancer during a specified time). Good model predictors include sociodemographic, medical and exposure variables. In recent years, low dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening has become widespread in trials, pilots, demonstration studies, and public health practice. It appears that screening results provides added valuable, independent predictive information regarding future lung cancer risk, aside from the lung cancers directly detected from the diagnostic investigations resulting from positive screens.
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, Outcomes & Safety / 01.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47659" align="alignleft" width="150"]Mr. Tim Badgery-Parker ELS, BSc(Hons), MBiostatResearch Fellow,Value in Health Care Division,Menzies Centre for Health Policy Mr. Badgery-Parker[/caption] Mr. Tim Badgery-Parker ELS, BSc(Hons), MBiostat Research Fellow,Value in Health Care Division Menzies Centre for Health Policy MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: This is part of a large program of work at the Menzies Centre for Health Policy on low-value care in the Australian health system. We have previously published rates of low-value care in public hospitals in Australia’s most populous state, New South Wales, and a report on rates in the Australian private health insurance population is due for publication shortly. We have also done similar analyses for other Australian state health systems. This particular paper extends the basic measurement work to focus on what we call the ‘cascade’ effects. That is, looking beyond how much low-value care occurs to examine the consequence for patients and the health system of providing these low-value procedures.
Allergies, Author Interviews, Immunotherapy, JAMA, Pediatrics / 01.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47721" align="alignleft" width="200"]Dr. Matthew GreenhawtDirector, Food Challenge and Research UnitChildren’s Hospital Colorado Dr. Greenhawt[/caption] Dr. Matthew Greenhawt Director, Food Challenge and Research Unit Children’s Hospital Colorado MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: In the US, nearly one million children suffer from a peanut allergy and severe reactions to food allergens are not uncommon – yet there is significant unmet need in the food allergy immunotherapy space, as there are no currently approved treatment options. That being said, we are encouraged by the efficacy and safety data, which support Viaskin Peanut as a convenient and well-tolerated potential treatment option for the peanut allergy. In the pivotal Phase III clinical trial (PEPITES) just published in The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Viaskin Peanut – the first epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) in development that leverages the skin to activate the immune system – provided statistically significant desensitization in peanut-allergic children ages 4-11 years old. Patients who were treated with active therapy were more likely to have increased their eliciting dose to peanut (the amount of peanut protein ingested before an objective allergic reaction was seen during a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge) by a required amount as compared to patients treated with a placebo patch. The improvement suggests a reduced risk of allergic reaction to accidental peanut ingestion in the group treated with Viaskin Peanut, with no change seen in the placebo group.
Author Interviews, JAMA, Mental Health Research, Pharmacology / 01.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47717" align="alignleft" width="125"]Kuan-Pin Su, MD, PhDChina Medical UniversityTaichung, Taiwan Dr. Kuan-Pin Su[/caption] Kuan-Pin Su, MD, PhD China Medical University Taichung, Taiwan MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is a serious disturbance in mental abilities that results in confused thinking and reduced awareness of the environment. Delirium can often be traced to one or more contributing factors, such as a severe or chronic illness, changes in metabolic balance (such as low sodium), medication, infection, surgery, or alcohol or drug intoxication or withdrawal. It’s critically important to identify and treat delirium because some of the contributing factors could be life-threatening. However, there is no sufficient evidence for choice of medication to treat or prevent the symptoms of delirium. A recent paper, Association of Delirium Response and Safety of Pharmacological Interventions for the Management and Prevention of Delirium A Network Meta-analysis, published in JAMA Psychiatry provides important findings of this missing piece in that important clinical uncertainty. The leading author, Professor Kuan-Pin Su, at the China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan, concludes the main finding about treatment/prevention of delirium: “In this report, we found that the combination of haloperidol and lorazepam demonstrated the best option for treatment of delirium, while ramelteon for prevention against delirium. 
Addiction, Author Interviews, JAMA, Surgical Research / 27.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_43721" align="alignleft" width="144"]Calista Harbaugh, MD House Officer, General Surgery Clinician Scholar, National Clinician Scholars Program Research Fellow, Michigan Opioid Prescribing Engagement Network University of Michigan  Dr. Harbaugh[/caption] Calista Harbaugh, MD House Officer, General Surgery Clinician Scholar, National Clinician Scholars Program Research Fellow Michigan Opioid Prescribing Engagement Network University of Michigan  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Nonmedical prescription opioid use and prescription opioid-related overdose remain significant concerns among adolescents and young adults. Among adolescents and young adults prescribed an opioid after surgery, prior work found that 4.8% of opioid-naïve patients develop new persistent use, filling additional opioid prescriptions at 3-6 months after surgery. This work found associations of persistent use with diagnoses such as chronic pain disorders, depression, anxiety, and prior substance use disorder. It is likely that for young patients, family members may also play an important role in development of new persistent use, but this has not previously been explored. We performed this study to evaluate whether long-term opioid use among family members was associated with prescription opioid fills among adolescents and young adults perioperatively – and we found that opioid-naïve adolescents and young adults who have 1 or more family members with long-term opioid use are more likely to fill at the time of surgery, during recovery, and in the long-term with a near-doubling of rates of new persistent use.
Anesthesiology, Author Interviews, JAMA, Surgical Research / 25.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47588" align="alignleft" width="180"]Bheeshma Ravi, MD, PhD, FRCSC Scientist Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre Holland Centre Toronto, ON Dr. Ravi[/caption] Bheeshma Ravi, MD, PhD, FRCSC Scientist Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre Holland Centre Toronto, ON MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Delirium is an acute change in mental status characterized by fluctuating disturbances of consciousness and attention. Elderly patients are prone to delirium after surgery; this contributes significantly to post-operative morbidity and can also lead to long-term disability. Our study found that among older adults undergoing hip fracture surgery, both an increased duration of surgery and a general anesthetic are associated with an increased risk for post-operative delirium.​ 
Aging, Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, JAMA / 25.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47520" align="alignleft" width="142"]Fuzhong Li, Ph.D. Senior Scientist Oregon Research Institute Dr. Li[/caption] Fuzhong Li, Ph.D. Senior Scientist Oregon Research Institute MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Injurious falls among community-dwelling older adults are a serious public health and cost-bearing problem worldwide.Exercise has been shown to reduce falls and injurious falls among older adults. However, evidence is limited with regard to the type of exercise interventions that are most effective, without exacerbating the risk in some individuals, in reducing injurious falls. This study addresses this knowledge gap in the field of falls prevention. Findings from this study showed that a six-month Tai Ji Quan program reduced the incidence of injurious falls among frail elderly by 53% compared to a regular (multimodal) exercise intervention. The effect of the Tai Ji Quan intervention was shown to be robust, and still evident at follow-up examinations six months after the study.
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, JAMA / 25.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47576" align="alignleft" width="100"]Hannah Decker Hannah Decker[/caption] Hannah Decker MD Candidate, Class of 2019 Emory School of Medicine [caption id="attachment_47661" align="alignleft" width="142"]Jeremiah Schuur, MD, MHS FACEPPhysician-in-chief for emergency medicine at Lifespan and Chair of the department of Emergency Medicine Brown Dr. Jeremiah Schuur[/caption] Jeremiah Schuur, MD, MHS FACEP Physician-in-chief for emergency medicine at Lifespan and Chair of the department of Emergency Medicine Brown MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Firearm injury is a leading cause of injury and death in the United States. Many physician groups advocate for evidence-based policies, such as universal background checks, to reduce this morbidity and mortality. We studied contributions of the 25 largest political action committees (PACs) affiliated with physician professional groups during the 2016 election cycle and found that almost all gave more money to political candidates who voted against universal background checks and were endorsed by the NRA. These PACs contributed to more than twice as many incumbent US Senate candidates who voted against an amendment to expand firearm background checks than those who voted for the amendment. In the US House of Representatives, the pattern of giving was similar. These PACs gave $2.8 million more to candidates who did not sponsor a bill to expand background checks than to those who did. Finally, these physician PACs were more than twice as likely to contribute to and gave almost $1.5 million dollars more to candidates rated A by the NRA.
Author Interviews, JAMA, Karolinski Institute, Pharmacology, Schizophrenia / 24.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47554" align="alignleft" width="200"]Jari Tiihonen, MD, PhD Professor, Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Sweden Dr. Tiihonen[/caption] Jari Tiihonen, MD, PhD Professor, Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Sweden  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The effectiveness of antipsychotic combination therapy in schizophrenia relapse prevention is controversial, and use of multiple agents is generally believed to impair physical well-being. But the evidence for this are weak and antipsychotic polypharmacy is widely used.
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, JAMA, Prostate Cancer / 24.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47572" align="alignleft" width="160"]Masaki Shiota MD, PhD Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences Kyushu University Fukuoka , Japan Dr. Shiota[/caption] Masaki Shiota MD, PhD Department of Urology Graduate School of Medical Sciences Kyushu University Fukuoka , Japan MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response:  3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 encoded by HSD3B1 is a rate-limiting enzyme required for all pathways of dihydrotestosterone synthesis, as well as converts abiraterone into Δ4-abiraterone (D4A), which blocks multiple steroidogenic enzymes and antagonizes the androgen receptor. A mutation (1245A>C) in HSD3B1 is shown to be resistant to proteasomal degradation, causing substantial accumulation of this enzyme and gain-of-function. Although the HSD3B1 (1245C) allele can be acquired by mutation, germ-line single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs1047303) is also known to exist. Then, in this study, we investigated the significance of missense polymorphism in HSD3B1 gene among men treated with primary ADT or abiraterone. The results showed men carrying variant allele showed higher risk of progression in primary androgen-deprivation therapy, but vulnerable to abiraterone treatment.
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, Surgical Research, Weight Research / 24.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47635" align="alignleft" width="125"]Jagpreet Chhatwal PhDAssistant Professor, Harvard Medical SchoolSenior Scientist, Institute for Technology AssessmentMassachusetts General Hospital Dr. Jagpreet Chhatwal[/caption] Jagpreet Chhatwal PhD Assistant Professor, Harvard Medical School Senior Scientist, Institute for Technology Assessment Massachusetts General Hospital [caption id="attachment_47636" align="alignleft" width="125"]Chin Hur, MDAssociate Professor of MedicineHarvard Medical School Dr. Chin Hur[/caption] Chin Hur, MD Associate Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School       MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, is one of the leading causes of liver transplantation. Because of increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States, NASH-related cirrhosis cases are expected to increase in the near future. Unfortunately, there are few pharmacological treatments for NASH, and none with proven long-term benefit. Weight loss can be effective in managing NASH but not many patients can lose the sufficient weight necessary to impact NASH and/or maintain long-term weight loss. In contrast, bariatric surgery can provide long-term weight loss and thus potentially reverse liver damage in cirrhosis. However, bariatric surgery is associated with mortality and morbidity associated with the procedure.
Author Interviews, Health Care Systems, JAMA, Outcomes & Safety, Surgical Research / 22.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47615" align="alignleft" width="200"]Alexis G. Antunez MS University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor Center for Healthcare Outcomes and Policy University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Alexis G. Antunez[/caption] Alexis G. Antunez MS University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor Center for Healthcare Outcomes and Policy University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer is implementing a National Accreditation Program for Rectal Cancer (NAPRC), aiming to improve and standardize the quality of rectal cancer care in the United States. While this is a commendable goal, previous accreditation programs in other specialties have faced controversy around their uncertain impact on access to care. Furthermore, it is well established that the quality of rectal cancer care is associated with patients’ socioeconomic position. So, the NAPRC could have the unintended consequence of widening disparities and limiting access to high quality rectal cancer care for certain patient populations. 
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Cancer Research, Hepatitis - Liver Disease, JAMA / 22.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47600" align="alignleft" width="200"]Xuehong Zhang, MD, ScD Assistant Professor in Medicine | Harvard Medical School Associate Epidemiologist | Brigham and Women's Hospital Boston, MA Dr. Xuehong Zhang[/caption] Xuehong Zhang, MD, ScD Assistant Professor in Medicine Harvard Medical School Associate Epidemiologist Brigham and Women's Hospital Boston, MA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: In the United States., liver cancer incidence is rapidly increasing and over 42,200 new cases were projected to be diagnosed in 2018. The majority of individuals with liver cancer are diagnosed at a late stage, are not eligible for curative therapy, and die within 1 year of diagnosis. Established risk factors for liver cancer are limited to hepatitis B and C virus (HBV/HCV) infections, metabolic disorders, and smoking. Clearly, identification of novel risk factors, particularly those that are modifiable, is urgently needed. Dietary factors have been suspected as important, but only excessive alcohol use and aflatoxin-contaminated foods are considered to be established dietary risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Consumption of whole grains and dietary fiber, especially cereal fiber, have been associated with lower risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which are known predisposing factors for HCC. We thus hypothesized that long-term intake of whole grains and dietary fiber may lower the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and tested this hypothesis using data from two large prospective cohort studies, the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS).
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, Pharmacology / 21.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47591" align="alignleft" width="150"]Jennifer N. Goldstein, MD, MSc Assistant  program Director of Internal Medicine Christiana Care Health System Newark, Delaware Dr. Goldstein[/caption] Jennifer N. Goldstein, MD, MSc Assistant  program Director of Internal Medicine Christiana Care Health System Newark, Delaware MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Human synthetic insulins have been available over-the-counter for nearly a century, and at relatively low cost for around a decade under a Walmart brand name. However, little is known about  the frequency of sale of over-the-counter insulin or the reasons why patients use it. While prescription insulins (insulin analogues) are considered by many to be easier to use and more predictable than the over-the-counter versions, the cost of these insulins has skyrocketed. Our study examined the frequency of sale of over-the-counter insulins and whether patients potentially use over-the-counter insulin as a substitute for expensive prescription insulins.
Author Interviews, Columbia, Depression, JAMA, OBGYNE, USPSTF / 21.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47579" align="alignleft" width="134"]Dr. Karina Davidson, PhD Professor of Behavioral Medicine (in Medicine and Psychiatry) Executive Director, Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health Columbia University Medical Center Dr. Davidson[/caption] Dr. Karina Davidson, PhD Professor of Behavioral Medicine (in Medicine and Psychiatry) Executive Director, Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health Columbia University Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Perinatal depression, which includes depression that develops during pregnancy or after childbirth, is one of the most common complications of pregnancy and the postpartum period, affecting as many as 1 in 7 pregnant women. The Task Force found that counseling can help those who are at increased risk of developing perinatal depression, and clinicians should provide or refer pregnant and postpartum individuals who are at increased risk to counseling. Clinicians can determine who might be at increased risk of perinatal depression by looking at someone’s history of depression, current depressive symptoms, socioeconomic risk factors, recent intimate partner violence, and other mental-health related factors.
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, Pharmacology, University of Pittsburgh / 19.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47508" align="alignleft" width="150"]Alvaro San-Juan-Rodriguez Alvaro San-Juan-Rodriguez[/caption] Alvaro San-Juan-Rodriguez, PharmD Pharmacoeconomics, Outcomes and Pharmacoanalytics Research Fellow Pharmacy and Therapeutics School of Pharmacy University of Pittsburgh MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Before 2009, etanercept (Enbrel®), infliximab (Remicade®), and adalimumab (Humira®) were the only tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors approved by the FDA for rheumatoid arthritis. Subsequently, 3 therapies gained FDA approval: subcutaneous golimumab (Simponi®) in April 2009, certolizumab pegol (Cimzia®) in May 2009, and intravenous golimumab (Simponi Aria®) in July 2013. All 6 agents are brand-name drugs. Our study aimed to evaluate how the prices of existing TNF inhibitors (Enbrel®, Remicade® and Humira®) changed in response to the market entry of new TNF inhibitors. 
Author Interviews, Inflammation, JAMA, Kidney Disease, Pain Research, Stanford / 16.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alan Nelson, MPAS, PhD Division of Primary Care and Population Health, Department of Medicine Stanford University School of Medicine Stanford, California  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: The past research literature has provided relatively little information on the appropriate level of concern regarding non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and kidney disease risk among younger, apparently healthy patients. Clinicians are generally most concerned about the effects of these medications on the kidneys among patients with existing renal impairment and persons at risk for it, especially older patients. Given that NSAID use appears to be high and rising in the US, we were interested in developing evidence on this topic in a population of working-age adults.
Author Interviews, Emory, JAMA, Prostate Cancer, Radiation Therapy / 15.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47492" align="alignleft" width="200"]Deborah Watkins Bruner RN, PhD, FAAN Senior Vice President of Research Emory University Professor and Robert W. Woodruff Chair in Nursing Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing Professor, Department of Radiation Oncology Emory University School of Medicine Dr. Bruner[/caption] Deborah Watkins Bruner RN, PhD, FAAN Senior Vice President of Research Emory University Professor and Robert W. Woodruff Chair in Nursing Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing Professor, Department of Radiation Oncology Emory University School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: In a randomized clinical trial entitled, “Quality of Life in Patients With Low-Risk Prostate Cancer Treated With Hypofractionated vs Conventional Radiotherapy” the NRG Oncology Group previously demonstrated that men with low risk prostate cancer had  similar 5-year disease- free survival of about 85%  when treated with either conventional radiotherapy  (C-RT) of 73.8 Gy in 41 fractions over 8.2 weeks, or with  hypofractionated radiotherapy (H-RT) of 70 Gy in 28 fractions over 5.6  weeks. However, late physician reported side effects of mild bowel and bladder symptoms were increased in patients treated  with H-RT and raised questions if the H-RT arm is acceptable to patients. The current study asked the patient’s directly about their bowel, bladder, sexual function, anxiety, depression and general quality of life using valid patient reported questionnaires. These questionnaires have been found to be more accurate for reporting patient symptoms than physician report alone.
Author Interviews, Dermatology, JAMA, Johns Hopkins, Microbiome / 15.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47435" align="alignleft" width="80"]Dr-Luis Garza Dr. Garza[/caption] Luis Garza, MD-PhD Associate Professor Department of Dermatology Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Baltimore, MD 21287 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Do you think these findings would be similar with other antibiotics (oral or topical) or with isotretinoin for acne? Response: We prescribe antibiotics frequently for acne. We certainly know it affects our normal and abnormal bacteria on our skin. But we don’t fully understand how well or not people recover from antibiotics. 
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA, Surgical Research / 15.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: JOÃO L. CAVALCANTE, MD, FASE, FACC, FSCCT, FSCMR Director, Cardiac MRI and Structural CT Labs Director, Cardiovascular Imaging Research Core Lab Minneapolis Heart Institute Abbott Northwestern Hospital Minneapolis, MN, 55407 MIHO FUKUI MD Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Heart & Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Minneapolis Heart Institute, Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, Minnesota MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Recent study by Généreux et al (1), using the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) 2A and 2B data, provided the first framework of a staging system for severe aortic stenosis (AS) that quantifies the extent of structural and functional cardiac change associated with AS and importantly its association with 1-year mortality in patients receiving either surgical or transcatheter AVR (TAVR):
  • Stage 0: No other cardiac damage;
  • Stage 1: LV damage as defined by presence of LV hypertrophy, severe LV diastolic, or LV systolic dysfunction;
  • Stage 2: Left atrium or mitral valve damage or dysfunction;
  • Stage 3: Pulmonary artery vasculature or tricuspid valve damage or dysfunction; and
  • Stage 4: right ventricular damage.