Author Interviews, Diabetes, Genetic Research, JAMA, Mental Health Research, Schizophrenia / 03.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48354" align="alignleft" width="99"]Prof Sabine Bahn MD PhD MRCPsych FRSBCambridge Centre for Neuropsychiatric Research Prof. Bahn[/caption] Prof Sabine Bahn MD PhD MRCPsych FRSB Cambridge Centre for Neuropsychiatric Research [caption id="attachment_48355" align="alignleft" width="99"]Jakub Tomasik, PhDDepartment of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology Dr. Tomasik[/caption] Jakub Tomasik, PhD Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology University of Cambridge   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Schizophrenia patients are at increased risk of impaired glucose metabolism, yet the comorbidity between the two conditions cannot be fully explained by known risk factors such as obesity, smoking, stress or antipsychotic medication. Previous family and genome-wide studies have suggested that the co-occurrence between schizophrenia and impaired glucose metabolism might be due to shared genetic factors, as exemplified by increased risk of diabetes in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients, but the biological mechanisms underlying this association remain unknown. We examined the association between insulin resistance, schizophrenia polygenic risk and response to treatment in 58 drug-naive schizophrenia patients and 58 matched healthy individuals while controlling for a range of demographic (age, gender, body mass index), lifestyle (smoking, alcohol and cannabis use) and clinical (psychopathology scores, treatment drug) factors. We found that insulin resistance, a key feature contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes, significantly correlated with schizophrenia polygenic risk score in patients, with higher genetic risk of schizophrenia associated with increased insulin resistance. Furthermore, we found that patients with higher insulin resistance were more likely to switch medication during the first year of treatment, which implies lower clinical response. 
Allergies, Author Interviews, Dermatology, Heart Disease, JAMA / 03.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48345" align="alignleft" width="133"]Amber Reck Atwater, M.D.Dermatology Residency Program DirectorAssociate Professor of DermatologyDirector, Contact Dermatitis ClinicDuke Dermatology Dr. Reck Atwater[/caption] Amber Reck Atwater, M.D. Dermatology Residency Program Director Associate Professor of Dermatology Director, Contact Dermatitis Clinic Duke Dermatology  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We completed an evaluation of our Duke Dermatology patients who underwent patch testing for possible allergy to their cardiac devices - pacemakers and defibrillators. From March 1, 2012 to September 15, 2017 we saw 11 patients with suspected allergy to their devices.  Concern for allergy, skin eruption, skin symptoms, and concern for infection were common. 73% of patients had erythema at their implant scars; pruritus and pain were also noted.  Six of our patients had relevant reactions, and the most common allergies were metals, silicone and rubber accelerators. 
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, General Medicine, Hospital Readmissions, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 02.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48340" align="alignleft" width="142"]Teryl K. Nuckols, MDVice Chair, Clinical ResearchDirector, Division of General Internal MedicineCedars-Sinai Medical Center  Dr. Nuckols[/caption] Teryl K. Nuckols, MD Vice Chair, Clinical Research Director, Division of General Internal Medicine Cedars-Sinai Medical Center  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: Healthcare policymakers have long worried that value-based payment programs unfairly penalize hospitals treating many African-American patients, which could worsen health outcomes for this group. For example, policy experts have suspected that the Medicare Hospital Readmission Reduction Program unevenly punishes institutions caring for more vulnerable populations, including racial minorities. They've also feared that hospitals might be incentivized to not give patients the care they need to avoid readmissions. The study Investigators wanted to determine whether death rates following discharges increased among African-American and white patients 65 years and older after the Medicare Hospital Readmission Reduction Program started.
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA, Lipids / 02.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48314" align="alignleft" width="160"]Victor Wenze Zhong, Ph.D.Postdoctoral fellowDepartment of Preventive MedicineFeinberg School of MedicineNorthwestern University 680 N Lake Shore Dr, Suite 1400Chicago, IL 60611 Dr. Zhong[/caption] Victor Wenze Zhong, Ph.D. Postdoctoral fellow Department of Preventive Medicine Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University Chicago, IL 60611  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Dietary cholesterol is a common nutrient in human diet. Eggs, specially egg yolks, are the single richest source of dietary cholesterol among all commonly consumed foods. The associations between dietary cholesterol consumption and cardiovascular disease and mortality remain controversial despite decades of research. Eating less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day was the guideline recommendation before 2015. However, the most recent 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans no longer include a daily consumption limit for dietary cholesterol and recommend weekly egg consumption as part of the healthy US-style eating pattern. Whether these recommendations are appropriate have been intensely debated.
Author Interviews, JAMA, Social Issues / 01.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48278" align="alignleft" width="200"]Rajan Sonik, PhD JD MPHResearch ScientistTucker-Seeley Research LabLeonard Davis School of GerontologyPostdoctoral Research FellowLeonard D. Schaeffer Center for Health Policy and EconomicsLeonard Davis School of GerontologyUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos Angeles, CA 90089-3333 Dr. Sonik[/caption] Rajan Sonik, PhD JD MPH Research Scientist Tucker-Seeley Research Lab Leonard Davis School of Gerontology Postdoctoral Research Fellow Leonard D. Schaeffer Center for Health Policy and Economics Leonard Davis School of Gerontology University of Southern California Los Angeles, CA 90089-3333 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Not everyone who is eligible for public benefits like Supplemental Security Income (SSI) tries to receive them. One distinguishing factor is that those who apply for benefits disproportionately experience shocks (e.g., divorce, job loss, health problems) and sharp increases in material hardships (e.g., food insecurity, housing insecurity) shortly before applying. Typically, these increases in hardships are then partially—but not fully—alleviated by receipt of the public benefits. Given strong associations between these hardships and poor health outcomes, we wanted to examine whether health status might fluctuate before and after the receipt of public benefits as well. We examined SSI in particular given its focus on individuals with disabilities, keeping in mind the particular health vulnerabilities experienced by this population. In line with patterns previously observed for material hardships, we found in a nationally representative sample that the health status of eventual SSI recipients worsened significantly in the period prior to program entry. After enrollment began, the decline in health status stopped but was not fully reversed. In the paper, we discuss why these findings were more likely to be driven by changes in material hardship levels rather than changes in disability status.
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, FDA, JAMA / 01.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48283" align="alignleft" width="158"]Emerson Chen, MDChief Fellow, Hematology-Oncology, PGY-6Oregon Health & Science University Dr. Chen[/caption] Emerson Chen, MD Chief Fellow, Hematology-Oncology, PGY-6 Oregon Health & Science University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Many cancer drugs are approved annually giving the appearance of innovation; however, some drugs may have been approved because of a lower bar. Use of lesser endpoints like response rate (how tumor shrinks) and progression-free survival (how tumor has delayed growth) have been proposed to speed trials when compared against traditional endpoints like overall survival (how long patients might live). Using published trials that led to cancer drug approval from 2006 to 2017, we estimated how long it would take to get each of these three endpoints across all cancer drugs and indications to see how much time we could save by using these weaker but faster endpoints. We see that many trials using overall survival used less time than anticipated, and many trials using response rate or progression-free survival actually took quite a bit of time.  In part that is due to researchers needing to document the duration of the response. But, whatever the reason, the time to get each of the three endpoints is actually more similar than different, and we estimate that our current use of  these faster endpoints are saving us only 11 months compared to using only overall survival.
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 31.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48281" align="alignleft" width="200"]Abhay K Lodha Department of PediatricsAlberta Health Services  Dr. Lodha[/caption] Abhay K Lodha MD, DM, MSc Department of Pediatrics Alberta Health Services   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: There is no physiological rationale for clamping the umbilical cord immediately after birth. In moderate (32+0 weeks-33+6 weeks) and late preterm infants (34+0 to 36+6), delayed cord clamping reduces the need for blood transfusions, leads to circulatory stability and improves blood pressure. However, the information on the association of delayed cord clamping with outcomes for extremely low gestational age neonates (22-28 weeks of gestation) is limited.
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 31.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48261" align="alignleft" width="128"]Valerie Seror, PhD French Institute of Health and Medical Research Inserm  Dr. Seror[/caption] Valerie Seror, PhD French Institute of Health and Medical Research Inserm MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: In the highly sensitive context of prenatal diagnosis where autonomous and informed decision-making is of crucial issue, the present study is a companion study to a prospective clinical trial [ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02127515] aiming at comparing clinical benefits involved by invasive vs. non-invasive testing in women at high risk of Down syndrome following routine combined screening. Our study (involving 2,436 consecutive high-risk pregnant women following combined screening for Down syndrome) confirmed that attitudes towards invasive testing are notably guided by risk aversion to invasive testing-related fetal loss whereas it showed that attitudes towards non-invasive testing are notably guided by aversion to the ambiguity generated by results restricted to the only targeted abnormalities.
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Exercise - Fitness, Heart Disease, JAMA, UCLA / 29.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48187" align="alignleft" width="179"]Christina M. Dieli-Conwright, PhD, MPH, FACSM, CSCSAssistant Professor of ResearchDirector, Integrative Center for Oncology Research in ExerciseDivision of Biokinesiology & Physical Therapy, Ostrow School of DentistryDepartment of Medicine, Keck School of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos Angeles, CA 90033 Dr. Dieli-Conwright[/caption] Christina M. Dieli-Conwright, PhD, MPH, FACSM, CSCS Assistant Professor of Research Director, Integrative Center for Oncology Research in Exercise Division of Biokinesiology & Physical Therapy, Ostrow School of Dentistry Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine University of Southern California Los Angeles, CA 90033  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: This study was designed to assess the effects of an aerobic and resistance exercise on metabolic dysregulation in sedentary, obese breast cancer survivors, however we further examined the effects on cardiovascular disease risk measured by the Framingham Risk Score, reported here. Our findings indicated that exercise, indeed, reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease in this population. 
Author Interviews, JAMA, Smoking, Tobacco Research / 29.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jidong Huang, PhD Associate Professor Department of Health Policy & Behavioral Sciences School of Public Health, Georgia State University Atlanta, GA 30303 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: The US tobacco market has been transformed in the past decade by a rapid increase in awareness and use of e-cigarettes among youth and adults. This transformation has been accelerated in recent years by the emergence of new generations of e-cigarettes, such as JUUL e-cigarettes. The exponential growth in e-cigarettes has prompted a renewed interest in the tobacco harm reduction approach, which aims to rapidly curbing the smoking epidemic by encouraging smokers to switch to low risk tobacco products, such as e-cigarettes. There is an ongoing debate about whether the scientific evidence on the health risks of e-cigarettes in comparison with combustible cigarettes has been accurately communicated to the public. Large representative surveys are needed to examine how the public perceives the health risk of e-cigarettes and how their perception change over time.
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Cancer Research, JAMA / 28.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48205" align="alignleft" width="125"]Isaac Chua MDInstructor of Medicine at Harvard Medical SchoolBoston, Massachusetts Dr. Chua[/caption] Isaac Chua MD Instructor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School Boston, Massachusetts  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: Opioids are routinely prescribed for cancer-related pain, but little is known about the prevalence of opioid-related hospitalizations for patients with cancer. Although opioid addiction among patients with cancer is estimated to be as high as 7.7%, our understanding of opioid misuse is based on small, preliminary studies. In light of the wider opioid epidemic, oncologists and palliative care clinicians frequently balance providing patients with legitimate access to opioids while protecting them and the general public from the risks of prescribing these medications.
Accidents & Violence, Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, JAMA, Mental Health Research / 28.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48239" align="alignleft" width="200"]Dr. Madeleine Liljegren Dr. Madeleine Liljegren
Photo: Ingemar Walldén[/caption] Madeleine Liljegren, MD Division of Oncology and Pathology Department of Clinical Sciences Lund University Lund, Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We know from former studies including patients with a clinical diagnosis of dementia, that criminal and socially inappropriate behaviors can be signs of dementia, sometimes even the first signs of a neurodegenerative disorder. We wanted to study this relatively large (n=220) cohort of neuropathologically verified Alzheimer disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients, who had been followed clinically by specialists in cognitive medicine or geriatric psychiatry during their disease period, to see if we could confirm results from previous studies. In this paper, we further wanted to study potential differences regarding protein pathology and criminal behavior in frontotemporal dementia patients. This has, to our knowledge, never been done before.
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, JAMA, Mental Health Research, Pediatrics / 28.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: “air pollution, beijing” by 大杨 is licensed under CC BY 2.0Joanne B. Newbury, PhD ESRC Postdoctoral Fellow King’s College London Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience London, United Kingdom MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Urban living is one of the most well-established risk factors for adult psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. However, less is known about the role of the urban environment in subclinical psychotic experiences in childhood and adolescence, such as hearing voices and extreme paranoia. These early psychotic experiences are a developmental risk factor for adult psychotic disorders and a range of other serious mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. It is therefore important that we understand what factors might contribute to the development of early psychotic experiences so that we might be able to intervene and prevent their onset and progression. In a cohort of over 2000 UK-born children (The Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study), we have previously shown that subclinical psychotic experiences are also around twice as common among children and teenagers raised in urban versus rural settings. We have also shown that this appears to be partly explained by social features in urban neighbourhoods such as higher crime levels and lower levels of social cohesion. However, no studies have examined the potential link between air pollution and psychotic experiences. This is despite air pollution being a major health problem worldwide (particularly in cities), and despite emerging evidence linking air pollution to the brain. 
Author Interviews, Cannabis, JAMA, Mental Health Research, OBGYNE / 28.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48215" align="alignleft" width="160"]Jeremy FineB.A. in Philosophy, Neuroscience, and PsychologyWashington University in St. Louis, Class of 2019 Jeremy Fine[/caption] Jeremy Fine B.A. in Philosophy, Neuroscience, and Psychology Washington University in St. Louis, Class of 201 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Alongside increasingly permissive marijuana use attitudes and laws, the prevalence of marijuana use among pregnant mothers has increased substantially (by 75% between 2002 and 2016), with some evidence that pregnant women may be using cannabis to combat pregnancy-related nausea. Our data came from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, which included over 4,000 subjects with data on maternal marijuana use during pregnancy. Our main finding was that the children of mothers who used marijuana after learning they were pregnant had a small but significant increase in risk for psychosis in their future.
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Dermatology, Heart Disease, JAMA / 27.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48184" align="alignleft" width="200"]Seoyoung C. Kim, MD, ScD, MSCEDirector, Program in Rheumatologic, Immunologic, and Musculoskeletal PharmacoEpidemiology Associate Professor of MedicineDivision of Pharmacoepidemiology & PharmacoeconomicsDivision of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School Dr. Kim[/caption] Seoyoung C. Kim, MD, ScD, MSCE Director, Program in Rheumatologic, Immunologic, and Musculoskeletal PharmacoEpidemiology Associate Professor of Medicine Division of Pharmacoepidemiology & Pharmacoeconomics Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Given a high cardiovascular (CV) risk among patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, it is important to have more information with regard to potential effect of different treatment agents on CV risk. As the number of treatment options for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis has been rising over the few decades, it is even more crucial to have high-quality evidence on comparative safety of different treatment options so physicians and patients can choose an agent based on the benefit-risk profile of each drug they are considering.
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Flu - Influenza, Heart Disease, JAMA / 27.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48142" align="alignleft" width="150"]Sonja Kytomaa MAResearch AssociateBrigham and Women’s Hospital Sonja Kytomaa[/caption] Sonja Kytomaa MA Research Associate Brigham and Women’s Hospital [caption id="attachment_48143" align="alignleft" width="126"]Scott D. Solomon, MDThe Edward D. Frohlich Distinguished ChairProfessor of MedicineHarvard Medical SchoolSenior PhysicianBrigham and Women’s HospitalInternational Associate Editor, European Heart Journal Dr. Scott Solomon[/caption] Scott D. Solomon, MD The Edward D. Frohlich Distinguished Chair Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School Senior Physician Brigham and Women’s Hospital International Associate Editor, European Heart Journal   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Influenza is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, yet few studies have explored the temporal association between influenza activity and hospitalizations, especially due to heart failure (HF). Our aim with this study was to explore the temporal association between influenza activity and hospitalizations for HF and myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population. We related the number of MI and HF hospitalizations by month, which were sampled from 4 US communities and adjudicated in the surveillance component of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, to monthly influenza-like illness activity, as reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We found that a 5% increase in influenza activity was associated with a 24% increase in HF hospitalizations rates, while overall influenza was not significantly associated with MI hospitalizations. Influenza activity in the months before hospitalization was not associated with either outcome.
Author Interviews, JAMA, Karolinski Institute, Pediatrics / 26.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48081" align="alignleft" width="150"]Mikael Norman, MD, PhD, ProfessorKarolinska Institutet & Karolinska University HospitalStockholm, Sweden  Dr. Norman[/caption] Mikael Norman, MD, PhD, Professor Karolinska Institutet & Karolinska University Hospital Stockholm, Sweden  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: So far, preterm birth has been difficult to predict and prevent. In particular, extremely preterm birth has continued to be an issue in terms of optimal care before and after birth, costs and long term health outcomes. Therefore, studies on how the management and outcome varies over time in these patients are important.
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA, Stem Cells / 26.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48147" align="alignleft" width="114"]Annetine C. Gelijns, PhDChair, Department of Population Health Science & PolicyEdmond A. Guggenheim Professor of Health PolicyCo-Director, InCHOIR Dr. Gelijns[/caption] Annetine C. Gelijns, PhD Professor and System Chair Population Health Science and Policy Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai [caption id="attachment_48148" align="alignleft" width="114"]Alan J Moskowitz, MDProfessor, Population Health Science and PolicyDepartment of Population Health Science & PolicyIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew York, NY 10029-6574 Dr. Moskowitz[/caption] Alan J Moskowitz, MD Professor of Population Health Science and Policy Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Where do these mesenchymal cells come from?  Response: Implantable LVADs significantly improve the survival and quality of life of advanced heart failure patients. However, these devices are associated with substantial adverse events, including infection and thromboembolic events. Moreover, whereas these devices improve myocardial function, few patients recover sufficient function to be explanted from their LVAD. These observations have focused attention on stem cells as a possible adjunctive therapy to further augment cardiac recovery. Mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs), which are obtained from healthy donors and culture-expanded, have been shown in animal and early human studies to improve cardiac function. Using temporary weaning as a signal of cardiac recovery, we conducted an exploratory trial in the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network (CTSN), which found that MPCs increased the probability of temporary weaning from full LVAD support compared to sham-control patients. Therefore, this signal of efficacy led the CTSN to design our current follow-up trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of a higher dose of MPCs in LVAD patients.
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Stanford, Technology / 26.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48138" align="alignleft" width="200"]Dennis P. Wall, PhDAssociate ProfessorDepartments of Pediatrics, Psychiatry (by courtesy) and Biomedical Data ScienceStanford University Dr. Wall[/caption] Dennis P. Wall, PhD Associate Professor Departments of Pediatrics, Psychiatry (by courtesy) and Biomedical Data Science Stanford University  MedicalResearch.com: What did we already know about the potential for apps and wearables to help kids with autism improve their social skills, and how do the current study findings add to our understanding? What’s new/surprising here and why does it matter for children and families?  Response: We have clinically tested apps/AI for diagnosis (e.g.  https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1002705) in a number of studies. This RCT is a third phase of a phased approach to establish feasibility and engagement through in-lab and at-home codesign with families with children with autism. This stepwise process is quite important to bring a wearable form of therapy running AI into the homes in a way that is clinically effective. What’s new here, aside from being a first in the field, is the rigorous statistical approach we take with an intent-to-treat style of analysis. This approach ensures that the effect of the changes are adjusted to ensure that any significance observed is due to the treatment.  Thus, with this, it is surprising and encouraging to see an effect on the VABS socialization sub-scale. This supports the hypothesis that the intervention has a true treatment effect and increases the social acuity of the child. With it being a home format for intervention that can operate with or without a clinical practitioner, it increases options and can help bridge gaps in access to care, such as when on waiting lists or if the care process is inconsistent.  
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 26.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48084" align="alignleft" width="133"]Edward Bell, MDVice Chair for Faculty DevelopmentDepartment of PediatricsProfessor of Pediatrics - NeonatologyCarver College of MedicineUniversity of Iowa Health Care Dr. Bell[/caption] Edward Bell, MD Vice Chair for Faculty Development Department of Pediatrics Professor of Pediatrics - Neonatology Carver College of Medicine University of Iowa Health Care  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The study is an analysis of what happened to the 205 babies with birth weigh below 400 grams and gestational age of 22 through 26 weeks who were born between 2008 and 2016 at 21 academic medical centers that are members of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. The Network exists to collaborate in finding ways to improve the survival and health of premature and other critically-ill newborn infants. 400 grams is very small. By comparison, 1 pound is 454 grams.
Author Interviews, Dermatology, JAMA, Pediatrics, Sleep Disorders, UCSF / 26.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48079" align="alignleft" width="135"]Dr. Katrina Abuabara Dr. Abuabara[/caption] Dr. Katrina Abuabara, MD, MA, MSCE Department of Dermatology Program for Clinical Research, University of California, San Francisco MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The wellbeing and development of children is strongly influenced by parents’ physical and psychosocial health. Parents of children with chronic illness, in particular, are susceptible to poor sleep, and previous studies have found major sleep impairments among parents of children with ventilator dependency and cystic fibrosis, but few studies have examined sleep patterns among parents of children with more common chronic illnesses like atopic dermatitis (also known as eczema).
Author Interviews, Gender Differences, JAMA, Pediatrics / 25.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. David Klein MD MPH Associate Program Director National Capital Consortium (NCC) Family Medicine Residency Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Dr. Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman MSW, PhD Assistant Professor, Uniformed Services University  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  Response: Our study, “Transgender Children and Adolescents Receiving Care in the U.S. Military Healthcare System: A Descriptive Study,” sought to analyze the number of military dependent children and adolescents who have a transgender or gender-diverse identity and receive medical care in the Military Health System (MHS), recognizing that the number has been increasing, but not knowing to what extent. Ultimately, in studying this data, we hoped to document the needs of transgender children in military families to support provision of adequate and appropriate high-quality care.
Author Interviews, Health Care Systems, JAMA / 24.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48108" align="alignleft" width="160"]Maryam Guiahi, MDAssociate Professor, Ob/GynSchool of MedicineUniversity of Colorado Dr. Guiahi[/caption] Maryam Guiahi, MD Associate Professor, Ob/Gyn School of Medicine University of Colorado  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops expects providers in Catholic Health Care Facilities to follow the Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services, which places limits on reproductive and end-of-life care. Prior research has demonstrated that many patients do not anticipate religious health care restrictions, yet often face conflicts in care. We were interested in whether Catholic hospitals disclose their religious affiliation and explain to patients how this affiliation may impact the care they are offered.
Author Interviews, Duke, Heart Disease, JAMA / 21.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Renato D. Lopes MD, MHS, PhD Professor of Medicine Division of Cardiology Duke University Medical Center Duke Clinical Research Institute Alexander C. Fanaroff, MD, MHS Division of Cardiology and Duke Clinical Research Institute Duke University, Durham, North Carolina MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: About ten years ago, a group of researchers examined the evidence supporting guideline recommendations in cardiology for the first time. Quite surprisingly, they found that only 11% of recommendations in American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines were supported by evidence from randomized controlled trials, the highest level of evidence. The researchers called for greater collaboration among investigators and funders in identifying key research questions, development of streamlined clinical trial methods, and expansion of funding for clinical research. Over the past 10 years, some of these steps have been taken, but it is unclear how the evidence supporting guideline recommendations has changed. We therefore analyzed the 51 current cardiovascular guideline documents -- 26 from the ACC/AHA and 25 from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) -- including 6,329 recommendations. Overall, 8.5% of recommendations in ACC/AHA guidelines and 14.3% of recommendations in ESC guidelines were supported by evidence from randomized controlled trials. When looking specifically at guidelines that have been updated, we found no significant changes in the proportion of recommendations supported by evidence from randomized controlled trials.
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, End of Life Care, JAMA / 21.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joanna Paladino, MD Director of Implementation, Serious Illness Care Program | Ariadne Labs Brigham and Women's Hospital | Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Palliative Care | Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Instructor | Harvard Medical School and Dr. Rachelle Bernacki MD MS Director of Quality Initiatives Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care Senior Physician, Assistant Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School Dr. Paladino's responses: MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Paladino: People living with serious illness face many difficult decisions over the course of their medical care. These decisions, and the care patients receive, should be guided by what matters most to patients, including their personal values, priorities, and wishes. These conversations don’t often happen in clinical practice or do so very late in the course of illness, leaving patients exposed to getting care they don’t want. Doctors and nurses want to have these important discussions, but there are real challenges, including insufficient training and uncertainties about when and how to start the conversation. We designed an intervention with clinical tools, clinician training, and systems-changes to address these challenges. When tested in a randomized clinical trial in oncology, we found that the intervention led to more, earlier, and better conversations between oncology clinicians and their patients with life-limiting cancer. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to ensure reliable, timely, and patient-centered serious illness conversations in an outpatient oncology practice.
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA / 21.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48037" align="alignleft" width="150"]Peter R. Dixon, MDDepartment of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck SurgeryInstitute of Health Policy, Management and EvaluationUniversity of TorontoToronto, Ontario, Canada  Dr. DIxon[/caption] Peter R. Dixon, MD Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, Canada  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The word ‘cancer’ is often associated with an aggressive and lethal disease. Innovations in screening and diagnostic tests detect some ‘cancers’ that -- even if left untreated -- pose very low-risk of any symptoms, progression, or mortality. Still, many of these low-risk cancers are treated aggressively and those treatments can have harmful consequences and side-effects. We were interested in determining how influential the word ‘cancer’ is in decisions made by patients about low-risk malignant neoplasms relative to other labels for the same disease.
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA / 19.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47952" align="alignleft" width="167"]Dr. Carina Blomström-Lundqvist, MDProfessor of CardiologyDepartment of CardioloyInstitution of Medical ScienceUppsala, Sweden Dr. Blomström-Lundqvist[/caption] Dr. Carina Blomström-Lundqvist, MD Professor of Cardiology Department of Cardioloy Institution of Medical Science Uppsala, Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: While all previous trials comparing atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation and antiarrhythmic drugs to our best knowledge have evaluated the efficacy of these treatments in terms of atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrences (with an AF episode of 30 seconds duration as standard primary endpoint) we wanted to use quality of Life (QoL) - general health - as primary endpoint, since the indication for treatment is improving QoL. This was important since, despite the fact that the indication for treatment is to improve (QoL) and reduce symptom, all prior trials have used 30 seconds AF episodes as standard primary endpoint, which if occurred it would be defined as a failed treatment. We also wanted to assess effects on various clinical outcome events. We know from registries such as ORBIT AF registry that around 60 % of AF patients have symptoms resulting in repeated hospitalisation visits in at least 30-40% of patients annually, and that only around 5 % of the AF population are being referred for AF ablation. Previous trials have used intermittent 24 hours Holter recordings whioch does not give the true AF burden (% of time in AF). We therefore also wanted to assess and compare treatments effects on true AF burden by implanting an implantable cardiac monitor (ICM) which continuosly records the heart rhythm. We would then be able to prove that improvement in QoL was directly related to a reduction in AF burden and that treatment differences in QoL was related to a difference in reduction in AF burden. We also wanted to study an AF population in their early AF disease state so that we could offer atrial fibrillation ablation to a broader AF population before their atria have become remodelled and too damaged for a pulmonary vein isolation to be effective. 
Anesthesiology, Author Interviews, Dermatology, JAMA, NYU, Pediatrics / 14.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47880" align="alignleft" width="150"]Roy G. Geronemus, M.D.Director, Laser & Skin Surgery Center of New YorkClinical Professor of DermatologyNew York University Medical CenterNew York, NY 10016 Dr. Geronemus[/caption] Roy G. Geronemus, M.D. Director, Laser & Skin Surgery Center of New York Clinical Professor of Dermatology New York University Medical Center New York, NY 10016 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: We made the observation in clinical practice that port wine stain birthmarks can be safely and effectively treated in early infancy without the need for general anesthesia. This observation is particularly important because of the FDA warnings regarding multiple exposures to general anesthesia under the age of 3 and the potential impact on neurocognitive development as these patients require multiple treatments.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, JAMA / 12.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47918" align="alignleft" width="189"]Alexander A. Leung, MD, MPHDepartment of Community Health SciencesDepartment of MedicineUniversity of CalgaryCalgary, Alberta, Canada Dr. Leung[/caption] Alexander A. Leung, MD, MPH Department of Community Health Sciences Department of Medicine University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta, Canada MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The 2017 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) blood pressure guidelines redefined hypertension according to a blood pressure cutoff of ≥130/80 mm Hg, compared to the traditional cutoff of ≥140/90 mm Hg.