Author Interviews, Orthopedics, Radiology, Rheumatology, UCSF, Weight Research / 18.11.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Silvia Schirò MD Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging University of California, San Francisco MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  Response: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is worldwide the second most frequent cause of lower extremity disability, and it has a global incidence of 199 cases per 100.000, including over 14 million people with symptomatic knee OA in the US. Overweight and obese individuals have a higher incidence of knee OA due to excessive knee joint load. The association between physical activity and knee OA, has not been systematically addressed in overweight and/or obese subjects and its association seems to be controversial. On the one hand, mild to non-weight-bearing physical activities have been found to be beneficial in the management knee homeostasis, the physiologic knee joint load providing an optimized environment for the joint tissues. On the other hand, excessive fast-paced physical activity with high load-joint torsion such as racquet sports, ball sports and running have been found to have an increased incidence of knee injury compared to mild-moderate exercise such as swimming, bicycling and low-impact aerobics independent of body weight. (more…)
Author Interviews, Columbia, JAMA, OBGYNE, Weight Research / 05.11.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marisa N. Spann, PhD, MPH Columbia University Irving Medical Center New York, New York MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Prior research has demonstrated that higher maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index is associated with adverse long-term outcomes for offspring including obesity, poorer cognitive and social abilities, and increased risk of psychiatric disorders.  MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Response: In this study, we investigated the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index with fetal growth and neonatal functional connectivity and found that maternal pre-pregnancy BMI has a significant positive correlation with fetal weight and with greater thalamic connectivity of the brain.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, OBGYNE, Weight Research / 30.10.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Suvi Ravi Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences University of Jyväskylä Jyväskylä, Finland MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The results of studies comparing the prevalence of menstrual dysfunction in athletes and non-athletes have been inconsistent. Menstrual dysfunction can have many different causes but one of the most common in athletes is low energy availability (i.e., inadequate energy intake relative to energy expenditure). Disordered eating/eating disorder as a result of e.g. body weight dissatisfaction, which is the discrepancy between actual and desired weight, can be a risk factor for inadequate energy intake and thus could play a role in menstrual dysfunction. We studied a cohort of athletes and non-athletes, in adolescence (14-16 years) and subsequently in young adulthood (18-20 years) to determine the prevalence of menstrual dysfunction and body weight dissatisfaction. Menstrual dysfunction in our study was defined as primary amenorrhea, which is the absence of menses by the age of 15, prolonged menstrual cycle (>35 days), or secondary amenorrhea i.e., absence of menses for at least three consecutive months.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, PNAS, Weight Research, Wistar / 15.10.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kristina M. Rapuano PhD, Postdoctoral Research Fellow BJ Casey, PhD, Professor of Psychology at Yale University Richard Watts PhD Technical Consultant Department of Psychology Yale University, New Haven, CT MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Around 35% of children and adolescents in the US are overweight or obese, dramatically increasing their likelihood of obesity as adults and the associated health risks. In our paper we use a novel MRI technique to investigate links between obesity and neurobiology in a large group of typically developing 9-10 year-olds. The data were acquired as part of the NIH-funded Adolescent Brain Cognitive DevelopmentSM (ABCD) study, which enrolled more than 11,000 children from across the US. We looked specifically at a reward-related region of the brain called the nucleus accumbens. Previous human studies have shown that healthy weight and obese children display different responses to food cues, for example adverts for unhealthy foods, in this region. Animal studies have also found that a high saturated fat (unhealthy) diet induces inflammation in the nucleus accumbens, and changes in behavior including sucrose-seeking. We wanted to investigate if we could use advanced MRI techniques to provide evidence of a similar effect in humans. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Sugar, Weight Research / 29.09.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kimber L. Stanhope PhD RD Department of Molecular Biosciences School of Veterinary Medicine University of California Dr. Bettina Hieronimus PhD Institute of Child Nutrition Max Rubner-Institut, Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food Karlsruhe MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: Sugar consumption is associated with increased body weight and other metabolic diseases. Fructose in particular seems to be detrimental to health as it causes higher increases in blood lipids compared to glucose. Our study assessed the effects of sugar consumption on cardiometabolic risk factors. We compared the effects of consuming glucose, two different doses of fructose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) with a non-caloric sweetener. Our subjects were healthy young individuals who drank three sweetened beverages per day over the course of two weeks. (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Weight Research / 24.08.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lisa Pawloski PhD Associate Dean for International Programs Professor of Anthropology College of Arts and Sciences The University of Alabama Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: This exploratory research uses the currently available data on COVID-19 cases and mortality, along with estimates of the morbidly obese populations in the United States by county to examine the association between morbid obesity and deaths from COVID-19 and to identify potential coincident spatial clusters of morbid obesity and COVID-19 deaths. Results indicate statistically significant positive correlation between population adjusted COVID-19 deaths and cases and the estimated population with a BMI>=40. Clustering analyses show there is a predominant similarity in the distribution of COVID-19 deaths and obesity. Our findings suggest it is critical to include an awareness of obesity when developing infectious disease control measures and point to a greater need to focus resources towards obesity education and policy initiatives.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Surgical Research, Weight Research / 03.07.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Carlos KH Wong, PhD, MPhil, BSc Department of Family Medicine and Primary Care LKS Faculty of Medicine The University of Hong Kong MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The background is that bariatric surgery has been widely indicated for the management of obesity and related comorbidities. However, there are uncertainties pertaining to the risks of post-bariatric severe hypoglycaemia (SH), cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), end-stage kidney diseases (ESKDs) and all-cause mortality in obese patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), especially among Asian populations.  (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Metabolic Syndrome, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Weight Research / 26.06.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Robert Wong, MD, MS Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Healthcare System Stanford University School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Prior to this study, we already knew that obesity and metabolic syndrome were major public health issues in the U.S.  A previous analyses by our team which analyzed data through 2012 observed than one in three adults in the U.S. have metabolic syndrome.  The aim of our current study was to evaluate more recent trends in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and to identify whether certain groups are at higher risk of having metabolic syndrome.  (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Weight Research / 11.06.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sarah Messiah, PhD, MPH Professor of epidemiology, human genetics, and environmental sciences UTHealth School of Public Health Dallas MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Given that obesity is a prevalent, serious, complex, chronic, and relapsing disease, and severe obesity is a deepening crisis, it is important to pay special attention to these challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. This will avoid placing an even greater burden on individuals, health systems, and society in the post-COVID-19 recovery phase. Thus, it is critically important to document, in real time, how socioecological determinants of health are impacting behaviors among those with obesity. Before our study, how the COVID-19 pandemic is impacting weight management, health behaviors, and psychosocial health in particular among people with obesity was unknown. (more…)
Author Interviews, Nutrition, Weight Research / 01.06.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Zachary Zeigler PhD College of Science, Engineering, and Technology Grand Canyon University. Phoenix, AZ  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We already know that during the COVID-19 pandemic, children alter eating, sleep, and activity behaviors in a manner that promotes weight gain.  Additionally, the unprecedented self-quarantine mandate during the COVID-19 pandemic has led to widespread concern that adults may gain weight during the current pandemic. (more…)
Author Interviews, Nutrition, Pediatrics, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 26.05.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Megan H. Pesch, MD, MS, FAAP Assistant Professor C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital University of Michigan MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Picky eating is common among children and is often both concerning to parents. Healthcare providers may reassure parents that their child will “outgrow” picky eating, however there have been few longitudinal studies examining the trajectories of picky eating in children, as well as associated trends in their growth. In our study we examined the trajectories of picky eating in US children over a 5 year period. We also examined how these picky eating trends were associated with child characteristics, weight status and mother’s feeding behaviors. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Surgical Research, Weight Research / 16.05.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Wei Bao, MD, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 and Dr. Yangbo Sun, PhD (Former postdoc research scholar at University of Iowa) Tenure-track Assistant Professor The University of Tennessee Health Science Center.   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Obesity is a rising epidemic in the United States and worldwide. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be the most effective and durable treatment for clinically morbid obesity which is difficult to reverse through traditional approaches such as lifestyle intervention. There has been long-standing uncertainty and debate regarding the value of pre-operative weight loss as a requirement for bariatric surgery. Meanwhile, one of the major indicators for surgery outcomes is 30-day mortality after surgery, which is especially important for bariatric surgery because the vast majority of the patients undergoing bariatric surgery are voluntary and if the surgery were not performed, they are not supposed to die in short term. So far, the association of pre-operative weight loss with 30-day mortality after bariatric surgery remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we examined the associations of pre-operative BMI and weight loss with 30-day mortality following bariatric surgery using a large database among ~500,000 patients who underwent bariatric surgery in the United States and Canada. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Nature, Weight Research / 05.05.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ronald Kahn, MD Chief Academic Officer, Joslin Diabetes Center Mary K. Iacocca Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Adipose tissue is a heterogeneous organ and composed of several cell types, including mature adipocytes, preadipocytes, stem cells, endothelial cells, and various blood cells. Different adipose depots have distinct physiological functions associated with their anatomical location and cell composition. For example, accumulation of intra-abdominal (visceral) white adipose tissue is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, whereas accumulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue is not metabolically detrimental and may be even associated with increased insulin sensitivity. Determining the mechanisms for these phenotypic differences could lead to development of novel therapies for diabetes, obesity, and their associated morbidities. A central challenging question in research of metabolic disease is whether disease risk for diabetes and metabolic syndrome is driven by a subset of fat cells that may interact with environmental stresses in disease pathogenesis in a way different from other fat cells. Indeed, previous studies from the Kahn lab have shown different fat cells in a single depot from the mouse may exhibit developmental heterogeneity. In this new study, we attempted to address this question for human white fat using a synergistic application of several methodologies: 1) single cell transcriptional profiling of human white fat during differentiation, 2) analysis of individual clones of white fat cells taken from humans at surgery, 3) novel computer based network analysis and 4) integration of the gene signatures across experimental models. Single-cell RNA sequencing is an ideal technique to profile gene expression of heterogeneous cell populations obtained from a single tissue, including fat tissue. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Weight Research / 04.05.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Florian Keifer, M.D., Ph.D Associate Professor of Medicine Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism Department of Medicine III Medical University of Vienna MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Brown fat, in contrast to white fat, burns significant amounts of chemical energy through heat production. In numerous animal models the activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) increases energy expenditure and counteracts weight gain. Therefore BAT has been established as a promising target in the fight against obesity and related metabolic disorders. In humans, BAT can be activated by moderate cold exposure, however the function and relevance of BAT are incompletely understood. Using PET scans we identified two groups of individuals those with and without active BAT and studied their differences in energy expenditure and blood fatty acid composition.  (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Weight Research / 24.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Univ.-Prof. Norbert Stefan, MD -Heisenberg Professorship for Clinical and Experimental Diabetology Internal Medicine IV, University of Tübingen -Head of the Department of Pathophysiology of Prediabetes at the Institute of Diabetes Research and Metabolic Diseases (IDM) of the Helmholtz Center Munich -Visiting Professor Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Working in the field of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases my colleagues and I were very surprised that most of the articles reporting data about comorbid conditions, which may be associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19, did not provide data about body fat mass. Because increased fat mass, and more so higher upper-body fat mass, are known to strongly predict an increased risk of cardiometabolic disease, pneumonia and mortality, we hypothesized that they may also predict a more severe course of COVID-19. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Heart Disease, Weight Research / 08.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Zhen Yang MD PhD Department of Endocrinology, Xinhua Hospital Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine Shanghai, China   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Hypertension is a major public health problem affecting more than 1 billion people worldwide. And it is the leading cause of mortality and disability globally. Startlingly, more than half of people with elevated blood pressure were unaware of their hypertensive status in numerous surveys, partly owing to hypertension rarely shows symptoms in the early stages. Hence, hypertension is a silent killer. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 16.03.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ashlesha Datar, PhD Senior Economist Director of Program on Children & Families USC Dornsife Center for Economic and Social Research (CESR) University of Southern California  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Prior research, including our own work, has suggested that there might be some kind of social contagion or social transmission in obesity. So we wanted to explore that avenue further. In the present study, we showed teens in military families a set of human body figures with varying body sizes and asked them to choose the figure that best captured their ideal body size. (more…)
Author Interviews, Colon Cancer, JAMA, Weight Research / 13.03.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Laurent Bailly MD, PhD Département de Santé Publique, CHU Nice, Hôpital Archet 1. Niveau1 NICE France  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Obesity is known to increase cancer incidence and notably colorectal cancer incidence. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment of obesity however the association of this surgery with the colorectal cancer remained controversial. We used the French National Health Insurance Information System to conduct a nationwide retrospective cohort study, between 2009 and 2018, of patients hospitalized in France with a diagnosis of obesity. We followed more than 1 million obese individuals aged 50 to 75 years and free of colorectal cancer at baseline, some of them did undergo bariatric surgery and others did not. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMC, Breast Cancer, Cancer Research, Weight Research / 27.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Carolyn Ee PhD NICM Health Research Institute Western Sydney University Australia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Worldwide and in Australia, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Weight gain is common after diagnosis of breast cancer and may increase tumour recurrence risk, mortality rate, and worsen quality of life. As there was no national data on the prevalence of weight gain after breast cancer in Australia, we undertook a national survey which was open to any woman living in Australia who had breast cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 29.01.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Carol Chelimo PhD Research Fellow Dept. of Paediatrics, School of Medicine University of Auckland MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: New Zealand has the third highest prevalence of obesity among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Pediatric obesity is associated with development of cardiovascular risk factors in later life, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. Antibiotic exposures in early life may affect weight by altering the gut microbiota, potentially increasing the risk of childhood obesity. The overall aim of this research was to examine whether repeated antibiotic exposure by age 48 months is associated with higher body mass index (BMI) at age 54 months. Specifically, it evaluates whether the number, timing (age), and type of antibiotic exposures are associated with a higher body mass and an increased likelihood of overweight and obesity. This work incorporates antibiotic exposure during pregnancy (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Surgical Research, Weight Research / 15.01.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anita P. Courcoulas MD, MPH, FACS Anthony M. Harrison MD Chair and Professor of Surgery Chief, MIS Bariatric & General Surgery University of Pittsburgh Medical Center  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Fewer published studies in bariatric surgery address long term adverse outcomes or problems that can occur after different operations.  In addition, a lack of standardized reporting of potential adverse events limits the understanding of these issues. This paper results from one of the largest studies of bariatric surgery ever undertaken and includes both gastric bypass and gastric sleeve, the 2 most common operations performed in the U.S. and worldwide at the current time.  This study leverages large data sets from the electronic health record linked to insurance claims and death indices.  This is real-world data coming from a population-based cohort of 33,560 adults at 10 sites in 4 clinical data research networks throughout the U.S., so it may be different from data that accrues from a longitudinal observational study or randomized trial.  Patients and other important stakeholders in bariatric surgery were critical to the design, conduct, and dissemination of results from this study. (more…)
Author Interviews, Nutrition, Weight Research / 15.01.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Leigh Frame, PhD, MHS Director for the Integrative Medicine Program School of Medicine and Health Sciences George Washington University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: As food consumed in the U.S. becomes more and more processed, obesity may become more prevalent. Through reviewing overall trends in food, we concluded that detailed recommendations to improve diet quality and overall nutrition are needed for consumers, who are prioritizing food that is cheaper and more convenient, but also highly processed. When comparing the U.S. diet to the diet of those who live in "blue zones" - areas with populations living to age 100 without chronic disease - the differences are stark. Many of the food trends we reviewed are tied directly to a fast-paced U.S. lifestyle that contributes to the obesity epidemic we are now facing. (more…)
Author Interviews, Bipolar Disorder, Depression, JAMA, Schizophrenia, Weight Research / 08.01.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shahram Bahrami, PhD NORMENT Centre, Institute of Clinical Medicine Division of Mental Health and Addiction Oslo University Hospital Oslo, Norway  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We know that patients with severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression have shorter life span than the rest of the population, largely due to comorbid cardiovascular diseases. The increased risk seems related to lifestyle including diet and physical activity and medicines, while the mechanisms are not fully understood. Different studies have shown increased weight (high body mass index) in many people with mental disorders. Yet very little is known about genetic variants jointly in influencing major psychiatric disorders and body mass index. Thus, we investigated if there are overlapping genetic risk variants between body mass index and the mental disorders schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and major depression.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, Heart Disease, JAMA, Weight Research / 08.01.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ravi V. Shah, MD Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA Venkatesh L. Murthy MD, PhD Division of Cardiovascular Medicine Department of Medicine and Frankel Cardiovascular Center University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We were interested in evaluating how added information like fitness assessed on a treadmill exercise test, physical activity questionnaires and genetic risk scores could inform patients and doctors’ understanding of how an individuals BMI might change over time. We used one of the latest and broadest polygenic risk scores. We investigated the CARDIA cohort, a study sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, who were young adults aged 18 to 30 and have been followed serially for 25 years. (more…)
Author Interviews, Johns Hopkins, NEJM, Weight Research / 02.01.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mark P. Mattson, Ph.D. Adjunct Professor of Neuroscience Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The usual eating pattern of most people in modern societies is breakfast, lunch, dinner plus a snack(s) every day.   Animals used for most biomedical research – rats and mice – are usually fed ‘ad libitum’ (food is always available for them to eat).    During the past 25 years, myself and the many scientists who trained in my laboratory discovered that when rats or mice are fed intermittently such that they have no food every other day or eat only during a 4-6 hour time period each day, their overall health improves in many ways.  Animals on such intermittent fasting (IF) regimens exhibit signs of slowed aging and they live much longer than those fed ad libitum. The editors of the New England Journal of Medicine invited me and Rafa de Cabo (a former postdoc in my laboratory at the National Institute on Aging) to write this review article for two main reasons.   First, there have been a sufficient number of studies demonstrating the health benefits of IF in humans and knowledge of the underlying mechanisms to justify a review article.  Second, many physicians are being asked about IF by their patients and the physicians are not privy as to if they should recommend IF and how to prescribe specific IF eating patterns and follow-up to increase the likelihood that the patient will be successful in changing their eating pattern.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 02.01.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Elvira Isganaitis, M.D., M.P.H. Pediatric Endocrinologist, Joslin Diabetes Center Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02215 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The concept that a mother's nutrition prior to and during pregnancy is important for health outcomes in the offspring is now well accepted. For example, women intending to get pregnant must take prenatal vitamins, and are encouraged to attain a healthy weight before conception. However, much less is known about how a father's nutritional status may influence childhood health outcomes.  Based on studies in animals, exposure to undernutrition, high-fat diet, or stressful experiences in fathers can result in increased risk of obesity and diabetes in the offspring. These effects are mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms (i.e. changes in gene expression due to differences in DNA methylation, histones, or other non-genetic mechanisms). (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Weight Research / 19.12.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lauren Teras, PHD Scientific Director, Epidemiology Research American Cancer Society MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Excess body weight is a known cause of postmenopausal breast cancer, but an important question is: can you reverse it? Believe it or not, this not something we knew for certain. We had hoped it was true, but the scientific evidence was not there. This research question is, of course, particularly important for the more than two-thirds of U.S. women who are overweight or obese, and therefore at higher risk for breast cancer. To try to answer this question, we used a very large pooled study of 180,000 women aged ≥50 years from 10 different prospective studies.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 09.11.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jennifer Panganiban, MD Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Director, Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Clinic Children's Hospital of Philadelphia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Obesity now affects 1 in 5 children and adolescents in the United States with an estimated prevalence of 13.7 million. We know that this is not only an issue in the US but a worldwide epidemic. Lifestyle modification is the primary treatment of obesity, which can be successful but is limited. Off-label use of medications for weight loss in youth is increasing secondary to the limited availability of FDA approved medications for weight-loss.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 07.11.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kai Ling Kong, PhD, MS Assistant Professor Division of Behavioral Medicine Department of Pediatrics School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences State University of New York at Buffalo MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The deleterious effects that obesity has on an individual’s health and the difficulty of reversing it in adults are well-known, ranging from diabetes and heart disease to cancer. For these reasons, obesity prevention in babies and children in populations at high risk is increasingly seen as a critical way to address the obesity epidemic. However, most studies on factors that contribute to obesity in very young children haven’t focused on the populations most at risk. Now an ongoing longitudinal University at Buffalo study being presented Nov. 5 in Las Vegas at ObesityWeek is among the first to explore how mother-infant behaviors during feeding and active play (non-feeding situations) affect infants and children in families with low socioeconomic status. Infants of mothers exhibiting less warmth during free play interactions when infants were 7 months old were associated with steeper body mass index trajectories while the infants of mothers exhibiting more warmth during these interactions were not. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Osteoporosis, Weight Research / 01.11.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Radhika Seimon, PhD Research Fellow at the University of Sydney Amanda Salis, PhD - Professor of Obesity Research at the University of Sydney Senior Research Fellow National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Total meal replacement diets are severely energy-restricted diets that involve replacing all or almost all foods with nutritionally replete meal replacement products such as shakes, soups, or bars (i.e. total diet replacement). They are the most effective dietary treatment for obesity, resulting in greater short- and long-term weight loss compared with conventional food-based diets. However, there are concerns that total meal replacement diets may adversely affect body composition, notably lean mass and bone mineral density. (more…)