Author Interviews, HIV, JAMA, STD, USPSTF / 01.09.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: James Stevermer, M.D., M.S.P.H.Vice chair for clinical affairs Professor of family and community medicine University of Missouri Medical director of MU Health Care Family Medicine–Callaway Physicians, Dr. Stevermer joined the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force in January 2021. MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: HIV continues to be a significant public health issue. The good news is that PrEP is a safe, highly effective way to help prevent HIV in people at increased risk. There are now two ways people can take PrEP – as a pill or as a shot. We encourage healthcare professionals to have a conversation with their patients about their individual risk for HIV and determine if they should consider taking whichever form of PrEP would work best for them. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cannabis / 30.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Luke Cavanah, BS Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine Scranton, PA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: It is well-known that schedule II stimulants, which are those that are highly addictive and include amphetamine, methylphenidate, and lisdexamfetamine, have had increasing use and misuse in the US. Despite understanding the presence of this phenomenon, the reason for it is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to see if rising rates of schedule II stimulants are related to the legalization of medical marijuana. We were interested in this because schedule II stimulants are primarily used as the treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic cannabis use has been demonstrated to cause neurocognitive deficits resembling that of ADHD, and the conditions have been shown to affect similar brain regions. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gender Differences, JAMA, Surgical Research, Vanderbilt / 30.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christopher Wallis, MD, PhD Assistant Professor of Urology Department of Surgery University of Toronto and Urologic Oncologist Mount Sinai Hospital   MedicalResearch.com:  Could you give a little context - what was the question you were looking at?
  • We have been studying how the primary treating surgeons sociocultural characteristics impact the recovery of patients they are looking after.
  • Specifically, we have been studying the effect of surgeon sex on outcomes such as death, complications and readmission after common and complex surgeries. These are outcomes that are important to patients and the health system.
  • Previously, we showed that patients with a female surgeon had better short term (30 day) outcomes than similar patients having surgery with a man. This study asked the question of whether the sex of a patient’s surgeon affects patients’ longer term outcomes at 90 days and 1 year, after surgery.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Dermatology, Diabetes, Heart Disease, Weight Research / 28.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Alexis Elias Malavazos Endocrinology Unit Clinical Nutrition and Cardiovascular Prevention Service, IRCCS Policlinico Unit of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Italy   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disease often associated with obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D). The inflammatory process of psoriasis can target adipose tissue depots, particularly those surrounding the heart and the coronary arteries, exposing them to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, Kidney Disease / 28.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Amira Abdelrasoul, Ph.D., P. Eng.Associate Professor, Chemical and Biomedical EngineeringDepartment of Chemical and Biological EngineeringDivision of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of Saskatchewan     MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The background of this study lies in the pursuit of improving the compatibility of dialysis membranes used in hospitals. My team sought to enhance the performance of these membranes by incorporating heparin, a widely recognized anticoagulant. Existing heparin-grafted membranes carried a negative charge, resulting in adverse blood-membrane interactions and complications for dialysis patients. The study aimed to overcome these issues and create a neutralized membrane surface that maintains the benefits of heparin while minimizing undesirable interactions. (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, Endocrinology, Nature / 27.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Huizhong Whit Tao, PhD Professor of Physiology & Neuroscience Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute Department of Physiology & Neurosience Keck School of Medicine University of Southern California   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Previously, we published a study in which we found that a group of neurons, namely glutamatergic neurons, in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of the hypothalamus mediate stress-induced anxiety states. This result inspired us to explore whether the MPOA can play a more general role in mood regulation. Fluctuations in the productive hormones secreted by women’s ovaries are known to cause mood swings. In some cases, rapid changes in the secretion of ovarian hormones can cause depressive-like symptoms. Key examples are postpartum and peri-menopausal depression. In this study, we intended to test whether the MPOA can also play a part in depressive states that are linked to fluctuations in ovarian hormones. (more…)
Aging, Author Interviews, Lancet, Medical Imaging, Technology / 24.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Daiju Ueda Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Graduate School of Medicine Osaka Metropolitan University Osaka, Japan MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:  We were inspired by the potential of chest radiography as a biomarker for aging. Previous research had utilized chest radiographs for age estimation, but these studies often involved cohorts with diseases. (more…)
Author Interviews, Columbia, Gender Differences, JAMA, OBGYNE, Surgical Research / 24.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jason D. Wright, MD, FACOG, FACS Sol Goldman Associate Professor Chief, Division of Gynecologic Oncology Vice Chair of Academic Affairs, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons New York, New York 10032 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: There is growing recognition that gender-affirming surgery (GAS) is safe and that the procedures are associated with favorable long term outcomes. Prior work has explored the use of inpatient procedures and shown that the rates of GAS have risen, but there is little contemporaneous data to examine more recent inpatient and outpatient use of GAS. This is particularly important as changes in insurance regulations may have increased access for these procedures. We examined temporal trends in performance of inpatient and outpatient GAS and examined age-specific trends in the types of procedures performed over time. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Infections, Inflammation, Pediatrics / 18.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Myrsini Kaforou, PhD Senior Lecturer in Bioinformatics Department of Infectious Disease Imperial College London MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:  Children very often present to hospital and clinics with fever, but fever is a non-specific disease symptom. The identification of the cause of fever poses a great challenge for the clinical teams worldwide. The available diagnostic tests are neither quick or accurate enough to fully base decisions on, such as withholding or administering antibiotics. For example, cultures may take days or even weeks to provide a result. In our research group, we are working on novel approach; instead of trying to identify the causative pathogen, which is often inaccurate or impossible, we are studying the genes in the patient's blood that are "switched on" or "switched off" during the infection or the disease in general. Using computational/bioinformatics methods, we are able to identify out of thousands of genes, the combinations of genes, "the biosignatures" for each disease. In the past we had shown that this approach works to distinguish bacterial from viral infection, or tuberculosis disease from other conditions that mimic its symptoms. But with this work we have shown for the first time that a single set of genes, a "single gene panel" can be used to discriminate between 6 broad and/or 18 specific infectious or inflammatory conditions that cause fever in children. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Gastrointestinal Disease / 16.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Daniel L. Worthley MBBS (Hons), PhD, MPH, FRACP, AGAF Gastroenterologist Associate Professor University of Adelaide MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Cells are revolutionising healthcare, from modern faecal microbial transplantation in the gut to CAR-T cells fighting cancers, life healing life. Some aspects of cellular care are so entrenched in medicine that they are almost overlooked for the miraculous cellular therapies that they are, such as stem cell transplantation to treat haematological malignancies and, of course, in vitro fertilization, life creating life. Modern medicine is slowly, but surely, pivoting from pills to cells. Professor Siddhartha Mukherjeee, oncologist, scientist, and author, provides a beautiful thesis of this in his book Song of the Cell and in his TED talk on the cellular revolution in medicine (https://youtu.be/qG_YmIPFO68?feature=shared). I was lucky enough to have trained with Sid as a post-doc at Columbia and this concept was really drummed into me. But, as a gastroenterologist, perhaps it was the bacterial cells, rather than the blood cells, that had most to offer in the management of bowel disorders? Around the same time, Professors Jeff Hasty, Tal Danino and Omar Din from UC San Diego had been inventing and publishing, in my opinion, the best bacterial engineering work that has ever been produced to specifically target cancer. I remember when we first reviewed their 2016 Nature paper in our lab meeting (https://www.nature.com/articles/nature18930#citeas), it was like – “We gotta meet these guys!”. Through Tal, who was by then, working at Columbia, I was introduced to Jeff and I attended his lab meeting back in 2019. That was where our project began after a lab meeting in La Jolla. Rob Cooper had presented his work on horizontal gene transfer. Everything that comes out of Jeff’s lab is both practical and reproducible but also beautiful. Beautiful in a scientific self-evident way that instantly communicates the purpose, approach and outcomes of an experiment. Rob’s presentation that day was a case-in-point. Rob was studying genes and gene transfer in bacteria (see part of Rob’s fascinating presentation here, https://youtu.be/5nBsRF-BsA8?feature=shared). Genes are the fundamental unit of heredity and gene transfer (or inheritance) the process by which genes are passed from one cell to another. Genes may be inherited vertically when one cell replicates its DNA and divides into two, now separate, cells (reproduction). Genes are the stuff, and vertical gene transfer is the process, by which you receive your mother’s laugh and your father’s eyebrows. Genes may also, however, be inherited horizontally when DNA is passed between unrelated cells, outside of parent to offspring inheritance. Horizontal gene transfer is quite common in the microbial world. Certain bacteria can salvage genes from cell-free DNA found within its environment. This sweeping up of cell-free DNA, into a cell, is called natural competence. So, competent bacteria can sample their nearby environment and, in doing so, acquire genes that may provide a selective advantage to that cell. Like cellular panning for flecks of gold in a stream. After Rob’s presentation, Jeff, Rob and I started to discuss the possibilities. If bacteria can take up DNA, and cancer is defined genetically by a change in its DNA then, theoretically, bacteria could be engineered to detect cancer. Colorectal cancer seemed a logical proof of concept as the colorectal lumen is full of microbes and, in the setting of cancer, full of tumour DNA.  When a biophysicist, a scientist and a gastroenterologist walk into a bar, after a lab meeting, this is what can happen! Professor Susi Woods and Dr Josephine Wright, superb cancer scientists from Adelaide, Australia, were quickly recruited in as essential founding members of the group. We all got to work. Australian and US grants, lots of experiments, early morning Zoom calls across the Pacific, inventing new animal models and approaches, i.e. a many year, iterative process of design-build-test-learn, that got us all to where we are now. (more…)
Author Interviews, Microbiome, Pediatrics, PLoS / 13.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sebastian Hunter – M.Sc. student with Dr. Brett Finlay and Dr. Sara Mostafavi University of British Columbia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: This study started as an exploratory project to evaluate the effects of the early microbiota on infant brain development and emerging cognitive capacities. This arises from the increase research around the gut-brain-microbiome axis and its pursuit to uncover how the microbiome helps in the development of a healthy brain, as the microbiota colonization occurs before most neural systems are fully matured and have been linked to later brain health.. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, USPSTF / 09.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:x Wanda K. Nicholson, M.D., M.P.H., M.B.A. Senior Associate Dean for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Professor of Prevention and Community Health Milken Institute School of Public Health George Washington University Vice chair of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Neural tube defects are when a baby’s spinal cord or brain don’t develop properly during pregnancy, which can cause serious complications including disability and death. The good news is that taking folic acid supplements before and during early pregnancy is proven to help prevent this from happening. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brain Cancer - Brain Tumors, Cancer Research / 09.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sibaji Sarkar, Ph.D. Division of Biotech, Quincy College Quincy MA. Biology/STEM MBC College, Wellesley MA, Boston MA. MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main developmental differences between adult and pediatric tumors? Response: The treatment of both pediatric and adult types of brain tumors is complex.  The treatment and prognosis depend on their origin, development, progression and location. It is extremely important that the origin, which involves formation of cancer stem/progenitor cells, is investigated to understand growth, drug resistance and relapse of the brain tumors. Pediatric brain tumors often are less metastatic and treatable but chemo leaves adverse effects for longer times. Adult metastatic brain tumors usually have worse prognosis. To understand and develop better treatments we need to understand the differences in the origin and progression of these different types of brain tumor [1]. One of the important aspects is epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic alterations are reversible and different from mutations in genes, which are usually permanent. In epigenetic alterations, modifications occur on DNA or the protein histones around which the DNA is folded and they regulate whether a gene will express or not (will make a protein or not), that determines a special function. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, JAMA, Pediatrics / 08.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tammy M. Brady, MD, PhD  (she/her/hers) Vice Chair for Clinical Research, Dept of Pediatrics Associate Director, Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Nephrology Medical Director, Pediatric Hypertension Program Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD 21287     MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Accurate BP measurement is key to identification and treatment of hypertension which serves ultimately to prevent cardiovascular disease.  Our study describes substantial measurement error that can occur in a common office and home BP measurement scenario: use of a regular cuff size for all individuals regardless of arm size.  Many office triage measurements occur without individualized cuff selection and most home BP devices come with one cuff size – and our study shows that using a regular cuff size for people who have larger arms – those who require a large adult cuff or an extra-large adult cuff – can lead to blood pressure readings that are almost 5 and 20 mmHg greater than their actual BP, respectively.  Those require a small adult cuff can have BP readings that are almost 4 mmHg lower than their actual BP. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Memory / 07.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael Leon, Professor emeritusDepartment of Neurobiology and BehaviorCenter for the Neurobiology of Learning and MemoryInstitute for Memory Impairments and Neurological DisordersUniversity of California Irvine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  What types of aromas were employed? Response: The olfactory system is the only sense to have a direct “superhighway” access to the memory centers of the brain. The other senses can contribute to the health of the memory centers, but they have to take the brain's “side streets” to get there and consequently have much less impact on the health of those centers. If there is olfactory loss for any reason, the memory centers start to deteriorate. Stimulation of those memory centers with odors allows those centers to allow for better memory. We used naturally occurring pleasant odors: rose, orange, eucalyptus, lemon, peppermint, rosemary, and lavender. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Cancer Research, Genetic Research, Ovarian Cancer / 07.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pei Wang, PhD Professor, Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA Michael J. Birrer MD PhD Director, Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Little Rock, AR 72205 Amanda G. Paulovich MD PhD Translational Science and Therapeutics Division Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center Seattle WA 98109 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? How common is serous ovarian cancer? Response: Epithelial ovarian cancer accounts for >185,000 deaths/year worldwide. The most common subtype, high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), accounts for 60% of deaths. Despite improvements in surgical and chemotherapeutic approaches, HGSOC mortality has not changed in decades. Five-year survival remains ~30% for the majority of patients. Standard of care involves surgical debulking combined with adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy with carbo- or cisplatin in combination with a taxane. At diagnosis, HGSOC is among the most chemo-sensitive of all epithelial malignancies, with initial response rates of ~85%, presumably related to DNA repair defects. Platinum is thought primarily to drive the response rate, due to the lower single-agent response rate for taxanes. Unfortunately, 10-20% of HGSOC patients have treatment-refractory disease at diagnosis, fail to respond to initial chemotherapy, and have a dismal prognosis. The poor response to subsequent therapy and median overall survival of ~12 months for these patients has not changed in 40 years. Despite >30 years of literature studying platinum resistance in cancer, there currently is no way to distinguish refractory from sensitive HGSOCs prior to therapy. Consequently, patients with refractory disease experience the toxicity of platinum-based chemotherapy without benefit. Due to their rapid progression, they are commonly excluded from participating in clinical trials. Consequently, there is no ongoing clinical research that could identify effective therapeutic agents for these patients or provide insights into molecular mechanisms of refractory disease.  “Right now, we can’t identify drug-resistant ovarian cancer patients up front,” said co-senior author Michael Birrer, MD, PhD, who directs UAMS’ Winthrop J. Rockefeller Cancer Institute. “We find them by default: They get sick and pass away so quickly that they can’t even be put on new clinical trials.” To address this unmet clinical need, we performed proteogenomic analysis of treatment-naïve HGSOCs (chemo-sensitive and chemo-refractory) to identify molecular signatures of refractory HGSOC and to identify potential treatment targets. (more…)
Allergies, Author Interviews, CDC, Environmental Risks / 04.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ann Carpenter DVM, MPH Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Primary author of the recent CDC MMWR report.  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you briefly describe Alpha-gal Syndrome?  Response: Alpha-gal syndrome is an emerging and potentially life-threatening allergic condition that is associated with a tick bite. It is also called alpha-gal allergy, red meat allergy, or tick bite meat allergy. Increasing case studies and anecdotal reports suggested that AGS was a growing concern, but, prior to these studies, information on clinician awareness and the number of people impacted was not available at a national level. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Ovarian Cancer / 04.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Zai LabRafael Amado, M.D. President, head of Global Oncology Research and Development Zai Lab MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Zai lab is focused on discovering and developing innovative therapies that will help address medical conditions where there are serious unmet needs. Advanced ovarian cancer, with a low survival and high recurrence rate, is a key focus of our oncology R&D research. In addition to our own discovery program, as part of our open innovation model we partner with companies to license drugs for patients in China and co-develop therapies to address leading causes of cancer death. We currently have a license and collaboration agreement with GSK for the development and commercialization of ZEJULA (niraparib) in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau. PRIME was a follow-on study to a previously conducted study called PRIMA, which demonstrated clinical benefit of niraparib in newly diagnosed patients with advanced ovarian cancer regardless of biomarker status. The PRIMA study enrolled a population at high risk of recurrence. Thirty-five percent of patients in PRIMA received an individualized starting dose (ISD) of niraparib based on their baseline weight and platelet count. To further evaluate the efficacy and safety of niraparib with an ISD in a broad population, we decided to conduct the PRIME study. We wanted to explore further whether we could decrease toxicity using an ISD and how it would affect clinical outcomes. The Phase 3 PRIME study was conducted at 29 hospitals in mainland China. PRIME was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of niraparib at an ISD as first-line maintenance therapy in a broad range of patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer. All patients in PRIME received an ISD based on their baseline body weight and platelet count. (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus / 03.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ayesha Lavell MD Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Internal Medicine, Amsterdam Institute for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, the Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Nose picking is so common in the overall population (91% in a survey study in the US, performed in 1995), maybe people find it hard to refrain from such a common behavior.  We were really curious whether this particular behavior would be more prone to infection spread, as it entails literally putting a potentially contaminate finger against the nasal mucosa. Also, previous research has shown us that nose picking is associated with nasal carriage of S. Aureus bacteria and volunteers have shown to be able to infect themselves with a common cold virus (Rhinovirus) by rubbing the virus inside their nose (laboratory based research in the early seventies). Therefore, it is surprising (given the amount of literature on SARS-CoV-2) that the relationship between nose picking and COVID-19 has not been studied before. And especially since health care workers are at increased risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2, we wanted to know more about common behavioral features that may contribute to this risk. (more…)
Author Interviews, Education, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Yale / 01.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mytien Nguyen, MS Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine New Haven, Connecticut MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Physician-scientists are critical for innovative translational research. Combined MD-PhD training programs are essential for developing physician-scientists. Although racial and ethnic diversity of MD-PhD matriculants has increased over the past decade, little is known about how attrition rates differ by race and ethnicity. (more…)
Aging, Author Interviews, Geriatrics, Hearing Loss, JAMA / 31.07.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:   Nicholas S. Reed, AuD PhD Assistant Professor | Department of Epidemiology Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health     MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: To date, national estimates of hearing loss have often been based on self-report, which is a fine metric in its own right but underestimates the prevalence of hearing loss against criterion standard measures, and most studies with criterion-level hearing measures are limited to relatively younger samples of older adults. For example, some previous nationally representative samples don't allow reporting age data over 80 years because there aren't enough participants in that age group. It is not surprising given that it is difficult to design nationally representative studies that truly allow older adults (80+ years) to participate and measuring hearing can be onerous. However, understanding the prevalence of hearing loss in this age group is vital for public health and policy planning efforts to address hearing loss at the national level.  (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Environmental Risks / 27.07.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Thomas Deliberto, PhD, DVM, APHIS Wildlife Services One Health Coordinator
  Dr. Thomas Deliberto, PhD, DVM, APHIS Wildlife Services One Health Coordinator     MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? deer-covidResponse: In 2021, USDA launched a pilot study to investigate exposure of wild white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to SARS-CoV-2, a zoonotic virus and the virus that causes COVID-19. Researchers found that 40% of the blood samples tested had SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. This initial study suggested that SARS-CoV-2 could be transmitted from humans to deer, and that deer could potentially serve as a reservoir for the virus. To better understand the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in white-tailed deer, a team of researchers conducted a larger study to collect and analyze respiratory samples from free-ranging white-tailed deer in the United States.  The study identified SARS-CoV-2 sequences in white-tailed deer across nearly half of the states in the U.S. The researchers also found that deer could be infected with multiple SARS-CoV-2 lineages, and that these lineages could be transmitted from deer to deer. In addition, the researchers found three cases of potential virus transmission from white-tailed deer back to humans.  This raises concerns about the potential for the virus to continue to evolve in an animal reservoir, and the possibility of future spillover events. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Lipids, Pediatrics, USPSTF / 26.07.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Li Li, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H Walter M. Seward Professor Chair of Family Medicine Director of population health University of Virginia School of Medicine Editor-in-chief of The BMJ Family Medicine Dr. Li joined the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in January 2021 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The Task Force reviewed the latest available evidence to evaluate whether screening all children and adolescents who are 20 years old or younger for high cholesterol improves their heart health into adulthood. At this time, there is not enough evidence to determine whether or not screening all kids is beneficial, so we are calling for additional research on the effectiveness of screening and treatment of high cholesterol in kids and teens. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Endocrinology, Fertility, Lancet, OBGYNE / 25.07.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Raymond M. Anchan, MD, Ph.D. Director, Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine Research Laboratory Assistant Professor, Harvard Medical School Obstetrics/Gynecology Center for Infertility and Reproductive Surgery Brigham and Women's Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: As a reproductive endocrinologist, I have the privilege of caring for patients who unfortunately experience premature ovarian insufficiency- Some of these patients are as young as 17 yo. Additionally, a significant number of patients over the years have been reproductive age women who have breast cancer and ovarian failure from chemotherapy.  These patients have been my inspiration to try to find a treatment for them.  Since my earlier days as a neurobiologist and stem cell scientist, it was a natural course for me to seek cell-based therapies that are patient specific using autologous iPSCs. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mental Health Research, Microbiome, Nature, OBGYNE, UCLA / 25.07.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bridget Callaghan Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Psychology UCLA Dr. Callahan studies interactions between mental and physical health across development.   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: A growing body of evidence links the gut microbiome to brain and immune functioning, and changes to that community of microorganisms is likely among the ways that hardship affects children’s socioemotional development. Limited evidence in humans has demonstrated the adversities experienced prenatally and during early life influence the composition of the gut microbiome, but no studies had examined whether stress experienced in a mother's own childhood could influence the microbiome of the next generation of children. (more…)
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, Pediatrics / 21.07.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kazi Albab Hussain Graduate Student (PhD) Specialization: Water Resources Advisor: Professor  Yusong Li, PhD Associate Dean for Faculty and Inclusion MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Microplastics have been detected in various food items and beverages, including table salt, bottled water, fish, and mussels. The extensive use of plastic-based products in food preparation, storage, and handling has raised concerns about the direct release of microplastics. Interestingly, we often discuss microplastics but overlook nanoplastics in the conversation. Due to their smaller size, nanoplastics are harder to be detected. In our study, we wanted to see the release of both microplastics and nanoplastics, as nanoplastics may be even  more toxic than microplastics. Unfortunately, infants and toddlers are particularly vulnerable to the potential health impacts of micro- and nanoplastics. Studies have shown significant ingestion of these particles from polypropylene feeding bottles and silicone-rubber baby teats. We aimed to investigate the release of of micro- and nanoplastics, estimated their exposure for infants and toddlers, and evaluated their cytotoxicity to human embryonic kidney cells. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Kidney Disease, UCSF / 21.07.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:   Chi-yuan Hsu, MD, MSc (he/him/his) Professor and Division Chief Robert W. Schrier Distinguished Professor Division of Nephrology University of California, San Francisco     MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Acute kidney injury (AKI) had previously been considered a reversible short-term medical problem among hospitalized patients without long-term sequalae in that there is recovery of kidney function back to baseline should the patient survive the hospitalization. Then about 15 years ago, the concept began to shift as research by us and others showed that for patients with severe AKI (e.g. AKI severe enough to require acute dialysis in the hospital), there was more rapid subsequent loss of renal function.  Now based largely on additional observational studies in humans (and animal models), many nephrologists and opinion leaders think that even mild to moderate cases of AKI have long-term sequelae.  We are concerned that the paradigm has swung too much in the opposite direction and we questioned the results of many published studies which did not fully account for differences in background kidney function among those who did and did not experience AKI. (more…)
Author Interviews, Education, JAMA / 20.07.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Cassandra Kelleher, MD Surgical Director, Fetal Care Program Surgical Director, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Physician Investigator (Cl) Surgery, Mass General Research Institute Associate Professor of Surgery Harvard Medical School MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Physicians practicing in academic hospitals have unique responsibilities. They are not only expected to treat patients, but also to conduct research to improve treatments for future patients, and to train future physicians. Diverse healthcare teams have better patient outcomes and lower healthcare costs. Women physicians, for example, are more likely to practice patient-centered care, and through their teaching and research work at academic medical centers, they help to disseminate and normalize novel approaches to practicing medicine. For these reasons, gender diversity in academic medicine is important for the quality of healthcare in the future. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Emergency Care, Health Care Systems, Johns Hopkins / 19.07.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David E. Newman-Toker, MD PhD (he/him) Professor of Neurology, Ophthalmology, & Otolaryngology David Robinson Professor of Vestibular Neurology Director, Division of Neuro-Visual & Vestibular Disorders Director, Armstrong Institute Center for Diagnostic Excellence Johns Hopkins Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Diagnostic errors are believed to be a major public health issue, but valid, quantitative estimates of harm are lacking. In 2015, the National Academy of Medicine stated in their report Improving Diagnosis in Healthcare that improving diagnosis was a “moral, professional, and public health imperative” yet also noted that “the available research [is] not adequate to extrapolate a specific estimate or range of the incidence of diagnostic errors in clinical practice today.” We sought a scientifically robust answer to the question of how many patients in the US suffer serious harms as a result of medical misdiagnosis. (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus / 19.07.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Tommy Dickey Ph.D. Distinguished Professor Emeritus Geography Department University of California Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, CA covid-sniffing-dogs-tom-trainingMedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:  I became interested in dog's sense of smell several years ago while doing therapy dog demonstrations at the California Science Center in Los Angeles during a special traveling exhibit "Dogs! A Science Tail." (Now at the Orlando Science Center).  I did a lot of research on this topic and taught children about it through the Los Angeles Public Library using my Great Pyrenees therapy dogs. Then, COVID broke out and I expanded my research into any work being done to possibly utilize scent dogs for screening and testing for COVID.  I found only a few such studies.  However, I fortuitously met Heather Junqueira of BioScent, Inc. (in Florida) online and she was beginning to successfully teach her beagles to detect COVID-related odors.  She agreed to co-author a peer-reviewed review paper with me.  That led to our first paper - Dickey, T, Junqueira, H. Toward the use of medical scent dogs for COVID-19 screening. J Osteopath Med 2021;1(2): 141-148. https://doi.org/10.1515/jom-2020-0222 When the COVID pandemic began to wane at the beginning of this year, I felt that it would be the perfect time to do this comprehensive follow-up review to see how far COVID scent dog research had progressed. To our amazement, research efforts had increased by almost tenfold and involved over 400 scientists using over 31,000 samples (including sniffings) from over 30 countries and that 29 peer reviewed papers had been published. Heather’s inspiration for doing scent dog work came when her father contracted cancer and she wanted to find better diagnostics.  She has since been successful in detecting non-small cell lung cancer with her trained beagles as well as COVID. (more…)