Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Genetic Research, Pediatrics / 24.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49846" align="alignleft" width="143"]Philip J. Lupo, PhD, MPH Co-Director, Childhood Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Program, Texas Children's Cancer Center Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics Section of Hematology-Oncology, Member, Dan L. Duncan Comprehensive Cancer Center Baylor College of Medicine Adjunct Associate Professor, Human Genetics Center, Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences University of Texas School of Public Health Dr. Lupo[/caption] Philip J. Lupo, PhD, MPH Co-Director, Childhood Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Program, Texas Children's Cancer Center Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics Section of Hematology-Oncology, Member, Dan L. Duncan Comprehensive Cancer Center Baylor College of Medicine Adjunct Associate Professor, Human Genetics Center, Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences University of Texas School of Public Health   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: While cancer risk in children with certain chromosomal defects like Down syndrome is well established, much less is known for children with birth defects where there is no known genetic cause, sometimes called non-chromosomal defects. Non-chromosomal defects, as a group, affect more children, but one of the primary challenges of understanding risk among these children is that limited sample sizes make studying specific defects, like spina bifida, more difficult. Because of that, we gathered data from birth, birth defect, and cancer registries across Texas, Arkansas, Michigan, and North Carolina to generate a birth cohort of more than 10 million children born between 1992 and 2013. We looked at diagnoses of cancer until 18 years of age to determine differences in cancer risk between those with and without birth defects.
Author Interviews, CDC, JAMA, Nutrition, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 24.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49924" align="alignleft" width="150"]Liping Pan, MD, MPH Epidemiologist Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Dr. Pan[/caption] Liping Pan, MD, MPH Epidemiologist Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Centers for Disease Control and Prevention MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Children with severe obesity face significant health and social challenges. Children with obesity are at higher risk for having other chronic health conditions and diseases, such as asthma, sleep apnea, bone and joint problems, and type 2 diabetes. They also have more risk factors for heart disease such as high blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and high cholesterol than their healthyweight peers. Children with obesity can be bullied and teased more than their healthyweight peers. They are also more likely to suffer from social isolation, depression, and lower self-esteem. Children with obesity are also more likely to have obesity as adults. This can lead to lifelong physical and mental health problems. Adult obesity is associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and many types of cancers.  Childhood obesity is more common among children from lower-income families, as many lack access to healthy, affordable foods and beverages and opportunities for low-cost physical activity.
Author Interviews, Cannabis, Pediatrics / 21.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49903" align="alignleft" width="133"]Marilyn Cyr, Ph.D., Psy.D. Postdoctoral Research Scientist Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry New York State Psychiatric Institute Columbia University Medical Center New York, NY 10032 Dr. Cyr[/caption] Marilyn Cyr, Ph.D., Psy.D. Postdoctoral Research Scientist Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry New York State Psychiatric Institute Columbia University Medical Center New York, NY 10032 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: A hallmark feature of problematic substance use is compulsive drug-seeking long after the drug is no longer experienced as pleasurable and despite the associated adverse consequences of this behavior. Disturbances in cognitive control—an ensemble of processes by which the mind governs behaviors, regulates impulses and guides decisions based on goals—are believed to be involved in the initiation and maintenance of the compulsive drug-seeking that characterizes problematic substance use. Most adults with problematic substance use began having problems with drugs and alcohol in adolescence, a developmental period during which the neural circuits underlying cognitive control processes continue to mature. As such, the adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of substance use, and particularly cannabis, the most commonly used recreational drug by teenagers worldwide.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, NIH, Pediatrics / 18.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Ellen Leschek MD Program Director: Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolic Diseases The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Health Information Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is thought to be characterized by a progressive loss of pancreatic beta cell (insulin producing/releasing cell) function. For this reason, T2D medications eventually stop working and individuals with T2D require treatment with insulin. The Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) Consortium was established by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) to evaluate the effects of treatment and treatment withdrawal on the loss of pancreatic beta cell function. In the RISE Study, progression of disease was assessed by the measurement of pancreatic beta cell function in youth and adults who had either impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; prediabetes) or recently diagnosed Type 2 diabetes before, during and after treatment with study medications. Importantly, the RISE Pediatric Medication Study and the RISE Adult Medication Study were designed in tandem to allow direct comparison of the effects of two pharmacologic treatment regimens (the only two FDA-approved medications for Type 2 diabetes in youth) on disease progression in youth and adults. For more information about the RISE Study, please visit https://rise.bsc.gwu.edu/web/rise.
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, PLoS, Weight Research / 16.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49782" align="alignleft" width="183"]Henry J. Nuss, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center School of Public Health New Orleans, LA Dr. Nuss[/caption] Henry J. Nuss, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center School of Public Health New Orleans, LA  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Childhood obesity rates in the U.S. have been increasing within the past 30 years. We can point to things like sedentary lifestyle, energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and savvy marketing techniques of large food corporations that target kids and their parents to buy food items that aren’t healthy. That said, we do know that women who have an unhealthy weight status (as measured by BMI ≥ 25) tend to have offspring that eventually attain an unhealthy weight status themselves. Aside from environmental factors, could this be due to maternal programming or perhaps something in the breastmilk? Or both? We saw some interesting research that showed breastfed infants/toddlers born to asthmatic moms were more likely to develop asthma. Furthermore, this association became stronger the longer the infants/toddlers were breastfed. The conclusion here is that it must be something in the breastmilk. We knew that asthma and obesity are both inflammatory in nature and that there are specific pro- and anti-inflammatory and obesogenic bioactive compounds in human breastmilk. Some have been studied before but there were no studies at the time that tied all of the pieces together. If we could target specific compounds in the milk that were associated with unhealthy growth patterns in infants then we could perhaps be more specific in how we fight this problem.
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Brain Injury, ENT, Pediatrics / 12.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49726" align="alignleft" width="144"]Amishav Bresler MD Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Rutgers - New Jersey Medical School Dr. Bresler[/caption] Amishav Bresler MD Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Rutgers - New Jersey Medical School  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: This study was inspired by a personal experience with the rental scooters. The most recent American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery annual conference was in Atlanta this year. At the time of the conference, the scooter rental industry had recently entered the region. A friend of mine, another ENT resident, was encouraging others to use these scooters for transportation for both the novelty and convenience. However, he didn't even have a helmet! Here was a well-educated doctor who takes call for craniofacial injuries, who was about to get on a scooter without a helmet. This experience made me wonder if scooters were dangerous scooters and their overall impact on public health. In terms of the backgroud, the personal transportation industry is undergoing a revolution. The search for efficient and environmentally-friendly urban transportation ignited an ongoing debate in the United States regarding the role of motorized scooters. Although known to be a popular method of transportation in Europe and Asia, motorized scooters have only recently begun to make inroads in the United States. The gradual rise in popularity has been attributed to their convenience, affordability, and status as a “green” alternative to vehicles with combustion engines. These advantages combined with the fact electric scooters enable users to travel longer distances than conventional scooters present an attractive method of transportation to school, work, and leisure.
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, ENT, Pediatrics / 06.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49636" align="alignleft" width="200"]Dr. Garth Essig, MD Otolaryngologist The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center.  Dr. Essig[/caption] Dr. Garth Essig, MD Otolaryngologist The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center.  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Dog bites are a significant yet modifiable public health concern, but the true magnitude is difficult to estimate with such wide ranges in reporting, severity of injury and varieties of breeds that bite.  We reviewed bites from reports in the literature and from two regionally distinct medical centers. We concluded that bite frequency and severity could be attributed to certain breeds in this sample, if the breed is known. Our study also acknowledged the significant risk of biting with the mixed breed population, which creates a dilemma with identification.
ASCO, Author Interviews, Bayer, Leukemia, Pediatrics / 05.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joseph Germino, M.D., PhD Vice President US Medical Affairs Oncology Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals Whippany, N.J. 07981 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Sorafenib (Nexavar®) is an oral anticancer therapy approved in more than 100 countries worldwide. It is approved for the treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who have failed prior interferon-alpha or interleukin-2 based therapy or are considered unsuitable for such therapy; progressive, locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma (papillary/follicular/Hürthle cell), that is refractory to radioactive iodine (RAI). The AAML 1031 is a recently completed Phase III clinical trial evaluating the use of bortezomib and sorafenib in patients 30 years or younger with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). At the 2019 ASCO Annual meeting, results of a report from the AAML1031 trial, which assessed whether intensification of Induction II chemotherapy (ADE or AraC/ Mitoxantrone) and liberalized stem cell transplant (SCT) donor source criteria improved clinical outcomes in patients with residual AML. 
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Sexual Health / 04.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49588" align="alignleft" width="135"]Monika K. Goyal, M.D., MSCE Assistant chief of Children’s Division Emergency Medicine and Trauma Services Dr. Goyal[/caption] Monika K. Goyal, M.D., MSCE Assistant chief of Children’s Division Emergency Medicine and Trauma Services  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Adolescents are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and often present to the emergency department for care. I have devoted almost 15 years of my career trying to improve the sexual health of teens through advocacy and the development of novel interventions in the emergency department to increase access to sexual health services for youths.
Author Interviews, Emergency Care, JAMA, Medical Imaging, Pediatrics / 04.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49477" align="alignleft" width="200"]Eyal Cohen, MD, M.Sc, FRCP(C)Professor, PediatricsUniversity of TorontoCo-Founder, Complex Care ProgramThe Hospital for Sick Children Dr. Cohen[/caption] Eyal Cohen, MD, M.Sc, FRCP(C) Professor, Pediatrics University of Toronto Co-Founder, Complex Care Program The Hospital for Sick Children   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Minimizing care that provides little benefit to patients has become an important focus to decrease health care costs and improve the quality of care delivery.  Diagnostic imaging in children is a common focus for campaigns designed to reduce overuse both in Canada and the US. There are some suggestions that there may be more overuse of care in the United States than Canada, but there has been little study in children. We compared the use of low-value diagnostic imaging rates from four pediatric emergency departments in Ontario to 26 in the United States from 2006 to 2016.  We defined low-value imaging as situations where children are discharged from an emergency department with a diagnosis for which routine use of diagnostic imaging may not be necessary, like asthma or constipation. 
ASCO, Author Interviews, Bayer, Cancer Research, Pediatrics / 03.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49569" align="alignleft" width="173"]Douglas S. Hawkins, M.D. Hematology/Oncology Division Chief and Professor Pediatrics at Seattle Children's Hospital University of Washington School of Medicine Dr. Hawkins[/caption] Douglas S. Hawkins, M.D. Hematology/Oncology Division Chief and Professor Pediatrics at Seattle Children's Hospital University of Washington School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: TRK fusion cancer is caused by a rare genomic alteration called a neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase (NTRK) gene fusion. Larotrectinib is a central nervous system (CNS) active, oral and highly selective TRK inhibitor used for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with solid tumors that have a rare genomic alteration called an NTRK gene fusion. Larotrectinib was approved at the end of 2018 in the U.S. under the brand name VITRAKVI®, with European and worldwide regulatory submissions underway. At ASCO 2019, we will be presenting results from a new analysis specifically looking at the efficacy and safety of larotrectinib in pediatric patients (n=34) included in the expanded dataset from both adults and children across 24 tumor types, which was presented first at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) 2019 Annual Meeting. 
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Pediatrics, Toxin Research / 03.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49551" align="alignleft" width="144"]Dr-Gary A. Smith Dr. Gary Smith[/caption] Dr. Gary Smith, MD MPH Director, Center for Injury Research and Policy Nationwide Children’s Hospital Columbus, OH MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Our 2016 study (https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/137/5/e20154529) investigated calls to US poison control centers related to laundry and dishwasher detergent exposures among children younger than 6 years old from 2013 through 2014 and found that poison control centers received more than 30 calls a day about children who had been exposed to a laundry detergent packet, which is about one call every 45 minutes. The current study investigated trends in calls to poison control centers across the country for exposure to liquid laundry detergent packets in order to evaluate the impact of the voluntary safety standard for this product with a focus on young children. The study found only a modest decrease (18%) in calls for children younger than 6 years of age following adoption of a 2015 product safety standard as well as an increase in calls for older children and adults. Exposures to the eyes also continued to climb. The observed decrease in exposures among young children is considerably less than the 40% to 55% decrease in toxic ingestions seen after passage of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act. This demonstrates that the current liquid laundry detergent safety standard is inadequate and needs to be strengthened.
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, JAMA, Mental Health Research, Pediatrics, UCLA / 29.05.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Molly C. Easterlin, MD Fellow, UCLA National Clinician Scholars Program Clinical Instructor, Pediatrics, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Adverse childhood experiences or ACEs (including physical or emotional neglect or abuse, sexual abuse, domestic abuse, exposure to household substance misuse or mental illness, parental separation or divorce, and parental incarceration) are common with about half of children experiencing 1 and one-quarter of children experiencing 2 or more. Children exposed to adverse childhood experiences have worse mental health throughout life, including higher rates of depression and anxiety. However, little is known about what factors improve long-term mental health in those exposed to ACEs. Additionally, as far as we are aware, no studies have looked at team sports participation as a potential factor that may be associated with improved mental health among those with adverse childhood experiences.
Addiction, Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Tobacco Research, UCSD / 25.05.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49370" align="alignleft" width="169"]Davide Dulcis, PhDAssociate ProfessorDepartment of Psychiatry, UCSD School of MedicineUniversity of California, San DiegoLa Jolla, CA 92093-0603 Dr. Dulcis[/caption] Davide Dulcis, PhD Associate Professor Department of Psychiatry, UCSD School of Medicine University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093-0603 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Previous studies in humans have shown that pre-natal and early life exposure to nicotine can lead to altered children behavior and propensity for drug abuse, but the precise mechanisms involved are still unclear. In this pre-clinical study we showed how nicotine “primes” neurons of the mouse brain’s reward center for a fate they normally would not have taken, making them more susceptible to the effects of nicotine when the animals are again exposed to nicotine later in life, said Dr. Benedetto Romoli, first author of the research article.  
Author Interviews, JAMA, Lipids, Pediatrics / 22.05.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49239" align="alignleft" width="148"]Amanda Marma Perak, MD, MSAssistant Professor of Pediatrics (Cardiology) and Preventive Medicine Dr. Marma Perak[/caption] Amanda Marma Perak, MD, MS Assistant Professor of Pediatrics (Cardiology) and Preventive Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Blood cholesterol is a critical initiator of atherosclerotic plaques in the arteries that can lead to heart attack in adulthood. It is well established that these changes in the blood vessels occur already in childhood. Thus, it is important to know the status of cholesterol levels in youth to inform public health efforts aimed at preventing cardiovascular disease in the population. In the US there have been changes in childhood obesity prevalence (which may worsen cholesterol levels), the food supply (such as reduction of trans fats which may improve cholesterol levels), and other factors in recent years. We therefore designed a study to examine trends in cholesterol levels among youth in recent years.
Author Interviews, CDC, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Sexual Health, STD / 21.05.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lee Warner, PhD Chief of the Women’s Health and Fertility Branch Division of Reproductive Health CDC MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Previous research has found lower prevalence of condom use combined with the most effective reversible contraceptive methods among teens, but this is the first study to our knowledge to confirm the finding among sexually active teen mothers in the postpartum period. Our new paper finds that only 3 in 10 postpartum teen mothers report using condoms combined with a more effective contraceptive method (either long-acting reversible contraception or LARC or a non-LARC hormonal method). Dual use was 50 percent lower among LARC users compared with users of non-LARC hormonal methods.
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 20.05.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49279" align="alignleft" width="200"]Jeffrey Colvin, MD, JDDepartment of PediatricsChildren's Mercy HospitalKansas City, MO 64111 Dr. Colvin[/caption] Jeffrey Colvin, MD, JD Department of Pediatrics Children's Mercy Hospital Kansas City, MO 64111  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Prior studies have found that infants spend an average of 5-6 hours a day in sitting devices. Sitting devices include car seats, swings, infant seats, and strollers. Given how much time infants are spending in sitting devices, we wanted to know if sleep-related infant deaths (such as Sudden Infant Death Syndrome or "SIDS") was occurring in those devices. We examined over 10,000 infant sleep-related deaths from 45 states. We found that 3% (or 348) of the deaths occurred in sitting devices. Two-thirds of the deaths in sitting devices were in car seats. What was most surprising was that less than 10% of the deaths in car seats occurred in cars. Instead, the great majority occurred in the child's home or the home of a relative, friend, or babysitter. In 1/3 of the deaths in car seats, the supervising adult was asleep. 
Author Interviews, Emory, Heart Disease, JAMA, Pediatrics, Sugar / 19.05.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jean A. Welsh, RN, MPH, PhD Departments of Epidemiology and Pediatrics Emory University Wellness Department, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta Atlanta, Georgia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: As the evidence has accumulated regarding the health risks associated with sugar-sweetened beverages, I’ve wondered about fruit juices.  Though they have a kind of healthy halo, their main ingredients are the same as sugar-sweetened beverages, sugar and water.  We know that young children drink a lot of fruit juice, and I’ve wondered if older children and adults might switch to drinking more as concern grows about soft drinks and other sugar-sweetened beverages.
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Smoking, Tobacco, Tobacco Research / 19.05.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bonnie Halpern-Felsher, PhD, FSAHM Dr. Halpern-Felsher Professor of Pediatrics Director of Fellowship Research Department of Pediatrics Director of Research, Division of Adolescent Medicine Associate Director, Adolescent Medicine Fellowship Program Co-leader, Scholarly Concentrations, Pediatrics Residency Program Stanford University Hoda S. Abdel Magid, MHS, PhDPostdoctoral ScholarDepartment of Health Research & PolicyStanford UniversityHoda S. Abdel Magid, MHS, PhD Postdoctoral Scholar Department of Health Research & Policy Stanford University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Dr. Hoda Magid, my former graduate student, and I wanted to examine whether owning promotional items for e-cigarettes and other non-cigarette products predicted youth use of those products.  Other studies have examined whether ownership of coupons, samples, and other promotional materials influenced cigarette use, but no longitudinal study examined other tobacco products. Our findings show that non-tobacco using youth who own items to promote e-cigarettes and other alternative tobacco products are twice as likely to use alternative tobacco products a year later.
Author Interviews, Electronic Records, JAMA, Pediatrics, Primary Care / 07.05.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49055" align="alignleft" width="173"]Cari McCarty, PhDResearch Professor, UWInvestigator, Seattle Children’s Research Institute Dr. McCarty[/caption] Cari McCarty, PhD Research Professor, UW Investigator, Seattle Children’s Research Institute  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Adolescence is a time when teens begin to take charge of their health, but it is also a time when they can be prone to health risk behaviors, such as insufficient physical activity, poor sleep, and substance use. We were interested in whether using an electronic health risk screening tool in primary care settings could improve healthcare and health for adolescents.  The tool was designed to provide screening as well as motivational feedback directly to adolescents, in addition to clinical decision support for the healthcare clinician.  We conducted a trial with 300 adolescent patients where one group received the screening tool prior to their health checkup, and the other group received usual care.
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, Outcomes & Safety, Pediatrics, Pediatrics / 06.05.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49020" align="alignleft" width="99"]John P. Galiote, M.D.Neonatologist at Children’s National-Virginia Hospital Center NICU Dr. Galiote[/caption] John P. Galiote, M.D. Neonatologist at Children’s National-Virginia Hospital Center NICU [caption id="attachment_49021" align="alignleft" width="100"]Michelande Ridoré, MS, NICUQuality improvement lead at Children’s National  Ms. Ridoré[/caption] Michelande Ridoré, MS, NICU Quality improvement lead at Children’s National [caption id="attachment_49022" align="alignleft" width="99"]Lamia Soghier, M.D., MEd, Children’s National NICU medical director Dr. Soghier[/caption]   Lamia Soghier, M.D., MEd, Children’s National NICU Medical Director MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Our study emphasizes the importance of team work and real-time communication in a quality-improvement project within the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting. Through bedside huddles, weekly reviews of apparent cause analysis reports reducing the frequency of X-rays and the creation of an Airway Safety Protection Team, we were able to focus not only on  reducing unintended extubations, but also on the quality-improvement project’s effect on our staff. Adhering to simple quality principles enabled us to ensure that all members of our staff were heard and had a positive effect on the progress of our project. This allowed us to implement and sustain a series of simple changes that standardized steps associated with securing and maintaining an endotracheal tube (ET). Unintended extubations are the fourth-most common adverse event in the nation’s NICUs. Continual monitoring via this quality-improvement project allowed us to intervene when our rates increased and further pushed our unintended extubation rate downward.
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Smoking / 06.05.2019

"E-Cigarette/Electronic Cigarette/E-Cigs/E-Liquid/Vaping/Cloud Chasing" by Vaping360 is licensed under CC BY 2.0 CC BY 2.0MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Jenny L. Carwile, ScD, MPH Department of Medicine Maine Medical Center Portland   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response:  Although e-cigarette aerosols are commonly perceived to be "harmless water vapors" they contain numerous potentially harmful chemicals including volatile organic compounds like formaldehyde, nicotine, heavy metals, and ultrafine particulates. Non-users can be exposed to these chemicals through secondhand exposure. We found that in the US 4.9% of adults who lived in a household with children were current e-cigarette users.
Author Interviews, Dermatology, Microbiome, Pediatrics, UCSD / 30.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48942" align="alignleft" width="175"]Dr. Jusleen Ahluwalia MDSecond-year Dermatology residentUniversity of California, San Diego Dr. Ahluwalia[/caption] Dr. Jusleen Ahluwalia MD Second-year Dermatology resident University of California, San Diego MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Preadolescence is an interesting stage during which changes in microbial diversity can coincide with the development of acne. This study is the largest assessment of preadolescent acne microbiome in the literature to date. In this study, we found that early acne in preadolescent females is characterized by an abundance of Streptococcus mitis, while later stages are characterized by a predominance of Cutibacterium acnes (formerly known as Propionibacterium acnes).  
Addiction, Author Interviews, Cannabis, Pediatrics, Smoking, Tobacco, Tobacco Research / 30.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48927" align="alignleft" width="120"]Joan S. Tucker, Ph.D.Senior Behavioral ScientistRAND CorporationSanta Monica, CA Dr. Tucker[/caption] Joan S. Tucker, Ph.D. Senior Behavioral Scientist RAND Corporation Santa Monica, CA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: In light of young adults’ expanding access to cannabis through legalization for recreational use, there has been growing interest in the co-use of cannabis with tobacco/nicotine products.  Although existing data show that young adults who use cannabis products also tend to use tobacco/nicotine products, little is known about how these products are typically used together. Existing research on co-use has mostly focused on combustible products, not accounting for the recent proliferation in cannabis and tobacco/nicotine product types and methods of use (e.g., vaping). Further, not much is known about whether there are important differences between types of co-use (e.g., using both products on the same occasion, one right after another, but not mixing them vs. using both products by mixing them in the same delivery device) in terms of heaviness of use, consequences from use, or associations with young adult functioning. This study was designed as an important first step toward understanding cannabis and tobacco/nicotine co-use behavior among young adults and addressing these gaps in the research literature.
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, JAMA, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 26.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48883" align="alignleft" width="200"]Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, MD, PhDAdjunct Professor of EpidemiologyDepartment of Epidemiology Dr. Jaddoe[/caption] Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, MD, PhD Adjunct Professor of Epidemiology Department of Epidemiology MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Childhood body fat may be affected by patterns of fetal and infant weight change. Children born small for gestational age (SGA) tend to have infant growth acceleration, whereas those born large for gestational age (LGA) tend to have infant growth deceleration. Little is known about fetal and infant growth patterns affecting visceral, liver, and pericardial fat, which are strongly associated with cardiometabolic disease in later life. We assessed in a large population cohort study whether fetal and infant weight change was associated with not only general, but also organ fat at school age. We observed that fetal and infant weight change patterns were both associated with childhood body fat, but weight change patterns in infancy tended to have larger effects. Fetal growth restriction followed by infant growth acceleration was associated with increased visceral and liver fat. 
Author Interviews, Infections, JAMA, Pediatrics / 26.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48849" align="alignleft" width="200"]Dr. Matthieu Domenech de Cellès PhDBiostatistics, Biomathematics, Pharmacoepidemiology, and Infectious Diseases Unit, Institut Pasteur, Inserm U1181, University of Versailles St-Quentin-en-Yvelines,Versailles, France Dr. Domenech de Cellès[/caption] Dr. Matthieu Domenech de Cellès PhD Biostatistics, Biomathematics, Pharmacoepidemiology, and Infectious Diseases Unit, Institut Pasteur, Inserm U1181, University of Versailles St-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Versailles, France MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Most high-income countries now use acellular pertussis vaccines (called DTaP, which are sub-unit vaccines based on purified antigens of the bacterium Bordetella pertussis) to protect children against pertussis. Although clinical trials demonstrated the short-term effectiveness of DTaP vaccines, there was a growing concern that the duration of protection they conferred was not very long. Those concerns were mostly based on the results of a number of epidemiological studies, which showed that the relative risk of contracting pertussis increased substantially over time, typically by 20–40% every year since last vaccination. Although such increases seem high, it was not immediately obvious how to interpret them—the more so because pertussis epidemiology is complex. In our study, we developed mathematical models of pertussis epidemiology to try to understand what the results of recent epidemiological studies really meant about the effectiveness and the duration of protection of DTaP vaccines. The most interesting—and perhaps counterintuitive—finding of our study was that those results are fully consistent with highly effective DTaP vaccines, which confer long-term protection. This is a consequence of the fact that pertussis is highly contagious and that the immunity conferred by DTaP, though very high, is not perfect.   
Author Interviews, Infections, JAMA, Mental Health Research, Pediatrics / 25.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48823" align="alignleft" width="150"]Lauren Breithaupt, PhDDepartment of PsychologyGeorge Mason UniversityFairfax, Virginia Dr. Breithaupt[/caption] Lauren Breithaupt, PhD Department of Psychology George Mason University Fairfax, Virginia  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Our study provides novel insight into the relationship between the immune system and eating disorders characterized by chronic restriction (e.g., anorexia nervosa) and binge eating and/or purging (e.g., binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa). These findings also add to the growing body of literature linking the immune systems broadly and mental disorders. We found that infections in early childhood were associated with an increased risk of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders such as binge eating disorder in adolescence. These relationships appear to be both time and dose-dependent, meaning that the onset of eating disorder diagnosis is greatest in the first three months following the infection, and the more infections, the greater the risk.   
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 25.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48790" align="alignleft" width="142"]Fern R. Hauck, MD, MSSpencer P. Bass, MD Twenty-First Century Professor of Family MedicineProfessor of Public Health SciencesDirector, International Family Medicine ClinicUniversity of Virginia Department of Family Medicine Dr. Hauck[/caption] Fern R. Hauck, MD, MS Spencer P. Bass, MD Twenty-First Century Professor of Family Medicine Professor of Public Health Sciences Director, International Family Medicine Clinic University of Virginia Department of Family Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Unintentional suffocation is the leading cause of injury deaths among infants under one year of age in the US. 82% of these deaths are attributed to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed. The Sudden Unexpected Infant Death Case Registry was established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2009 to collect data on sudden unexpected infant deaths (SUID) to better understand trends and characteristics associated with these deaths. Data from 10 states, which account for about one-third of all US SUID cases, are captured in the Registry. The CDC developed the Case Registry classification system in 2014 to differentiate SUID cases into several groups; explained suffocations with unsafe sleep factors is one of those categories, and the subject of this study. We analyzed infant deaths (children under one year of age) that occurred from 2011-2014 among states participating in the registry at the time of the study (Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, and Wisconsin). Among the 1812 cases in the Registry from 2011-2014, 250 (14%) were classified as suffocation. The remaining cases were classified as unexplained SUID.
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 24.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48728" align="alignleft" width="123"]Clare Brown, PhDHealth Systems and Services ResearchUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Dr. Brown[/caption] Clare Brown, PhD Health Systems and Services Research University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences [caption id="attachment_48727" align="alignleft" width="125"]J. Mick Tilford, PhD, Professor and ChairDepartment of Health Policy and ManagementFay W. Boozman College of Public HealthUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Science Dr. Tilford[/caption] J. Mick Tilford, PhD, Professor and Chair Department of Health Policy and Management Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health University of Arkansas for Medical Science   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Prematurity and low birthweight are associated with increased risk of infant mortality as well as increased risk of chronic conditions throughout infancy and into adulthood. Non-Hispanic black infants are twice as likely to be born low birthweight (13.9% vs 7.0%) and 1.5 times as likely to be born prematurely (13.9% vs 9.1%) compared to non-Hispanic white infants. Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), states may expand Medicaid to adults with household income levels at or below 138% of the federal poverty level, thus extending coverage to childless adults and improving continuity. Insurance gain may ultimately improve maternal health, increased use and earlier initiation of prenatal care services, and improved access to pregnancy planning resources. Our study aimed to evaluate whether there were changes in rates of low birthweight and preterm birth outcomes among states that expanded Medicaid versus states that did not expand Medicaid.