Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, Global Health, Pediatrics, Toxin Research / 20.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48672" align="alignleft" width="149"]Madhav P. Bhatta, PhD, MPHAssociate Professor, Epidemiology & Global HealthCollege of Public HealthKent State UniversityKent, OH 44242 Dr. Bhatta[/caption] Madhav P. Bhatta, PhD, MPH Associate Professor, Epidemiology & Global Health College of Public Health Kent State University Kent, OH 44242 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Lead exposure, especially in children, in any amount is harmful. Lead poisoning is a growing global environmental health problem with increasing lead-related diseases, disabilities, and deaths.  While exposure to lead in US children, in general, has significantly declined in the last three to four decades certain sub-groups of US children such as African Americans, immigrants and resettled refugees, and those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are still vulnerable to environmental lead exposure. Previous studies among resettled refugee children in the United States had found 4- to 5-times higher prevalence of elevated blood lead level (EBLL) when compared to US-born children. However, most of the studies were conducted when EBLL was defined as blood lead level ≥ 10 µg/dL. In 2012, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention changed the reference value for EBLL to ≥ 5 µg/dL. Moreover, because the countries of origin for US resettled refugees change over time, it is important to have epidemiologic studies that provide the current information on EBLL among these vulnerable new US immigrant children. Using blood lead level data from the post-resettlement medical screening, our study examined the prevalence of elevated blood lead level at the time of resettlement among former refugee children who were settled in the state of Ohio from 2009-2016. We had a large and diverse sample (5,661 children from 46 countries of origin) of children for the study, which allowed us to assess EBLL in children from several countries of origin that had not been previously studied.
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, Pediatrics, Toxin Research / 20.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48663" align="alignleft" width="200"]Lead paint can crack and form flakes, which can contaminate the surrounding environment. Source: Wikipedia Lead paint can crack and form flakes, which can contaminate the surrounding environment.
Source: Wikipedia[/caption] Ms. Jacqueline Chiofalo, MPA Director of Policy Research & Analysis The Institute for Family Health Astoria, New York  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Exposure to lead is dangerous and has been banned from use in residential dwellings. However, residual sources of lead still exist. Few studies have examined pediatric lead poisoning between public (NYCHA) and private housing units, and no recent studies performed in New York City. Our study used retrospective chart analysis of routine child lead testing to examine the difference in blood lead levels between the two housing types. Our data showed that children seen in our health centers who lived in New York City public housing had significantly lower mean blood lead levels and fewer children were found with levels over the CDC reference range of 5 μg/dL compared to children who lived in private housing. 
Author Interviews, Melanoma, Pediatrics, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Stanford / 18.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48700" align="alignleft" width="200"]Susan M. Swetter, MDProfessor of DermatologyDirector, Pigmented Lesion & Melanoma ProgramPhysician Leader, Cancer Care Program in Cutaneous OncologyStanford University Medical Center and Cancer Institute Dr. Swetter[/caption] Susan M. Swetter, MD Professor of Dermatology Director, Pigmented Lesion & Melanoma Program Physician Leader, Cancer Care Program in Cutaneous Oncology Stanford University Medical Center and Cancer Institute MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: The Stanford Pigmented Lesion and Melanoma and Program and Pediatric Dermatology Division participated in the long-term management of children, adolescents and young adults (<25 years of age) with melanoma and atypical melanocytic neoplasms, including atypical Spitz tumors (ASTs) that may be histopathologically challenging to differentiate from true melanoma. Over a 23-year period, we have observed increased racial-ethnic diversity in young patients with these diagnoses, especially in the presentation of young individuals with darker skin phenotypes and more clinically amelanotic (nonpigmented) lesions compared to patients with lighter skin. 
Allergies, Author Interviews, Immunotherapy, Pediatrics / 18.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48695" align="alignleft" width="162"]Lianne Soller, PhDAllergy Research ManagerUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouver, BC, Canada   Dr. Soller[/caption] Lianne Soller, PhD Allergy Research Manager University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC, Canada   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: In 2017, a clinical trial of 37 subjects demonstrated that preschool peanut oral immunotherapy was safe, with predominantly mild symptoms reported and only one moderate reaction requiring epinephrine. Our study aimed to examine whether these findings would be applicable in a real-world setting (i.e., outside of research). We found that peanut oral immunotherapy is safe in the vast majority of preschoolers, with only 0.4% of patients experiencing a severe reaction, and only 12 out of ~40,000 peanut doses needed epinephrine (0.03%). 
Author Interviews, Emergency Care, Gastrointestinal Disease, Pediatrics / 15.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Danielle Orsagh-Yentis, MD Pediatric GI Motility Fellow Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Nationwide Children’s Hospital Columbus, Ohio MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Foreign body ingestions are quite common in young children. Much of the literature and advocacy to date has focused on the harms of button battery and magnet ingestions. We found that foreign body ingestions in children younger than 6 years of age have been increasing over the past 2 decades. This overall increase is mirrored by the rise in coin, toy, and jewelry ingestions, as well as batteries, which, when swallowed, have the potential to cause considerable harm. 
Author Interviews, Epilepsy, Genetic Research, JAMA, Pediatrics / 12.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48481" align="alignleft" width="200"]Dr. Ahmad Abou Tayoun, PhDClinical Molecular GeneticistDirector of the Genetics LaboratoryAl Jalila Children’sUnited Arab Emirates Dr. Abou Tayoun[/caption] Dr. Ahmad Abou Tayoun, PhD Clinical Molecular Geneticist Director of the Genetics Laboratory Al Jalila Children’s United Arab Emirates MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: In this study, we provide data in favor of using an exome-based testing approach, where parental samples can be readily accessible, for early onset epilepsy patients. The exome test includes all coding genes in the human genome. Although we perform exome sequencing on those patients, we demonstrate that a first tier analysis should include targeted interpretation of ~100 genes strongly associated with the disease. This analysis provides diagnoses in ~11% of the patients. Follow up parental testing on a limited number of patients (n=15) that had inconclusive results, revealed de novo (new mutations) variant status, leading to upgrade to positive reports in 7 patients and adding ~5% to the overall diagnostic yield.
Asthma, Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, Lancet, Pediatrics / 12.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ploy Pattanun Achakulwisut, PhD Postdoctoral Scientist in Climate change, Air pollution, and Public Health Milken Institute School of Public Health (Anenberg Group The George Washington University, D.C  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Dozens of epidemiological studies have found positive and generally statistically significant associations between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and asthma development in children. The evidence is most robust for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a major component of and commonly used surrogate for the complex TRAP mixture. Recent reviews conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency and Health Canada concluded that there is “likely a causal relationship” between long-term NO2 exposure and pediatric asthma development. Using NO2 as a proxy for TRAP, our study provides the first global estimate of the number of new asthma cases among children that are attributable to traffic pollution, using fine spatial-scale global datasets that can resolve within-city and near-roadway NO2 exposures.
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Environmental Risks, Pediatrics, Toxin Research / 12.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48515" align="alignleft" width="200"]Edson R. Severnini PhDAssistant Professor Of Economics And Public PolicyCarnegie Mellon University Dr. Severnini[/caption] Edson R. Severnini PhD Assistant Professor Of Economics And Public Policy Carnegie Mellon University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Although lead has been banned from gasoline, paint, and other substances in the United States and many other countries around the world, the legacy of lead use is a critical environmental and public health issue. Surface soil contamination, in particular, has been long recognized as an important pathway of human lead exposure, and is now a worldwide health concern. This study estimates the causal effects of exposure to lead in topsoil on cognitive ability among 5-year-old children. We draw on individual level data from the 2000 U.S. Census, and USGS data on lead in topsoil covering a broad set of counties across the United States. We find that higher lead in topsoil increases considerably the probability of 5-year-old boys experiencing cognitive difficulties such as learning, remembering, concentrating, or making decisions. Living in counties with topsoil lead concentration above the national median roughly doubles the probability of 5-year-old boys having cognitive difficulties. This harmful effect does not seem to extend to 5-year-old girls, potentially due to the natural protection of estrogen. 
ADHD, Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Pharmacology / 08.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48399" align="alignleft" width="128"]Dr. Angela Lupattelli, PhDSchool of PharmacyUniversity of Oslo Dr. Lupattelli[/caption] Dr. Angela Lupattelli, PhD School of Pharmacy University of Oslo MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Between 1-4% of pregnant women take at least once a benzodiazepine and/or a z-hypnotic medication during the course of gestation. These medications are generally used intermittently in pregnancy, mainly for treatment of anxiety disorders and sleeping problems, which are not uncommon conditions among pregnant women. However, data regarding the safety of benzodiazepine and/or a z-hypnotic in pregnancy on child longer-term development are sparse. For instance, studies on child motor skills are only available up to toddler age, and little is known in relation to other child developmental domains. So, there is an urgent need to better understand whether prenatal use of benzodiazepine and/or a z-hypnotic medication may pose detrimental longer-term child risks.
Author Interviews, ENT, JAMA, Pain Research, Pediatrics, Surgical Research / 05.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48406" align="alignleft" width="133"]Gillian R. Diercks, MD, MPHInstructor in Otolaryngology, Harvard Medical SchoolDepartment of OtolaryngologyMassachusetts Eye and Ear InfirmaryBoston, Massachusetts Dr. Diercks[/caption] Gillian R. Diercks, MD, MPH Instructor in Otolaryngology, Harvard Medical School Department of Otolaryngology Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Boston, Massachusetts  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Pediatric tonsillectomy is a commonly performed procedure, representing the second most common ambulatory surgery performed on children in the United States, with over half a million children undergoing the surgery annually.  A major concern for surgeons, patients, and their families is the issue of postoperative pain control as pain can last up to 10-14 days after surgery, be quite severe, and result in readmission to the hospital or ED visits for medications and dehydration. In young children and children with sleep apnea we cannot safely administer narcotic pain medications at home.  This leaves limited options for pain control, including acetaminophen and ibuprofen.  However, there are concerns that ibuprofen could potentially increase bleeding risk after surgery because of its effects on platelet function in the blood.  At baseline, the risk of postoperative hemorrhage within the first two weeks after tonsillectomy is around 4.5%, with about 1-1.5% of children requiring a return to the operating room to control severe bleeding.  Our study set out to show that the risk of severe postoperative bleeding when ibuprofen is given for 9 days after tonsillectomy was not increased compared with the bleeding risk when acetaminophen was administered instead. Our study could not conclude that the risk of bleeding is no different when ibuprofen is used, and was suggestive that the bleeding risk may actually be higher.
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Lancet, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 01.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48296" align="alignleft" width="200"]MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Catalin S. Buhimschi MD, MMS, MBAProfessor of Obstetrics and GynecologyDivision of Maternal Fetal MedicineDirector of ObstetricsDepartment of Obstetrics and GynecologyChicago, IL, 60612 Dr. Buhimschi[/caption] Catalin S. Buhimschi MD, MMS, MBA Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine Director of Obstetrics Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Chicago, IL, 60612 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: In 2008, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Maternal–Fetal Medicine Units Network published the results of a randomized controlled trial of magnesium sulfate for the prevention of cerebral palsy (CP). The results of this trial suggested that fetal exposure to magnesium sulfate before anticipated early preterm delivery did not reduce the combined risk of moderate to severe cerebral palsy or death, although the rate of cerebral palsy was reduced among survivors. As such, the search for a biomarker or a therapeutic solution to prevent CP had to continue. We are grateful to the NICHD for giving us access to the umbilical cord blood samples retrieved at the time of birth for the infants enrolled, who were also followed for 2 years postnatally. We discovered that fetus’s ability to switch-on haptoglobin (Hp) expression in response to inflammation was associated with reduction of intra-ventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and/or death, and cerebral palsy and/or death. Fetuses unable to mount such a response in-utero had an increased risk of adverse outcomes.
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 31.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48281" align="alignleft" width="200"]Abhay K Lodha Department of PediatricsAlberta Health Services  Dr. Lodha[/caption] Abhay K Lodha MD, DM, MSc Department of Pediatrics Alberta Health Services   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: There is no physiological rationale for clamping the umbilical cord immediately after birth. In moderate (32+0 weeks-33+6 weeks) and late preterm infants (34+0 to 36+6), delayed cord clamping reduces the need for blood transfusions, leads to circulatory stability and improves blood pressure. However, the information on the association of delayed cord clamping with outcomes for extremely low gestational age neonates (22-28 weeks of gestation) is limited.
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 31.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48261" align="alignleft" width="128"]Valerie Seror, PhD French Institute of Health and Medical Research Inserm  Dr. Seror[/caption] Valerie Seror, PhD French Institute of Health and Medical Research Inserm MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: In the highly sensitive context of prenatal diagnosis where autonomous and informed decision-making is of crucial issue, the present study is a companion study to a prospective clinical trial [ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02127515] aiming at comparing clinical benefits involved by invasive vs. non-invasive testing in women at high risk of Down syndrome following routine combined screening. Our study (involving 2,436 consecutive high-risk pregnant women following combined screening for Down syndrome) confirmed that attitudes towards invasive testing are notably guided by risk aversion to invasive testing-related fetal loss whereas it showed that attitudes towards non-invasive testing are notably guided by aversion to the ambiguity generated by results restricted to the only targeted abnormalities.
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, JAMA, Mental Health Research, Pediatrics / 28.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: “air pollution, beijing” by 大杨 is licensed under CC BY 2.0Joanne B. Newbury, PhD ESRC Postdoctoral Fellow King’s College London Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience London, United Kingdom MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Urban living is one of the most well-established risk factors for adult psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. However, less is known about the role of the urban environment in subclinical psychotic experiences in childhood and adolescence, such as hearing voices and extreme paranoia. These early psychotic experiences are a developmental risk factor for adult psychotic disorders and a range of other serious mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. It is therefore important that we understand what factors might contribute to the development of early psychotic experiences so that we might be able to intervene and prevent their onset and progression. In a cohort of over 2000 UK-born children (The Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study), we have previously shown that subclinical psychotic experiences are also around twice as common among children and teenagers raised in urban versus rural settings. We have also shown that this appears to be partly explained by social features in urban neighbourhoods such as higher crime levels and lower levels of social cohesion. However, no studies have examined the potential link between air pollution and psychotic experiences. This is despite air pollution being a major health problem worldwide (particularly in cities), and despite emerging evidence linking air pollution to the brain. 
Author Interviews, Lancet, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 28.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48229" align="alignleft" width="200"]Liv Guro Engen Hanem, PhD CandidateDepartment of Clinical and Molecular MedicineNorwegian University of Science and Technology Liv Guro Engen Hanem[/caption] Liv Guro Engen Hanem, PhD Candidate Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine Norwegian University of Science and Technology MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: The antidiabetic drug metformin is increasingly used in pregnancy: to treat gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes, and to prevent pregnancy complications related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity. Metformin passes the placenta, and the fetus is thus exposed to the drug. Although no teratogenicity has been reported, metformin might have long-term effects on offspring health. This study is a follow-up of cardiometabolic risk factors of 141 5- to 10-year-old children born in the PregMet study. This study was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to test the hypothesis that metformin given throughout pregnancy reduces the prevalence of pregnancy complications that are associated with the common endocrine disorder PCOS. Pregnant women with PCOS were randomized to receive metformin or placebo throughout pregnancy. 
Author Interviews, JAMA, Karolinski Institute, Pediatrics / 26.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48081" align="alignleft" width="150"]Mikael Norman, MD, PhD, ProfessorKarolinska Institutet & Karolinska University HospitalStockholm, Sweden  Dr. Norman[/caption] Mikael Norman, MD, PhD, Professor Karolinska Institutet & Karolinska University Hospital Stockholm, Sweden  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: So far, preterm birth has been difficult to predict and prevent. In particular, extremely preterm birth has continued to be an issue in terms of optimal care before and after birth, costs and long term health outcomes. Therefore, studies on how the management and outcome varies over time in these patients are important.
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Stanford, Technology / 26.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48138" align="alignleft" width="200"]Dennis P. Wall, PhDAssociate ProfessorDepartments of Pediatrics, Psychiatry (by courtesy) and Biomedical Data ScienceStanford University Dr. Wall[/caption] Dennis P. Wall, PhD Associate Professor Departments of Pediatrics, Psychiatry (by courtesy) and Biomedical Data Science Stanford University  MedicalResearch.com: What did we already know about the potential for apps and wearables to help kids with autism improve their social skills, and how do the current study findings add to our understanding? What’s new/surprising here and why does it matter for children and families?  Response: We have clinically tested apps/AI for diagnosis (e.g.  https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1002705) in a number of studies. This RCT is a third phase of a phased approach to establish feasibility and engagement through in-lab and at-home codesign with families with children with autism. This stepwise process is quite important to bring a wearable form of therapy running AI into the homes in a way that is clinically effective. What’s new here, aside from being a first in the field, is the rigorous statistical approach we take with an intent-to-treat style of analysis. This approach ensures that the effect of the changes are adjusted to ensure that any significance observed is due to the treatment.  Thus, with this, it is surprising and encouraging to see an effect on the VABS socialization sub-scale. This supports the hypothesis that the intervention has a true treatment effect and increases the social acuity of the child. With it being a home format for intervention that can operate with or without a clinical practitioner, it increases options and can help bridge gaps in access to care, such as when on waiting lists or if the care process is inconsistent.  
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 26.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48084" align="alignleft" width="133"]Edward Bell, MDVice Chair for Faculty DevelopmentDepartment of PediatricsProfessor of Pediatrics - NeonatologyCarver College of MedicineUniversity of Iowa Health Care Dr. Bell[/caption] Edward Bell, MD Vice Chair for Faculty Development Department of Pediatrics Professor of Pediatrics - Neonatology Carver College of Medicine University of Iowa Health Care  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The study is an analysis of what happened to the 205 babies with birth weigh below 400 grams and gestational age of 22 through 26 weeks who were born between 2008 and 2016 at 21 academic medical centers that are members of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. The Network exists to collaborate in finding ways to improve the survival and health of premature and other critically-ill newborn infants. 400 grams is very small. By comparison, 1 pound is 454 grams.
Author Interviews, Dermatology, JAMA, Pediatrics, Sleep Disorders, UCSF / 26.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48079" align="alignleft" width="135"]Dr. Katrina Abuabara Dr. Abuabara[/caption] Dr. Katrina Abuabara, MD, MA, MSCE Department of Dermatology Program for Clinical Research, University of California, San Francisco MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The wellbeing and development of children is strongly influenced by parents’ physical and psychosocial health. Parents of children with chronic illness, in particular, are susceptible to poor sleep, and previous studies have found major sleep impairments among parents of children with ventilator dependency and cystic fibrosis, but few studies have examined sleep patterns among parents of children with more common chronic illnesses like atopic dermatitis (also known as eczema).
Author Interviews, Gender Differences, JAMA, Pediatrics / 25.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. David Klein MD MPH Associate Program Director National Capital Consortium (NCC) Family Medicine Residency Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Dr. Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman MSW, PhD Assistant Professor, Uniformed Services University  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  Response: Our study, “Transgender Children and Adolescents Receiving Care in the U.S. Military Healthcare System: A Descriptive Study,” sought to analyze the number of military dependent children and adolescents who have a transgender or gender-diverse identity and receive medical care in the Military Health System (MHS), recognizing that the number has been increasing, but not knowing to what extent. Ultimately, in studying this data, we hoped to document the needs of transgender children in military families to support provision of adequate and appropriate high-quality care.
Anesthesiology, Author Interviews, Dermatology, JAMA, NYU, Pediatrics / 14.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47880" align="alignleft" width="150"]Roy G. Geronemus, M.D.Director, Laser & Skin Surgery Center of New YorkClinical Professor of DermatologyNew York University Medical CenterNew York, NY 10016 Dr. Geronemus[/caption] Roy G. Geronemus, M.D. Director, Laser & Skin Surgery Center of New York Clinical Professor of Dermatology New York University Medical Center New York, NY 10016 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: We made the observation in clinical practice that port wine stain birthmarks can be safely and effectively treated in early infancy without the need for general anesthesia. This observation is particularly important because of the FDA warnings regarding multiple exposures to general anesthesia under the age of 3 and the potential impact on neurocognitive development as these patients require multiple treatments.
Asthma, Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Vitamin D / 12.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47908" align="alignleft" width="133"]Bo Chawes, MD, PhD, DMScAssociate ProfessorC‌openhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in ChildhoodH‌erlev and G‌entofte H‌ospitalU‌niversity of C‌openhagen Dr. Chawes[/caption] Bo Chawes, MD, PhD, DMSc Associate Professor C‌openhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood H‌erlev and G‌entofte H‌ospital U‌niversity of C‌openhagen MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: There has been a global surge in vitamin D deficiency happening in parallel with an increase in prevalence of childhood asthma, which suggests that low maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy may increase asthma risk in the child. Due to that we conducted a randomized double-blinded controlled trial within the Danish COPSAC2010 cohort (www.copsac.com) of 7-fold (2,800 IU/d) vs. standard dose (400 IU/d) of vitamin D supplementation from pregnancy week 24 aiming to reduce offspring asthma risk. At age 3, we observed a non-significant 24% reduced risk of recurrent asthma-like symptoms, ie. recurrent wheeze, in the high-dose vitamin D group. In the current study, we followed 545 of the 581 children in the study till age 6, where an asthma diagnosis can be established and observed no effect of the high-dose vitamin D supplement on the child's risk of asthma. 
Author Interviews, Columbia, Nutrition, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 12.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47856" align="alignleft" width="194"]Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman, MD, MScEllen Jacobson Levine and Eugene JacobsonProfessor of Women's Health in Obstetrics and GynecologyDirector, Maternal-Fetal Medicine Fellowship ProgramCo-Director, CUMC Preterm Birth Prevention Center Columbia University Dr. Gyamfi-Bannerman[/caption] Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman, MD, MSc Ellen Jacobson Levine and Eugene Jacobson Professor of Women's Health in Obstetrics and Gynecology Director, Maternal-Fetal Medicine Fellowship Program Co-Director, CUMC Preterm Birth Prevention Center Columbia University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: In 2016 our group published the findings of the Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids (ALPS) trial in the NEJM.  We found that administration of antenatal corticosteroids to women at high risk for delivery from 34-36 weeks decreased breathing problems in their neonates.  This treatment had been traditionally only given at less than 34 weeks. The current paper is a cost analysis of that trial.  We found that the treatment was also cost effective.  From a cost perspective treatment was both low cost and highly effective (the options are low cost, low effect/low cost/high effect, high cost/low effect, high cost/high effect). 
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 08.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47838" align="alignleft" width="200"]Prof. Angela Morgan PhDNHMRC Practitioner Fellow and Leads the Speech and Language GroupMurdoch Children's Research Institute Prof. Morgan[/caption] Prof. Angela Morgan PhD NHMRC Practitioner Fellow and Leads the Speech and Language Group Murdoch Children's Research Institute MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Approximately 5% of school-aged children have a communication impairment that affects speech, language, or both. There are many subtypes of speech sound disorders, but the most severe is  (CAS), which impacts sequencing of speech movements. Childhood apraxia of speech  occurs in around 1 in 1000 children. In persistent cases of CAS, speech cannot easily be understood throughout life. Although CAS is rare, unravelling its neurobiological causes is likely to identify brain networks crucial to more common and less severe forms of speech disorders. Here we provide comprehensive speech and neuroimaging data on a large novel family where one parent and 11 children presented with features of childhood apraxia of speech. Brain MRI scanning revealed changes in core parts of the brain responsible for speech production. Even though CAS manifests as a problem with talking, we found disruptions in an underlying pathway of the brain normally associated with language (the meaning and grammar of what we say), rather than speech production. Our findings identify disruption of the dorsal language stream as a novel finding in developmental speech disorders. Overall, our data confirm the early role of this stream in auditory-to-articulation transformations. 
Allergies, Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 04.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47726" align="alignleft" width="200"]Todd Green MD Vice President, Medical Affairs North AmericaDBV TechnologiesAssociate Professor of PediatricsUniversity of Pittsburgh School of Medicine Dr. Green[/caption] Todd Green MD  Vice President, Medical Affairs North America DBV Technologies Associate Professor of Pediatrics University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this announcement? What is Viaskin Peanut? Response: Peanut allergy is one of the most common food allergies and can cause severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis. Unfortunately, there are no FDA-approved treatment options for peanut or other food allergies – leaving patients with avoidance and readiness to manage reactions to accidental exposures as their only option. Viaskin Peanut uses epicutaneous immunotherapy or EPIT, a method of delivering biologically active compounds to the immune system through the skin. Patients receive about 1/1,000th of a peanut with each daily dose of peanut protein – the equivalent of one peanut every three years – which activates the immune system with very minimal exposure. In February 2019, DBV announced that its planned resubmission of the Biologics License Application (BLA) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Viaskin Peanut in the treatment of peanut-allergic children 4 to 11 years of age is anticipated in the third quarter of 2019. DBV is working diligently on its resubmission package, bringing us one step closer to providing an FDA-approved treatment for peanut-allergic children and their families. Viaskin Peanut previously received Breakthrough and Fast Track designations for the treatment of peanut-allergic children from the FDA in 2015 and 2012, respectively. 
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Pediatrics / 03.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47745" align="alignleft" width="200"]Yehuda Limony, MD, MScPediatric Endocrinology UnitFaculty of Health SciencesBen-Gurion University of the NegevClalit Health ServicesBeer-Sheva, Israel  Dr. Limony[/caption] Yehuda Limony, MD, MSc Pediatric Endocrinology Unit Faculty of Health Sciences Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Clalit Health Services Beer-Sheva, Israel  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The variability of the onset age of puberty is the subject of many studies in numerous disciplines; nonetheless, the timing of puberty remains an enigma. The conventional paradigm is that the time of onset of puberty is genetically determined even though genome-wide association studies explain only a very low percentage of the physiologic variability. It is commonly believed, therefore, that many environmental factors interfere with the genetics of timing of puberty. On the other hand, children grow toward an adult height that is the standardized average of parents' height called "target height". That is why children are usually similar in height to parents. This targeted growth process is evident especially in children whose height percentile in childhood is different from their target height percentile (we called this difference the "height gap"). It is known that the timing of puberty is associated with adult height: earlier puberty causes shorter adult height and vice versa. We hypothesized that the targeted process of growth involves adaptation of the age of onset of puberty in accordance with the height gap.
Allergies, Author Interviews, Immunotherapy, JAMA, Pediatrics / 01.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47721" align="alignleft" width="200"]Dr. Matthew GreenhawtDirector, Food Challenge and Research UnitChildren’s Hospital Colorado Dr. Greenhawt[/caption] Dr. Matthew Greenhawt Director, Food Challenge and Research Unit Children’s Hospital Colorado MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: In the US, nearly one million children suffer from a peanut allergy and severe reactions to food allergens are not uncommon – yet there is significant unmet need in the food allergy immunotherapy space, as there are no currently approved treatment options. That being said, we are encouraged by the efficacy and safety data, which support Viaskin Peanut as a convenient and well-tolerated potential treatment option for the peanut allergy. In the pivotal Phase III clinical trial (PEPITES) just published in The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Viaskin Peanut – the first epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) in development that leverages the skin to activate the immune system – provided statistically significant desensitization in peanut-allergic children ages 4-11 years old. Patients who were treated with active therapy were more likely to have increased their eliciting dose to peanut (the amount of peanut protein ingested before an objective allergic reaction was seen during a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge) by a required amount as compared to patients treated with a placebo patch. The improvement suggests a reduced risk of allergic reaction to accidental peanut ingestion in the group treated with Viaskin Peanut, with no change seen in the placebo group.
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Sleep Disorders / 01.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47714" align="alignleft" width="200"]"Baby K - Mother's Kiss" by D.Clow - Maryland is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0. To view a copy of this license, visit: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0 "Baby K - Mother's Kiss" by D.Clow[/caption] Dr. Sakari Lemola Associate Professor Department of Psychology University of Warwick Coventry, UK  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Sufficient sleep of good quality is important for physical and mental health. Therefore, we are studying factors in people’s lives that may affect their sleep. In the present study we examined in particular how the birth of a child affects parents’ sleep. In detail, we used data on sleep of more than 4,600 parents in Germany who had a child between 2008 and 2015. During these years parents reported on their sleep in yearly interviews. We found that the birth of a child had quite drastic short-term effects on new mothers’ sleep, particularly during the first three months after birth. This is not a new finding; previous studies reported similar effects. What is new in the current study is that we compared sleep before pregnancy with sleep until up to 6 years after birth. We were surprised to see that sleep duration and sleep satisfaction were still decreased up to six years after birth. Six years after birth mothers and father still slept around 15-20 minutes less.
Author Interviews, Brain Injury, Exercise - Fitness, JAMA, Pediatrics / 07.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47249" align="alignleft" width="133"]John J. Leddy, MD Clinical Professor Department of Orthopaedics Jacobs School of Medicine & Biomedical Sciences University of Buffalo Dr. Leddy[/caption] John J. Leddy, MD Clinical Professor Department of Orthopaedics Jacobs School of Medicine & Biomedical Sciences University of Buffalo MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a significant public health problem without an effective treatment. Recent International Guidelines have questioned the efficacy of recommending complete rest to treat concussion and have called for prospective studies to evaluate early active treatments for sport-related concussion.