Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Gastrointestinal Disease, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Technology / 18.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Giovanni Traverso MD PhD Karl Van Tassel (1925) Career Development Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Koch Institute of Integrative Cancer Research Division of Gastroenterology Brigham and Women’s Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: I think its always important to acknowledge that this is a big team effort.  We have the teams from MIT, Celero Systems, West Virgnia University (WVU) and Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) all working together on this.   For this study, Celero prototyped the devices that we tested in pre-clinical (Swine) models and in a first-in-human study with the team at WVU. Our lab focuses on the development of ingestible devices for drug delivery and sensing and these have informed the development of these efforts as you can see. MedicalResearch.com: What types of vital signs are measurable in this fashion? Response: Heart rate and respiratory rate. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, Pharmacology / 17.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lisa-Marie Smale, PharmD
PhD Candidate Clinical Pharmacy
Radboud University Medical Center
Department of Pharmacy
Nijmegen, the Netherlands Lisa-Marie Smale, PharmDPhD Candidate Clinical PharmacyRadboud University Medical CenterDepartment of PharmacyNijmegen, the Netherlands   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Cancer drugs are not always fully used by patients, while these drugs are mostly expensive and environmentally damaging, both in production and (waste) disposal. Therefore we investigated whether unused drugs of patients can be collected, verified of quality by a pharmacy, to be redispensed to other patients instead of being disposed of. We were interested whether such an approach ultimately leads to lower environmental impacts and costs. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brain Injury / 16.11.2023

pexels-photo-7578808-medical-practitioner.webpIf you've been in a scrape and your noggin took a knock, playing it tough and shaking it off isn't the way to go. A traumatic brain injury (TBI), even one that seems no biggie, can be sneaky. At first, you might feel fine, but your brain's had a jolt, and it needs a look-over. Ignoring it? Bad move. That little headache or dizziness might be your brain's way of saying, "Hey, I'm not okay." Small signs like mood swings, sleep changes, or even just feeling "off" can be the early whispers of something bigger brewing. It's like ignoring a weird noise in your car's engine—let it go and you might just find yourself broken down on the highway of health.

The Domino Effect of Ignoring Symptoms

Let's talk about what happens if you shrug off those symptoms. A tiny injury can start a chain reaction. Before you know it, you could be dealing with big-time problems like memory issues, serious concentration hiccups, or even long-term disabilities. And here's the kicker: these troubles don't always show up on day one. They can sneak up on you, turning from "I'm fine" to "Why can't I remember my passwords?" in no time. Think about it—your brain runs the show, so even a small glitch can throw off the whole performance.
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Allergies, Author Interviews, Dermatology, University of Michigan / 16.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Charles Schuler, MD Assistant Professor Allergy and Clinical Immunology & Mary H. Weiser Food Allergy Center University of Michigan MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that may include a skin rash, nausea, vomiting, difficulty breathing, and shock. Food anaphylaxis sends 200,000 people to the emergency room annually in the United States. Oral food challenges are when a patient ingests increasing doses up to a full serving of the suspected food allergen under supervision of a medical provider, usually an allergist. These oral food challenges are the diagnostic standard for food allergy/anaphylaxis as skin and blood allergy tests have high false positive rates. Although a highly accurate test, patients often experience anaphylaxis during oral food challenges necessitating an epinephrine injection. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dermatology, JAMA, Surgical Research / 16.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Peter C. Minneci, MD Chair of Surgery at Nemours Children’s Health Delaware Valley MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  Would you briefly explain the symptoms/course of pilonidal disease?  Response: Pilonidal disease is relatively common and affects up to 1% of the population starting in adolescence and up until young adulthood. Pilonidal disease occurs when cysts or sinuses form between the buttocks. It is believed to be an inflammatory reaction to hair or debris that gets caught in the crease of the buttocks. Risk factors for the condition include a sedentary lifestyle, hygiene and obesity. Pilonidal disease can be intermittent or chronic and recurs about 33% of the time, with 80% of recurrences taking place within a year of initial treatment. These recurrences contribute to a high degree of psychosocial stress in patients, who often miss school or sports and may avoid social activities. Pilonidal cysts may become infected, in which case patients must take antibiotics or undergo surgery.   Standard treatment for pilonidal disease involves removal of hair with razors or creams, as well as recommendations such as keeping the area clean. In recent years, some practitioners have begun using laser epilation as an additional strategy to prevent recurrence by providing more durable hair removal. However, it’s important to point out that this is not covered by insurance. In addition, as a provider, I have found that my patients that do have the means to pay often don’t comply with the number of sessions needed to fully remove the hair due to many different factors including pain and discomfort during the procedure.   (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Kidney Disease, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Sleep Disorders / 15.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lead Author: Rupak Desai, MBBS Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center Independent Researcher, Atlanta, GA, Presenter: Vamsikalyan Borra, MD Resident Physician, Internal Medicine University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Weslaco, TX MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The relationship between sleep apnea (OSA) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is quite complex. OSA can cause hypoxia, activation of the sympathetic nervous system, and hypertension, all of which can have negative effects on kidney function. On the other hand, in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), intensifying renal replacement therapy has shown some improvement in sleep apnea severity, suggesting a bi-directional relationship between the two conditions. While there are still uncertainties, recent studies have focused on understanding the interplay between OSA and CKD. The role of CPAP therapy, a common treatment for OSA, in relation to CKD is not yet clear. Observational studies present findings regarding the impact of CPAPs on kidney function. However, researchers are actively investigating its cardiovascular benefits and its influence on the progression of CKD. The objective of this study is to analyze the trends in composite cardiovascular events in hospital encounters among geriatric patients with CKD, comparing those with and without obstructive sleep apnea. Additionally, we are also investigating sex and racial disparities in trends of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) among geriatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Furthermore, we are assessing the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment and dependence on MACCE outcomes in OSA patients (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Dermatology / 14.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ying Li MD, PhD Graduate School Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Chengdu, China MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a prevalent dermatological condition affecting approximately 1% of the global population. It is characterized by persistent itching and the development of hives, significantly impairing patients' quality of life. More than 90% of patients with CSU require urgent medical treatment to relieve itching. However, few therapies are specifically designed to treat pruritus in The management of pruritus is one of the main goals in the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria . Antihistamines are a common treatment of CSU, and current guidelines recommend second-generation antihistamines as first-line therapy. However, nearly 40% of patients do not respond to second-generation antihistamines, even when the dose is increased 2- to 4-fold. Omalizumab as a second-line treatment is effective in controlling urticaria, but it is costly and is not reimbursed in many countries, limiting its use to most patients worldwide. Given the shortcomings of existing therapies for pruritus in CSU, novel therapeutic interventions or strategies are emerging. Acupuncture, a traditional physical therapy with a rich historical background spanning over a millennium, has been regarded as an effective treatment for urticaria in China. However, previous randomized controlled trials investigating acupuncture's efficacy have been marred by methodological limitations, thereby undermining the credibility of the evidence. To address this gap, we conducted a multicenter randomized controlled trial to comprehensively evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in the management of CSU. (more…)
Alcohol, Author Interviews, Stanford / 13.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Timothy C. Durazzo, PhD Clinical Neuropsychologist and Research Scientist Mental Illness Research and Education Clinical Centers VA Palo Alto Health Care System Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Stanford University School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? -There are a limited number of studies investigating changes in human brain structure, in individuals with an alcohol use disorder, with longer term abstinence after treatment. -Our study was the first to assess for change in cortical thickness over approximately 7 months of abstinence in those seeking treatment of alcohol use disorder. -Cortical thickness in humans is genetically and phenotypically distinct from other brain structural measures such as cortical volume and surface area. -Therefore, assessment of changes in cortical thickness with longer-term abstinence provides additional information on how human brain structure recovers with sobriety. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dental Research, Pediatrics, USPSTF / 13.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Li Li, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H. The Walter M. Seward Professor and Chair of Family Medicine University of Virginia (UVA) School of Medicine Director of Population Health at UVA Health Dr. Li joined the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in January 2021. MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Oral health is an important part of everyone’s overall health and well-being. Recognizing this, the Task Force looked at whether primary care clinicians can play a role in complementing the work of dental professionals to prevent cavities and gum disease. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Response:  Our review of the latest available evidence focused on the prevention of cavities for children who are 5 years old and older and do not have any signs or symptoms. After a thorough review, we found that there is not enough evidence to recommend for or against oral health screening and interventions for school-aged children in primary care settings. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Stem Cells / 13.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Dr. Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann Director, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology University Medical Center Göttingen Georg-August University Göttingen, Germany   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Involvement in research and development in the field of tissue engineered heart repair since 25+ years. Bench-to-bed translation of our research. MedicalResearch.com: How are the stem cell obtained? Response: We make use of induced pluripotent stem cells as starting material to obtain heart muscle cells for the engineering of Engineered Human Myocardium (EHM) and its use as Biological Ventricular Assist Tissue (BioVAT). (more…)
Author Interviews, Kidney Disease, Transplantation / 09.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Collective responses from study authors: MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?
  • Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) have the best chance for a longer and healthier life if they receive a kidney transplant.
  • However, due to many barriers, many eligible patients today will never receive a kidney transplant.
  • Advanced CKD care is provided by 26 chronic kidney disease (CKD) programs managed by a government funded provincial renal agency (the Ontario Renal Network)
  • Together these 26 programs treat ~ 24,000 patients each year
  • This care is provided by over 3400 nurses and 230 nephrologists
  • To patients approaching the need for dialysis and those receiving dialysis
  • Approximately half are transplant eligible
    • ~ 600 kidney transplants done in Ontario each year across 6 transplant centres
    • with approximately.30% of kidneys coming from living donors
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Author Interviews, Inflammation, Nutrition, Red Meat / 09.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Alexis C. Wood United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)/ARS Children’s Nutrition Research Center Baylor College of Medicine, TX MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We know (we think!) that what we eat has a big influence on our health. However, discovering which foods influence our health, and how, is highly challenging. Research investigating this topic should be seen as an on-going process as new results and new study methods emerge, and as the food environment shifts. Red meat is often considered a food that should be minimized in diets designed to support good health. This may seem surprising as red meat is a good source of protein and many other nutrients, but the advice to limit red meat intake is based on several large-scale studies showing associations between red meat consumption and the development of conditions such as type 2 diabetes, and other cardiovascular disease risk related factors. However, newer research, with different designs or approaches, has struggled to conclusively support this association; for example, in studies where the amount of red meat in people’s diet is manipulated, we do not see the expected increases in risk. Other studies have suggested that any associations between red meat intake and chronic disease may reflect confounding effects by adiposity – that is, the increased risk of disease really reflects the increased risk associated with a higher BMI. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Genetic Research, JAMA, Stanford / 07.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael E. Belloy, PhD Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences Stanford University, Stanford, California MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Apolipoprotein E (APOE)*2 and APOE*4 are, respectively, the strongest protective and risk-increasing, genetic variants for late-onset Alzheimer disease. As such, one’s APOE genotype is highly relevant towards clinical trial design and Alzheimer’s disease research. However, most insights so far are focused on the associations of these APOE genotypes with Alzheimer’s disease risk in non-Hispanic white individuals. One important aspect of our work is that we really increased sample sizes for non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and East Asian individuals, so that we now have better understanding of the associations of APOE genotypes with Alzheimer’s disease risk in these groups. In complement, we also did the largest investigation to date on the role of ancestry on the associations of APOE genotypes with Alzheimer’s disease risk. The scale of our study was thus a critical factor in generating novel insights. (more…)
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, JAMA, McGill, Mental Health Research / 06.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Niki Hosseini-Kamkar PhD Postdoc, McGill University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Our primary question was: Do adults with a history of childhood trauma have altered brain responses to psychological challenges? Previous evidence indicated that this can occur in laboratory animals, but it has been unclear whether it occurs in humans. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease / 06.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prakriti Gaba, MD Cardiovascular Medicine Fellow Brigham and Women's Hospital Deepak L. Bhatt MD MPH Director of Mount Sinai Fuster Heart Hospital Dr. Valentin Fuster Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  Response: Accurate classification of acute myocardial infarction is instrumental for the appropriate diagnosis and effective management of patients suffering from this widely prevalent cardiovascular condition. In the past, there have been a variety of clinical scores published to advise clinicians on the best classifications schemes for patients with acute MI. These have included the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score, the HEART score, and the Killip classification. The strength of these traditional scores includes their practicality, as they can be implemented at the bedside to rapidly assist with prognostication. Nonetheless, as technologic advancements have made imaging and tissue identification more accessible, national and international committees are looking to revise traditional classification schemes of acute MI with novel ones leveraging multimodal approaches. (more…)
Author Interviews, Eli Lilly, Gastrointestinal Disease / 03.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lotus Mallbris, M.D., Ph.D., Senior Vice President of Immunology Development Eli Lilly MedicalResearch.com: Would you briefly describe the condition of Crohn's disease and who is most susceptible to this disease? Response: Crohn's disease is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can cause systemic inflammation manifested as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever and weight loss. It can lead to intestinal obstruction, fibrosis and other complications. Approximately 900,000 patients in the U.S. and 1 million patients in Europe are currently suffering from Crohn’s disease, and 70% of those have moderate to severe disease. Although the majority of patients are started on conventional therapy such as corticosteroids and immunomodulators, many will unfortunately progress to having moderate to severe disease. Furthermore, current therapies to treat Crohn’s disease often fail to achieve remission for a majority of patients, and of the patients who do achieve remission, a substantial proportion lose it within the first year. (more…)
Author Interviews, Eli Lilly, Gastrointestinal Disease, NEJM / 02.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marla C. Dubinsky, MD Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Co- director, Susan and Leonard Feinstein IBD Clinical Center Mount Sinai Health System MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you briefly describe the condition of UC? Response: Lucent 1 and Lucent 2 were the induction and maintenance registration trials studying the efficacy and safety of mirikizumab in patients 18 years and older with moderate to severely active ulcerative colitis. Mirikizumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting the p19 subunit of IL23. Lucent-3 is the open label extension arm for those meeting inclusion criteria after completing Lucent 2. This study evaluated the long term efficacy and safety of mirikizumab in patients with ulcerative colitis who completed a total of 104 weeks of active mirikizumab treatment. Ulcerative colitis is a chronic incurable inflammatory condition of colon. Common symptoms include diarrhea, blood in the stool, abdominal cramping and bowel urgency. Bowel urgency is one of the most burdensome symptoms that a patient with you could experience. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Nature, Pediatrics / 01.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Brenden Tervo-Clemmens, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences Masonic Institute for the Developing Brain Scholar, Institute for Translational Neuroscience University of Minnesota MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:      Both contemporary and historical theories of neurobehavioral development suggest executive functions (EF) mature through adolescence. These are often used in various contexts to try to demarcate the developmental boundaries of the adolescent period. However, the specific maturational timing of executive function, and the independence of various potential executive function subcomponents remain unknown. Building from prior investigations with relatively small datasets or narrow subsets of executive function measures, this work using four independent datasets (N>10,000) and 17 distinct executive function assessments provides a precise charting, multi-assessment investigation, and replication of executive function development from adolescence to adulthood. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mediterranean Diet, Nutrition / 01.11.2023

pexels.com/photo/fried-fish-in-vegetables-18750045US News & World Report announced  that the Mediterranean style of eating is the best overall diet for 2023.  Only 24 diets were ranked instead of 40 that were analyzed in the past years. Vegan, vegetarian, Nordic, traditional Asian and the glycemic index were integrated into the Mediterranean because of the ‘underlying plant-based principles.’ According to managing editor Gretel Schueller who oversees the annual diet ranking, they are always looking for more health conditions that they can address, but the lack of scientific data for examining other types of diets is a constraint.
Why Aim for Healthy Eating?
The specific recommendations for a healthy diet may differ, but the common approaches include consumption of a variety of fruits and veggies, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats. Added sugars, salt, and saturated fats must be limited. For example, a healthy mouth is part of overall health. Research has demonstrated the link between gum disease and chronic health conditions such as heart disease, and diabetes, among others. Thus, it is vital to consume healthy foods that promote good gum health which are the foundation of solid teeth.
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Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Environmental Risks / 01.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Takeshi Asai Faculty of Health and Sports Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba Japan Faculty of Physical Education, International Pacific University Okayama, Japan MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: In the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, contact and droplet transmission were considered the main routes of infection. However, it was later demonstrated that airborne transmission is an important route. Therefore, accumulating real-world data on airborne transmission was deemed crucial. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Exercise - Fitness, JAMA / 01.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Peter A. Harmer, PhD, MPH, AT-Ret, FACSM Senior Associate Research Scientist Oregon Research Institute MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Decline in various aspects of cognitive function, such as memory, executive function, and multitasking ability is common as we age. The rate and extent of decline varies among older adults but approximately 20% of those aged 65+ will experience clinically relevant mild cognitive impairment, which places them at increased risk of progressing to Alzheimer’s disease or related dementias. It is also associated with decreased mobility, increased risk of falls and impaired capacity for complex activities of daily living. Research has shown that physical and mental activity may attenuate the decline and that combined physical/mental challenges may be more effective than either alone but up to this point there has been little quality clinical evidence. Building on previous successful studies with our established tai ji quan therapy, we developed a cognitively-enhanced training tai ji quan protocol to determine its effectiveness in enhancing global cognition and dual-task walking compared to our standard tai ji quan program and a stretching program in adults 65+ with mild cognitive impairment or self-reported memory concerns. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA, Lung Cancer, NIH, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Stanford / 01.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Summer S Han, PhD Associate Professor Quantitative Sciences Unit Stanford Center for Biomedical Informatics Research (BMIR) Department of Neurosurgery and Department of Medicine Department of Epidemiology & Population Health (by Courtesy) Stanford University School of Medicine Dr. Eunji Choi PhD Instructor, Neurosurgery Department: Adult Neurosurgery Stanford University School of Medicine   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?
  • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, killing about 127,000 people annually, but it can be treatable if detected early.
  • Low-dose computed tomography, or CT scan, has been shown to significantly reduce the number of lung cancer deaths. But because the radiation delivered by the scans can be harmful (they use on average about 10 times the radiation of standard X-rays), only those people at relatively high risk for lung cancer should be screened. The two biggest risk factors for lung cancer are exposure to tobacco smoke and age. Current national guidelines that rely on age and smoking exposure to recommend people for lung cancer screening are disproportionally failing minority populations including African Americans, according to a new study led by researchers at Stanford Medicine.
  • In 2021, the national guidelines by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) issued revised recommendation guidelines on lung cancer screening, lowering the start age from 55-year to 50-year and the smoking pack-year criterion from 30 to 20, compared to the 2013 USPSTF criteria. In comparison to the 2013 criteria, the new modifications have been shown to lessen racial disparities in screening eligibility between African Americans and Whites. However, potential disparities across other major racial groups in the U.S., such as Latinos, remains poorly examined.
  • Meanwhile, risk prediction model assesses a person’s risk score of developing an illness, such as lung cancer.
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Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 01.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anna Rosemarie Yousaf MD CDC: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare but serious complication following SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 illness in children characterized by fever and multiple organ inflammation. This study looks at data from children with MIS-C reported to CDC’s national MIS-C surveillance system and compares the characteristics of children who died to children who survived. (more…)
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, Thyroid / 27.10.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Maaike van Gerwen, MD, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Otolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery Institute for Translational Epidemiolog Director of Research Department of Otolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Where are these PFAS chemicals found? Response: Over the past decades, we have seen an increasing trend in thyroid cancer which cannot be fully explained by increased use of medical imaging (including ultrasound). Certain environmental exposure are known to impact on the thyroid gland, including thyroid dysfunction or development of cancer. PFAS are chemicals that are known to disrupt the function of endocrine organs, such as the thyroid gland. We therefore hypothesized that PFAS exposure may be one of the potential risk factors for thyroid cancer and thus one of the potential reason for the increasing thyroid cancer incidence. PFAS chemicals are widespread in the environment and have been found in the soil, water, and air. PFAS are also widely used in a variety of consumer products including non-stick cookware, stain resisting fabric, firefighting foams, but are also found in drinking water and food. This leads to an almost universal exposure of the general population. (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, JAMA, Pediatrics / 26.10.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Neeraj Sood, PhD Verna and Peter Dauterive Hall University Park Campus University of Southern California Los Angeles, CA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We conducted this study to inform school COVID-19 policies. The main findings are that the median duration of infectivity after a positive COVID-19 test in children is 3 days. The median duration of infectivity does not vary with vaccination.  (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Baylor College of Medicine Houston / 22.10.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David B. Corry, M.D. Professor of Pathology & Immunology and Medicine Vice Chair for Immunology Department of Pathology & Immunology Biology of Inflammation Center Dan L. Duncan Comprehensive Cancer Center   Clarence and Irene H. Fulbright Chair in Pathology Baylor College of Medicine Michael E. Debakey VA Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Can candida species cross the blood brain barrier? Response: We showed earlier (2019) that the common fungus Candida albicans can enter the brain from the blood. That earlier study was in turn inspired by the finding of another research group that had found Candida in the brains of persons suffering from Alzheimer’s Disease and related dementing illnesses. (more…)
Author Interviews, Weight Research / 16.10.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: John A. Batsis, MD, FACP, AGSF, FGSA, FTOS Associate Professor Division of Geriatric Medicine, School of Medicine Department of Nutrition, The Gillings School of Global Public Health Chapel Hill, NC 27599 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The rationale for this study is that there has been a flurry of new medications that have been approved for the treatment of obesity in older adults. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Response: Our main findings are that the rates of weight loss promoting (WLP) medications (those that are prescribed for weight loss or have evidence that lead to significant weight loss) are rising and that there is a robust association between the rates of limitations (physical limitations, instrumental activities of daily living, and basic activities of daily living) and the use of weight loss promoting medications. In those persons with obesity, older adults taking weight loss promoting have higher rates of being of physical limitations. (more…)
Author Interviews, Emory, Infections, JAMA, MRSA / 10.10.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. John Jernigan, MD MS Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine Division of Infectious Diseases Emory University School of Medicine Branch Chief Epidemiology, Research and Innovations Branch CDC Center for Disease Control MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Staphylococcus aureus commonly causes infections in ICUs. One approach to preventing these infections is using nasal mupirocin plus chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing for ICU patients. This practice is known to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and all-cause. bloodstream infections.  This practice has been broadly adopted in ICUs in the US, but adoption of mupirocin as a universal topical antibiotic has been slowed by concerns for engendering mupirocin resistance. This cluster-randomized trial in adult ICUs was conducted to assess whether universal nasal antiseptic povidone-iodine (iodophor), to which minimal S. aureus resistance is expected, was an acceptable alternative to universal nasal mupirocin for reducing S. aureus and MRSA clinical cultures in the setting of daily CHG bathing. Those who received chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing with mupirocin had an 18% reduction in risk of Staphylococcus aureus clinical cultures and a 15% reduction in risk of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clinical cultures compared to patients who received CHG bathing with intranasal iodophor.  These results show that using mupirocin for nasal decolonization may be preferred over iodophor because it is more effective at preventing S. aureus infections. (more…)
Author Interviews, Opiods, Pain Research / 07.10.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Leana Pande Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Buprenorphine is not a new drug. It was developed in the 1960s with the intent of providing the benefits of opioids, without the addictive side effects. Unlike many prescription opioids,1 use of this Schedule III drug is increasing.2 It is often characterized as a partial agonist at the mu-opioid receptor (Figure-Right). Buprenorphine is available in many routes of administration and also with (brand name Suboxone) or without naloxone. Buprenorphine is a first-line pharmacotherapy for pregnant women with OUD.3 This review was completed in order for the benefits, and risks, of buprenorphine to be more fully appreciated and inform utilization for both opioid use disorder (OUD) and the treatment of pain. (more…)