Obesity Linked to Alarming Risk in Gastric and Colon Cancers in Young Adults

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Hisham Hussan, M.D. Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine Director, Obesity and Bariatric Endoscopy Section Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Department of Internal Medicine The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center Columbus, OH 43210

Dr. Hussan

Hisham Hussan, M.D.
Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine
Director, Obesity and Bariatric Endoscopy Section
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition
Department of Internal Medicine
The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center
Columbus, OH 43210

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Obesity, a major healthcare burden, is an established risk factor for many gastrointestinal cancers. With obesity being on the rise, we inspected whether obesity related gastrointestinal cancers are increasing in different age groups, and relation to obesity.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? 

Response: We identify an alarming increase in incidence of gastric and colorectal cancers in young adults (less than 50 years of age) between 2002-2013.

This was paralleled by an uptrend in obese patients undergoing surgeries for these cancers during the same period. 

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Our results suggest, for the first time, a contributing role of obesity in the etiology as well as the increasing incidence of gastric and colorectal cancers in young adults. 

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: More studies are needed to investigate the interplay of epigenetics factors such as young-onset obesity and western diet in relation to risk of adults developing colorectal and gastric cancers at an earlier age. Also public policies are needed to counter obesity and the rising incidence of gastric and colorectal cancer in this young high risk group.

MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add?

Response: My main career focus is translational and clinical research at the interface of energy balance, the microbiome and gastrointestinal cancer.

We have no financial disclosers or conflict of interest.

Citation:

 ACG18 abstract:

Rising, Age‐Specific, Trends of Obesity‐Related Gastrointestinal Cancers Correspond With Increasing Cancer Resections in Obese Patients: A 2002‐2013 National Analysis Using the SEER and NIS Databases

Oct 9, 2018 @ 11:58 am

The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

 

Study Finds Vitamin D Supplements Have No Effect On Musculoskeletal Health

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
"MaxMedica D-vitamin" by Midsona Sverige AB is licensed under CC BY 2.0Dr Mark J Bolland PhD
Bone and Joint Research Group
Department of Medicine
University of Auckland
New Zealand

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Vitamin D supplements have long been recommended for older people to treat or prevent osteoporosis.

Early evidence suggested vitamin D supplements might have benefits for musculoskeletal health, but more recent systematic reviews have reported no effect of vitamin D supplementation on fractures, falls or bone mineral density. Some authors have suggested that inadequate vitamin D doses might explain these null results.

Continue reading

Strong Link Between HPV and HIV Infection in MSM

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Brandon Brown, MPH, PhD Associate Professor Center for Healthy Communities Department of Social Medicine, Population and Public Health UCR School of Medicine Riverside, CA 

Dr. Brown

Brandon Brown, MPH, PhD
Associate Professor
Center for Healthy Communities
Department of Social Medicine, Population and Public Health
UCR School of Medicine
Riverside, CA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: The authors have been working in Lima, Peru on HIV-related projects for over 17 years. This particular study arose out of interest from our main community collaborator and the only gay men’s health NGO in Lima, Epicentro Salud (http://epicentro.org.pe/index.php/en/). The NGO noticed that one of the main health issues among their clients was genital warts. When we learned this, we applied for funding through the Merck Investigator Initiated Studies Program to conduct a study examining the link between genital warts and incident HIV infection.

The relationship between anogenital HPV types and incident HIV infection among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru

The relationship between anogenital HPV types and incident HIV infection among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru

Although most studies have shown a general link between HPV and HIV co-infection, our findings illustrate the strong relationship between individual HPV types and HIV infection. Specifically, individuals in our study with any HPV type, more than one HPV type, or high-risk HPV were more likely to acquire HIV.

Continue reading

Bacterial Appendage Offers New Target To Combat Antibiotic Resistance

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

David G. Thanassi, Ph.D. Professor and Interim Chair Department of Molecular Genetics & Microbiology Center for Infectious Diseases Stony Brook University Stony Brook, NY 11794-5222

Dr. Thanassi

David G. Thanassi, Ph.D.
Professor and Interim Chair
Department of Molecular Genetics & Microbiology
Center for Infectious Diseases
Stony Brook University
Stony Brook, NY 11794-5222

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli use hair-like surface appendages termed pili to colonize tissues within the host and initiate infection.  Together with our collaborators – the group of Huilin Li at the Van Andel Research Institute – we used an advanced imaging technique termed cryo-electron microscopy to determine snapshots of bacterial pili as they are being assembled.  The pili we studied are critical for uropathogenic strains of E. coli to colonize the urinary tract and cause urinary tract infections.  Our work revealed a new stage in the pilus assembly process and new details about how these structures are built on the bacterial surface.   Continue reading

Abbott’s ID NOW Can Confirm Flu Infection in 13 Minutes or Less

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Abbott’s molecular point-of-care flu test, ID NOW

Abbott’s molecular point-of-care flu test, ID NOW

Dr. Norman Moore PhD
Abbott’s Director of Scientific Affairs for Infectious Diseases 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this test? How does ID NOW differ from other tests for influenza?

Response: This test was developed to give providers – and their patients – lab-accurate results more quickly than ever, right at the point of care. It was designed for ease of use, as well as to be portable and small enough that it can be used in a broad range of healthcare settings, including walk-in clinics, urgent care centers, doctors’ offices and emergency rooms.

Prior to ID NOW, traditional molecular tests offered great performance, but took too long to impact treatment decisions. ID NOW is able to deliver the performance and accuracy of lab-based tests in a timeframe that offers the best chance of improving treatment decisions.  Continue reading

Most Health Care Costs Associated With Osteoporotic Fractures Occur in First Year

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Kandice A. Kapinos, Ph.D. Economist Professor RAND Corporation Pardee RAND Graduate School 

Dr. Kapinos

Kandice A. Kapinos, Ph.D.
Economist
Professor
RAND Corporation
Pardee RAND Graduate School 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: The economic burden of osteoporotic fractures is substantial with studies estimating the annual healthcare cost burden between $10 to 17 billion. Although estimates from individual studies vary, most studies assessing costs after a fracture only explore up to twelve months following a fracture. There is little investigation of how fracture patients’ costs evolve over a longer post-fracture period.

As osteoporotic fractures are one of the most common causes of disability among older adults and can translate into greater medical costs, we focused on studying Medicare beneficiaries. In fact, previous research has suggested that most of the increase in Medicare spending over time can be explained from costs associated with treating higher risk Medicare beneficiaries.

Our objective in this study was to compare health care costs over a 3-year period of those who experienced a fracture to those who did not among a sample of Medicare beneficiaries who were at an increased risk of having a fracture.

Consistent with previous studies, we found a significant increase in expenditures in the year immediately following a fracture relative to controls: almost $14,000 higher for fractures relative to controls. However, at 2 and 3-years post-fracture, there were no significant differences in the change in expenditures between fracture cases and controls. We note that these findings may be different for beneficiaries living in skilled nursing facilities or other non-community-based settings.

Continue reading

Modest Post-Menopausal Weight Loss Linked To Lower Breast Cancer Risk

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Rowan Chlebowski, MD, PhD Research Professor Department of Medical Oncology & Therapeutics Research City of Hope National Medical Center Duarte, California

Dr. Chlebowski

Rowan Chlebowski, MD, PhD
Research Professor
Department of Medical Oncology & Therapeutics Research
City of Hope National Medical Center
Duarte, California

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Regarding study background while obesity has been for several decades been well established respect cancer incidence, it has been difficult to provide evidence that weight loss in postmenopausal women would reduce their breast cancer risk.

We address this question by examining short-term, three year weight loss of 5% or more in most menopausal women participating in the Women’s Health Initiative observational study.

Women who lost this moderate amount of weight regardless of their baseline weight experience as statistically significant lower breast cancer incidence.

Continue reading

Continuing Statins from Late Chronic Kidney Disease through ESRD Linked to Improved Survival

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
"Plugged into dialysis" by Dan is licensed under CC BY 2.0

Elani Streja MPH PhD

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension
University of California, Irvine | UCI ·
Elvira O. Gosmanova, MD, FASN
Medicine/Nephrology
Albany Stratton VA Medical Center


Csaba P Kovesdy MD

Fred Hatch Professor of Medicine
Division of Nephrology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Nephrology Section Chief, Memphis VA Medical Center
Director, Clinical Outcomes and Clinical Trials Program
Memphis TN, 38163 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response:  Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Statins are lipid-lowering drugs that have a proven track record in reducing risk of CVD in patients with advanced CKD who did not yet reach its terminal stage or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Paradoxically, new prescription of statins after ESRD onset failed to reduce CVD related outcomes in three large clinical trials. However, benefits of statin continuation at transition from advanced CKD to ESRD was never formally tested.

Therefore, we identified a cohort of 14,298 US Veterans who used statins for at least half of the year during 1 year before ESRD transition and evaluated mortality outcomes based on whether statins were continued or stopped after ESRD onset.

We found that ESRD patients who continue statins for at least 6 months after transition had 28% and 18% lower risk of death from any cause or cardiovascular causes, respectively, during 12-months of follow up, as compared with statin discontinuers. Continue reading

Bezlotoxumab (Zinplava)For Prevention of Recurrent C. Difficile Infection

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Richard Hengel, MD, FRCPC, FACP Atlanta ID Group
Richard Hengel, MD, FRCPC, FACP

Atlanta ID Group

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? How does Bezlotoxumab differ from other medications for recurrent C. difficile infections?

Response: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is now the most common hospital acquired infection in the United States, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality, not only in the US, but around the world. Despite standard antibiotic therapy targeting the Clostridium difficile bacterium directly, recurrent infection is common, occurring in a quarter to a third of patients, often frail individuals with other concurrent medical problems. These patients can have multiple recurrences leading to their progressive deterioration over time. Until recently, the only treatment for CDI included antibiotics. More recently, fecal microbiota transplant is a promising, but as yet, FDA unapproved therapy. Bezlotoximab is a new FDA approved treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) that compliments standard antibiotics. Bezlotoxumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting toxin B produced by Clostridium difficile during CDI. In two large treatment trials, bezotoxumab, in addition to standard-of-care antibiotics, reduced the frequency of CDI recurrences from about 28% to about 18%. In this study, we set out to see if this new drug performed as well in actual clinical practice as it did in the published clinical trials.

Continue reading

New Antibiotic Combination IMI/REL Can Treat Resistant Infection With Less Kidney Toxicity

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Michelle Hoffman Brown Associate Principal Scientist at Merck Merck

Michelle Brown

Michelle Hoffman Brown
Associate Principal Scientist
Merck

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the kidney risks of using colistin to treat carbapenem-resistant bacterial infections?

Response: Gram-negative pathogens are responsible for half of all healthcare-associated infections and their ability to resist traditional antibiotics makes them more dangerous for seriously ill patients in a healthcare setting. The need for new approaches to treat these pathogens is essential and this trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of imipenem/relebactam (IMI/REL) for the treatment of these challenging infections.

Nephrotoxicity is a common complication of colistin-based therapy and is the potential adverse experience of greatest concern to prescribing clinicians, limiting its use to treat carbapenem-resistant bacterial infections. Relebactam is a novel β-lactamase inhibitor that restores imipenem activity against many imipenem-non-susceptible strains of Gram-negative pathogens. In the Phase 3 RESTORE-IMI 1 study (NCT02452047), IMI/REL was shown to be as effective as, but better tolerated than, colistin plus imipenem, including as demonstrated by a lower incidence of treatment-emergent nephrotoxicity (prespecified secondary endpoint). This analysis looked at additional renal safety data from the RESTORE-IMI 1 trial.  Continue reading

Hospital Sinks a Trap For Bad Bacteria

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gili Regev-Yochay, MD, Lead author Director of the Infection Prevention & Control Unit Sheba Medical Center Tel HaShomer, Israel.   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  Response: CPE (Carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae) is endemic in Israel. In our ICU we had a prolonged CPE outbreak with one particular bacteria, which is not that common (OXA-48 producing-Serratia marcescens).  Enhancing our regular control measures (hand hygiene, increased cleaning etc..) did not contain the outbreak.    MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?   Response: The outbreak source were the sink-traps in nearly all the patient rooms, which were contaminated with this same bacteria. Once we understood that this was the source we took two measures:  1) Sink decontamination efforts, including intensive chlorine washes of the drainage and water system, replacement of all sink-traps, acetic acid treatment and more, all these efforts were only partially and only temporarily successful. So that even today, after a year of such efforts and a period in which we didn't have any patients with this infection, the drainage system is still contaminated with these bugs and they grow in the sink-traps and can be found in the sink outlets.  2) The second measure we took was an educational intervention, where we engaged the ICU team through workshops to the issue of the contaminated sinks and together enforced strict "sink-use guidelines" (sinks are to be used ONLY for hand washing, prohibiting placement of any materials near the sinks, etc.). Using these two measure the outbreak was fully contained.  To date, nearly 1.5 years since the last outbreak case, we did not have any further infections in our ICU patients with this bug.  MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?  Response: Sink-traps and drainage systems can be a major source of CPE transmission.  While traditionally CPE outbreaks were attributed to patient-to patient transmission, the environment and particularly water and drainage system appears to play a major role.  MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?   Response: There is urgent need to find a technological solution for drainage system contaminations.  While some have suggested to get rid of sinks in ICU this is probably not realistic in the era of emerging Clostridium infections (where washing hands, and not only alcohol rubs are needed).   Citation:  Gili Regev-Yochay, Gill Smollan, Ilana Tal, Nani Pinas Zade, Yael Haviv, Valery Nudelman, Ohad Gal-Mor, Hanaa Jaber, Eyal Zimlichman, Nati Keller, Galia Rahav. Sink traps as the source of transmission of OXA-48–producing Serratia marcescens in an intensive care unit. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 2018; 1 DOI: 1017/ice.2018.235    <span class="last-modified-timestamp">Oct 6, 2018 @ 7:25 pm</span>          The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.   Gili Regev-Yochay, MD
, Lead author
Director of the Infection Prevention & Control Unit
Sheba Medical Center
Tel HaShomer, Israel. 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: CPE (Carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae) is endemic in Israel. In our ICU we had a prolonged CPE outbreak with one particular bacteria, which is not that common (OXA-48 producing-Serratia marcescens).  Enhancing our regular control measures (hand hygiene, increased cleaning etc..) did not contain the outbreak.

Continue reading

One Type of ART in HIV-Positive Pregnant Women Likely Increases Risk of Neurological Problems in Children

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Claudia Syueping Crowell, MD Lead author of the study Assistant professor of pediatrics University of Washington and  Seattle Children's Hospital

Dr. Syueping Crowell

Claudia Syueping Crowell, MD
Lead author of the study
Assistant professor of pediatrics
University of Washington and
Seattle Children’s Hospital

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

  • This research was conducted as part of the SMARTT (Surveillance Monitoring for ART Toxicities) study, which is an observational cohort study of HIV exposed uninfected children with the overall aim of studying the long-term safety of fetal and infant exposure to prophylactic antiretroviral (ARV) therapy.
  • This particular analysis was conducted in response to prior studies that showed an increased risk of seizures and other neurologic conditions in children who were exposed to ARVs in utero.
  • The aim of our study was to determine if in utero exposure to any particular ARV is associated with the diagnosis of neurologic conditions later in infancy and childhood.
  • In our cohort of 3747 HIV-exposed uninfected children we found 237 children who had neurologic conditions, 16 of whom were exposed to efavirenz in utero and 4 of whom were exposed to dolutegravir in utero.
  • The most common neurologic diagnoses were microcephaly, febrile seizures, non-febrile seizures and eye related disorders.
  • When comparing various antiretroviral medications, we found that children of women whose ART regimen included efavirenz were more likely to be diagnosed with a neurologic condition than children of women whose ART regimen did not include efavirenz (9.6% vs. 6.2%). This translated to a 60% higher risk of being diagnosed with a neurologic condition in the efavirenz exposed group after controlling for other risk factors.
  • We also found a suggestion of an association between in utero dolutegravir exposure and later diagnosis of a neurologic condition but the number of children exposed to dolutegravir was small (number of exposed children = 94). 

Continue reading

AI Screening for Diabetic Eye Disease May Save Time and Money

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Prof. Yogesan Kanagasingam, PhD Australian of the Year 2015 (WA Finalist) Research Director, Australian e-Health Research Centre Visiting Scholar,  Harvard University Adjunct Professor, School of Medicine University of Notre Dame

Prof. Kanagasingam

Prof. Yogesan Kanagasingam, PhD
Australian of the Year 2015 (WA Finalist)
Research Director, Australian e-Health Research Centre
Visiting Scholar,  Harvard University
Adjunct Professor, School of Medicine
University of Notre Dame

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We wanted to evaluate how an artificial intelligence (AI)–based grading system for diabetic retinopathy will perform in a real-world clinical setting, at a primary care clinic. 

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Sensitivity and specificity of the AI system compared with the gold standard of ophthalmologist evaluation is provided.

The results demonstrate both the potential and the challenges of using AI systems to identify diabetic retinopathy in clinical practice. Key challenges include the low incidence rate of disease and the related high false-positive rate as well as poor image quality.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: Low incidence rate of disease is an issue. May be a controlled environment, e.g. endocrinology clinic, may overcome this low incidence rate of diseases and high number of patients with diabetes.

Another research direction is how to improve image quality when capturing retinal images from a fundus camera.

How to overcome the issues related to sheen reflection is another research direction.  

MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add?

Response: At present, ophthalmologists or optometrists read all images.

If AI is introduced for image reading then, based the results from this study, ophthalmologists have to check only 8% of the images. This is a huge cost savings to the health system and save lot of time.

The accuracy rate (sensitivity and specificity) from this study is better than human graders.

Citation: 

Kanagasingam Y, Xiao D, Vignarajan J, Preetham A, Tay-Kearney M, Mehrotra A. Evaluation of Artificial Intelligence–Based Grading of Diabetic Retinopathy in Primary Care. JAMA Network Open. 2018;1(5):e182665. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.2665

Oct 6, 2018 @ 12:17 pm

The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

 

Cutting Out Bacon, Sausage and Hot Dogs May Reduce Risk of Breast Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
"bacon&eggs" by ilaria is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Maryam Farvid, Ph.D., Research Scientist  

Department of Nutrition
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Boston, MA 02115

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Prior prospective studies on red and processed meat consumption with risk of breast cancer have produced inconsistent results.

Current meta-analysis of 15 prospective studies shows that women who eat a high amount of processed meat each day may have a higher risk of breast cancer than those who don’t eat or have a low intake in their diet.  Continue reading

Fentanyl Strips Can Prevent Opioid Overdoses

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
"150826-fentanyl-factory-underground-illicit.jpg" by r. nial bradshaw is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Jon Zibbell, PhD,
Senior public health scientist
Behavioral Health Research Division
RTI International
Research Triangle Park, NC, 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: For the first time in 2016, U.S. overdose deaths involving illicitly-manufactured fentanyl surpassed deaths from heroin and prescription deaths.

Fentanyl is an extremely potent synthetic opioid, and an illicitly-manufactured form of the drug is regularly being mixed with heroin and often sold to unwitting consumers. Fentanyl is 50 times more potent than heroin and its illicitly-manufactured version is extremely difficult to discern when mixed with heroin. Harm reduction organizations have started to distribute FTS and people consuming street-purchased opioids are using them to test drugs for fentanyl. Our objective was to assess whether this point-of-use form of drug checking was influencing people’s drug use behavior. The study was self-funded by the research institute RTI International.

Our findings show that consumers who tested street opioids with fentanyl test strips were five times more likely to engage in safer drug use behavior when the test comes back positive. The study was conducted among a group of 125 people who inject drugs in Greensboro, North Carolina.

Continue reading

Therapy Dogs Can Spread MRSA in Hospitals—But Shampooing Can Help

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Courtesy of Kathryn Dalton, VMD MPH

Courtesy of Kathryn Dalton, VMD MPH

Kathryn Dalton, VMD MPH
AKC CHF Fellow
PhD Student, Davis Lab
Environmental Health and Engineering
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Animal-assisted interventions (or AAI for short) have become increasing popular in hospitals for the emotional and physical benefits they bring to patients. But there is a risk that these therapy dogs could potential spread infectious germs, including MRSA (methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus), to patients.

Our study found that therapy dogs can spread MRSA to patients, and children who had more contact with the therapy dog were at higher risk of getting MRSA. But, we used a new cleaning protocol on the dog with an anti-septic shampoo before the visit and anti-septic wipes during the visit. Patients who had more contact with the dog did not have a higher risk of MRSA when the dog was giving this new cleaning protocol, which made the AAI therapy visits safer for the patients. In addition, the patients’ emotional and physical benefits we observed were not changed by using this dog cleaning protocol.       Continue reading

Most Overweight or Obese Children Will Stay So

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Antje Körner, M.D Center for Pediatric Research University Hospital for Children and Adolescents University of Leipzig Germany

Dr. Körner

Antje Körner, M.D
Center for Pediatric Research
University Hospital for Children and Adolescents
University of Leipzig
Germany

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We were interested to find out, when (at what age) obesity in children emerges, whether there is something such as an critical age.

There are many opinions on that but very few well-powered studies. We tracked weight/BMI development of more than 51,000 children from infancy to adolescence. We see, that it is clearly early childhood – the preschool years when obesity sets in in the children. If a child is obese at one or up to two years of age, chances are about 50:50 to return to normal weight; with 3 years of age, most children with overweight or obesity will stay so, almost 90%.

When we look at it dynamically, we see the strongest increase in excessive weight between 2 and 6 years of age in those adolescents who are obese. Even after that young age there is steady further increase in additional weight gain, hence worsening of obesity. 

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Our intention is to raise awareness that obesity sets in at that very young age. Often you hear of “innocent puppy fat” in the very young children, which will grow away. According to our data you cannot rely on returning to normal weight as soon as 3 years of age.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: Therefore, we have to think more in means of prevention. This early childhood is the age where habits are formed. Hence every day life should be structured in a healthy way and environment should favour a healthy life style. 

Citation:

Acceleration of BMI in Early Childhood and Risk of Sustained Obesity

Mandy Geserick, M.Sc., Mandy Vogel, Ph.D., Ruth Gausche, M.B.A., Tobias Lipek, M.D., Ulrike Spielau, M.Sc., Eberhard Keller, M.D., Roland Pfäffle, M.D., Wieland Kiess, M.D., and Antje Körner, M.D.

October 4, 2018
N Engl J Med 2018; 379:1303-1312
DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa180352

Oct 5, 2018 @ 12:41 pm

The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

 

Nolasiban Phase 3 IMPLANT 2 Trial: IVF Live Birth Rate Increased Up to 35%

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Ernest Loumaye, MD, PhD
Co-Founder and CEO
ObsEva SA  

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this announcement? How does Nolasiban work to decrease contractions and improve uterine blood flow?

Response: The WHO has recognized infertility as a global health issue, and many couples undergo IVF treatment: there are more than 700,000 annual IVF treatment cycles in Europe and more than 200,000 in the U.S. However, more than 50% of IVF procedures do not result in pregnancy, and failure has tremendous emotional and financial costs to patients.  ObsEva is dedicated to improving fertility outcomes in IVF while also supporting the use of single embryo transfer to minimize multiple births that are associated with significant health risks to mother and baby, as well as significant health costs from premature delivery.

Nolasiban works by blocking the hormone oxytocin, which is known to induce uterine contractions.  Nolasiban reduces uterine contractions and could improve uterine blood flow, both effects being favourable for the embryo to properly implant. Continue reading

Most Eye Trauma Occurs in Elderly After a Fall

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Syed Mahmood Ali Shah, M.D. Associate Professor of Ophthalmology University of Pittsburgh School of MedicineSyed Mahmood Ali Shah, M.D.
Associate Professor of Ophthalmology
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Eye trauma is a significant cause of morbidity throughout the world. In the United States, the incidence of individuals hospitalized with eye trauma from 2001 through 2014 increased. Most of these individuals were above the age of 65 and suffered a fall. This is a worrisome trend in light of an increased awareness and continued and concentrated effort to reduce falls. This is a critical point: We need to improve our existing strategies to reduce falls.

The second at-risk group is children and adolescents. Previous studies have shown that effective widespread implementation of injury prevention efforts can lower trauma rates. While we did observe a small decrease in eye trauma as a primary admitting diagnosis, the fact that it was more common in children and adolescents (for whom eye trauma carries devastating consequences and can significantly reduce quality of life) highlights the significance of continued efforts to prevent eye trauma.  Continue reading

Association of Disorganization of Retinal Inner Layers With Visual Acuity Response to Anti-VGEF Therapy for Macular Edema Secondary to Retinal Vein Occlusion

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Amy Babiuch, M.D.  Medical Retina Specialist  |  Cole Eye Institute Assistant Professor Ophthalmology Case Western Reserve University WPSA Regional Focus Committee Chair Cleveland Clinic

Dr. Babiuch

Amy Babiuch, M.D.
Medical Retina Specialist  |  Cole Eye Institute
Assistant Professor Ophthalmology Case Western Reserve University
WPSA Regional Focus Committee Chair
Cleveland Clinic

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: In previous studies, the disorganization of retinal inner layers (DRIL) has demonstrated its ability to help determine visual acuity (VA) prognosis in diabetic macular edema that requires treatment. Given this association, the research group at Cole Eye Institute studied how DRIL may affect VA outcomes in patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) undergoing treatment for secondary macular edema.

DRIL is defined as the extent to which there is a failure in the recognition of any of the demarcations between the ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer complex, inner nuclear layer, and outer plexiform layer on optical coherence tomography (OCT).

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Skyrocketing JUUL Sales Especially Popular Among Youth

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
"Electronic Cigarette/E-Cigs/E-Cigarettes" by Chris F is licensed under CC BY 2.0Brian King, PhD
Lead author and Deputy Director for Research Translation
Office on Smoking and Health.
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Since first entering the U.S. marketplace in 2007, e-cigarettes have been a rapidly evolving product class. Typically, national surveys provide annual, self-reported estimates of e-cigarette use among adults and youth. However, given the dynamic nature of the e-cigarettes landscape, data collected at a sub-annual level can be useful for identifying rapid changes and patterns. For example, retail sales data, which is available at more frequent intervals, such as weekly, can complement annual surveys and help keep a pulse on emerging trends. This study assessed e-cigarette retail sales data in the United States from 2013 through 2017.

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Biotricity: Deep Data and AI Bring Enhanced Value to Medical Wearables

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Waqaas Al-Siddiq

Waqaas Al-Siddiq

Waqaas Al-Siddiq
Founder and CEO of Biotricity Inc

MedicalResearch.com: In light of Apple’s announcement that it will incorporate an EKG monitoring device into Apple watches in the near future, would you discuss your vision of the growing medical wearables market? 

Response: First of all, the public is still largely confused as to what constitutes a medical wearable device. Apple’s new watch, with its EKG monitoring service, is not a medical wearable because it will not produce clinical-grade data needed for diagnosis or treatment. This is not to say that Apple’s watch isn’t helpful. Many people are not even aware that they have a heart problem, but if their Apple watch consistently tells them that they have an irregular heart rhythm, or arrhythmia, they could take that as a sign to go to a physician and get a professional diagnosis. A physician will then prescribe a medical wearable device, such as our Bioflux, to monitor the patient’s heart rhythm. Medical-grade wearable devices produce clinical-grade data that is accurate to within 90-95 percent or higher and are prescribed by physicians to make diagnoses and treatment plans.

That being said, I envision that the medical wearables market will expand considerably with the advent of consumer-based wearables that facilitate health tracking. One of the biggest problems we have today is a lack of awareness. Anywhere between 2.7 and 6.1 million people in the U.S. suffer from atrial fibrillation – a condition that makes the heart beat irregularly – and many aren’t aware that they have the condition. Consumer-based health trackers like the Fitbit and the Apple Watch can help raise awareness and alert consumers to possible health issues, which will encourage them to see a physician for a thorough and professional examination and diagnosis. This, in turn, gives the medical wearable market a boost as more people will be diagnosed with the aid of a medical wearable. Another factor that is playing into this adoption trend is that next-generation medical wearables are increasingly becoming smaller and easier to use for both patients and physicians. So, I think that the future of medical wearables will see them firmly entrenched in mainstream practice and eventually become tools within the home for individuals with chronic issues.  Continue reading

Errors in Dementia Drugs Surprising Common in Parkinson’s Disease

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Allison W. Willis, MD, MS Assistant Professor of Neurology Assistant Professor of Biostatistics and Epidemiology Senior Fellow, Leonard Davis Institute Senior Scholar, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Dr. Willis

Allison W. Willis, MD, MS
Assistant Professor of Neurology
Assistant Professor of Biostatistics and Epidemiology
Senior Fellow, Leonard Davis Institute
Senior Scholar, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This study was motivated by my own experiences as a neurologist-neuroscientist.

I care for Parkinson disease patients, and over the year, have had numerous instances in which a person was taking a medication that could interact with their Parkinson disease medications, or could worsen their PD symptoms.
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Zoledronate (Reclast, Zometa) Reduced Fractures in Older Women with Osteopenia

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Prof Ian Reid Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences University of Auckland Auckland New Zealand 

Prof. Reid

Prof Ian Reid
Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences
University of Auckland
Auckland New Zealand 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Bisphosphonates prevent fractures in patients with osteoporosis, but their efficacy in women with less marked bone loss (referred to as osteopenia) is unknown.

Most fractures in postmenopausal women occur in osteopenic patients, so therapies with efficacy in osteopenia are needed.

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NEJM: Rivaroxaban (XARELTO®) For Thromboembolism Prevention after Medical Illness

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Alex C Spyropoulos, MD, FACP, FCCP, FRCPC Professor of Medicine – The Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell Professor - The Center for Health Innovations and Outcomes Research - The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research System Director – Anticoagulation and Clinical Thrombosis Services Northwell Health at Lenox Hill Hospital New York, NY 10075

Dr. Spyropoulos

Alex C Spyropoulos, MD, FACP, FCCP, FRCPC
Professor of Medicine – The Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell
Professor – The Center for Health Innovations and Outcomes Research – The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research
System Director – Anticoagulation and Clinical Thrombosis Services
Northwell Health at Lenox Hill Hospital
New York, NY 10075

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Hospitalised medically ill patients have a significant risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) within 6 weeks after discharge. The role of extended thromboprophylaxis in this population with either low molecular weight heparin or the direct oral anticoagulants remains uncertain, as it has shown either excess bleeding or beneficial effects mainly from reducing asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

The MARINER trial was designed to compare rivaroxaban with placebo for the prevention of the composite outcome of symptomatic VTE and VTE-related death in medically ill patients at increased risk of VTE post-hospital discharge. The principal safety objective was major bleeding.

The trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven study that included a total of 12,024 patients aged ≥40 years who had been hospitalised with an acute medical illness for 3-10 consecutive days and had additional VTE risk factors as defined by the modified IMPROVE VTE risk score of ≥4 or a score of 2 or 3 plus a plasma D-dimer level more than twice the upper limit of normal). The rivaroxaban regimen consisted of 10 mg once daily in patients with a creatinine clearance (CrCl) of >=50ml/min or 7.5 mg for patients with a CrCl of 30 to <50 ml/min. The first dose was given on the day of discharge and the last dose at Day 45. Patients were followed up for an additional 30 days. Baseline characteristics were well matched between groups and typical of a medically ill population.

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