Mediterranean Diet Linked to Lower Long-Term Cardiovascular Events in Women

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Samia Mora, MD, MHS Associate Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School Director, Center for Lipid Metabolomics Brigham and Women’s Hospital Boston, MA

Dr. Mora

Samia Mora, MD, MHS
Associate Professor of Medicine
Harvard Medical School
Director, Center for Lipid Metabolomics
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Boston, MA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The Mediterranean diet is rich in plants (nuts, seeds, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes) and olive oil, and includes moderate intake of fish, poultry, dairy, and eggs, and alcohol, and rare use of meats and sweets.The Mediterranean diet has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events but the precise mechanisms through which Mediterranean diet intake may reduce long-term risk of CVD are not well understood. We aimed to investigate the biological mechanisms that may mediate this cardiovascular benefit.

Using a prospective study of 25,994 initially healthy women enrolled in the Women’s Health Study who were followed up to 12-years, we evaluated potential mediating effects of a panel of biomarkers (in total 40 biomarkers) that represent different CVD pathways and clinical factors.

Higher baseline intake of a Mediterranean-type diet was associated with approximately one quarter lower risk of CVD events during the 12 year follow up. For the MED-CVD risk reduction, biomarkers of inflammation, glucose-metabolism/insulin-resistance, and adiposity contributed most to explaining the association, with additional contributions from pathways related to blood pressure, lipids – in particular HDL or triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism, and to a lesser extent LDL cholesterol, branched chain amino acids, and small molecule metabolites.  Continue reading

Mediterranean Diet Linked To Stroke Risk Reduction in Women

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Vegetables” by Wagner T. Cassimiro "Aranha" is licensed under CC BY 2.0Professor Phyo Kyaw Myint MBBS MD FRCP(Edin) FRCP(Lond)
Clinical Chair in Medicine of Old Age
Academic Lead: Ageing Clinical & Experimental Research &
Director of Clinical Academic Training Development
The Lead Academic, Aberdeen Clinical Academic Training (ACAT) Programmes
School of Medicine, Medical Sciences & Nutrition
College of Life Sciences & Medicine, University of Aberdeen

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: While Mediterranean Diet has been linked to reduced stroke risk it remains unclear
(1) its impact on populations within non-Mediterranean countries;
(2) its specific impact on different gender;
(3) the effect observed when using more robust dietary assessments; and (4) which specific components of the diet are most protective.

We therefore studied more than 23 thousand men and women (mainly British Caucasian) aged 40 years or older in Norfolk, UK as part of EPIC-Norfolk study and we found that the greater adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern is linked to a significant reduction in stroke risk in women but not in men. This benefit was seen across the whole middle and older age population (particularly for women) regardless of their existing risk factors such as high blood pressure.

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Both Vegetarian and Mediterranean Diets Beneficial for Weight Loss and Heart Health

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Vegetarian dan dan noodles” by Andrea Nguyen is licensed under CC BY 2.0Francesco Sofi, MD PhD
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
University of Florence, Florence, Italy; Clinical Nutrition Unit, Careggi University Hospital
Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation Italy, Onlus IRCCS
Florence, Italy 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Mediterranean and Vegetarian diets are two of the most beneficial dietary patterns for prevention of chronic degenerative diseases.

No studies have been conducted in the same group of subjects, by comparing these two dietary profiles.

Main results are that both diets have been found to be beneficial for cardiovascular prevention, in the same group of subjects at low risk of cardiovascular disease.

In particular, vegetarian diet determined a reduction of total and LDL-cholesterol, whereas Mediterranean diet resulted in lower levels of triglycerides and some inflammatory parameters

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Anticancer Effects of Two Strains of Tomatoes Explored

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Antonio Giordano MD PhD Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine and Center for Biotechnology College of Science and Technology Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy

Dr. Giordano

Antonio Giordano MD PhD
Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine and Center for Biotechnology
College of Science and Technology
Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The Mediterranean diet is considered to be one of the healthiest nutrition patterns. Tomatoes, in particular, which are consumed worldwide, and a basic ingredient of the Mediterranean diet, have been postulated to have a cancer preventive role at least for some tumor types, although few studies analyzed the effects of tomatoes in their entirety in different stages of cancer progression.

Here, we focused on an in vitro model of gastric cancer because it is still one of the most common and deadly cancers and its development is strongly influenced by certain eating habits. Our results showed a possible role of tomatoes against typical neoplastic features. The treatment with tomato extracts affected the ability of cancer cell growth both in adherence and in semisolid mediums. Moreover, tomato extracts affected key processes within the cell; they hindered migration ability, arrested cell cycle through the modulation of retinoblastoma tumor suppressor family proteins and specific cell cycle inhibitors, and induced cancer cell death through apoptosis.

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Inverse Association Between Mediterranean Diet and Cardiovascular Disease

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr Nita Forouhi, MRCP, PhD, FFPHM
Programme Leader
MRC Epidemiology Unit
University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine
Institute of Metabolic Science
Cambridge Biomedical Campus

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The benefits of the Mediterranean diet for cardiovascular health are well documented in countries of the Mediterranean region and some other countries, but there is little such evidence in the UK general population. Our work fills this research gap.

In our study we followed up 23,902 initially healthy Britons living in Norfolk (Eastern England) for an average of 12 to 17 years, and determined the occurrence of new cases of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and deaths due to CVD during that time period. Our results showed that those adults who adhered to a Mediterranean diet had 6% to 16% lower risk of developing CVD, compared to those who had dietary habits further away from the Mediterranean-type diet pattern. This was the case even when we accounted for several important risk factors and correlates of CVD, including as age, sex, body mass index, lifestyle habits such as smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity, and socio-economic factors.

We also modelled what would happen in the study population if all the participants increased their adherence to the Mediterranean-type diet. From this we estimated that nearly 4% of all new cardiovascular disease cases, or 12.5% of cardiovascular deaths in the population could potentially be avoided. This is novel information about the potential health benefit of a Mediterranean-type diet in a UK context. However, we should remember that our study was an observational study, not a clinical trial with a dietary intervention, and thus we cannot imply a cause and effect relationship between increasing adherence to the Mediterranean diet and reduction in cardiovascular disease.

We defined the Mediterranean diet using a 15 point score based on guideline recommendations from a Mediterranean dietary pyramid published by the Mediterranean Diet Foundation. The recommendations had not previously been specifically tested for their associations with health, so our findings, for the first time, show the utility of the Mediterranean dietary pyramid.

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Moderate Nuts and Olive Oil Intake Do Not Increase Body Weight in Setting of Mediterranean Diet

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Ramon Estruch, MD PhD Senior Consultant in the Internal Medicine Department of the Hospital Clinic Barcelona

Dr. Ramon Estruch

Dr Ramon Estruch, MD PhD
Senior Consultant in the Internal Medicine Department of the Hospital Clinic
Barcelona

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Estruch: Although weight stability requires a balance between calories consumed and calories expended, it seems that calories from vegetable fats have different effects that calories from animals on adiposity. Thus, an increase of dietary fat intake (mainly extra virgin olive oil or nuts) achieved naturally in the setting of Mediterranean diet does not promote weight gain or increase in adiposity parameters such as waist circumference.
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Mediterranean Diet in Post Menopausal Women Linked to Better Bone Health

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Bernhard Haring, MD MPH
Department of Medicine I
Comprehensive Heart Failure Center
University of Würzburg
Germany

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Haring: The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between adherence to a diet quality index constructed on the basis of dietary recommendations or existing healthy dietary patterns and bone outcomes in a large population of postmenopausal women.

We found that higher diet quality based on a Mediterranean diet may play a role in maintaining bone health in postmenopausal women.
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Diets Rich in Vegetables May Reduce Heart Disease Risk Through Microbiome Changes

Prof. Danilo Ercolini, PhD Department of Agricultural Sciences University of Naples Federico II Portici - ItalyMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Prof. Danilo Ercolini, PhD
Department of Agricultural Sciences
University of Naples Federico II
Portici – Italy

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Prof. Ercolini: There is a thick body of literature showing that diet can significantly impact the gut microbiota and metabolome.

In a recent study, negligible differences in gut microbiota and feca lshort-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were reported between habitual omnivores and vegans in the USA.

In addition, Mediterranean diet is a recognized healthy dietary pattern but has not previously been related to the composition of the gut microbiota and related metabolome. That’s the background in short.

Here we show how habitual vegetarian and vegan diets promote enrichment of fibre-degrading bacteria in the gut.

Subjects who consume a Mediterranean diet rich in fruit, legumes and vegetables have higher levels of fecal short chain fatty acids, regardless of the diet type.

Low adherence to the Mediterranean diet corresponds to an increase in urinary trimethylamine oxide levels, a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

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Significant Decrease in Breast Cancer With Mediterranean Diet and Olive Oil

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Miguel Ángel Martínez González MD

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid
IdiSNA, Navarra Institute for Health Research, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain

Medical Research: What is the background for this study?

Response: Several observational studies and mechanistic experiments in animal models and cell lines suggested that the Mediterranean diet and minor components of extra-virgin olive oil may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer.

The PREDIMED study was a randomized primary prevention trial for cardiovascular disease among high risk patients initially free of cardiovascular disease. The participants were 7,447 men and women (60-80 years old).

We have used the data from women in this trial to assess the effect of the randomized diets on the occurrence of new cases of breast cancer.

Medical Research: What are the main findings?

Response: Among 4,152 women randomized to 3 different diets
(1.- Mediterranean diet with free provision of extra-virgin​ olive oil;
2.- Mediterranean diet with free provision of tree nuts; and
3.- Advice to follow a low-fat diet, i.e. control group)

We confirmed 35 new cases of invasive breast cancer during 4.8 of follow-up. A statistically significant 68% relative reduction in the risk of breast cancer in the Mediterranean diet with free provision of extra-virgin​ olive oil versus the control group was found. There was a significant trend of risk reduction associated with progressive increments in the intake of extra-virgin olive oil during the trial (with repeated yearly measurements of diet) when the 3 groups were assessed together.

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PREDIMED Study Demonstrates Heart Health Benefits of Mediterranean Diet

Miguel Á. Martínez-González, MD, MPH, PhD Department of Preventive Medicine & Public Health School of Medicine, University of Navarra Navarra, SpainMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Miguel Á. Martínez-González, MD, MPH, PhD
Department of Preventive Medicine & Public Health
School of Medicine, University of Navarra
Navarra, Spain

Medical Research: What are the main findings?

Response: The diet-heart hypothesis has been researched during decades. A common mistake was to assume that a high intake of all types of fat was detrimental for cardiovascular health and could cause heart attacks and strokes. Therefore a low-fat diet was proposed as the best way to prevent heart attacks and strokes. This was wrong.

Alternatively, the Mediterranean diet, rich in fat from natural vegetable sources (olive oil, tree nuts), was also considered a healthy dietary pattern.

However, most of the evidence to support these benefits of a fat-rich Mediterranean diet came from observational studies and no randomized clinical trial had ever assessed the Mediterranean diet in PRIMARY prevention (i.e. in initially healthy people) Continue reading

Mediterranean Diet May Delay Telomere Shortening, Increase Longevity

Immaculata De Vivo PhD Associate Professor Harvard Medical School Director, Dana Farber/Harvard Cancer Center High Throughput Genotyping Core Facility. Channing Division of Network Medicine Boston, MA 02115MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Immaculata De Vivo PhD

Associate Professor Harvard Medical School
Director, Dana Farber/Harvard Cancer Center High Throughput Genotyping Core
Facility. Channing Division of Network Medicine
Boston, MA 02115

MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. De Vivo: Our study found that greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with longer telomeres. Following a diet closer to the Mediterranean diet, can prevent accelerated telomere shortening. Our unique contribution to the literature is that we provide a potential molecular mechanism, preventing telomere shortening. Telomeres are bits of DNA that protect your chromosomes.

MedicalResearch: Is telomere shortening reversible?

Dr. De Vivo: Telomere shortening is a biological process, the shorten with age.

However, lifestyle choices can help to prevent accelerated shortening.

Fruits, vegetables, olive oil and nuts – key components of the Mediterranean diet have well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that could balance out the “bad effects” of smoking and obesity.

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Brief Mediterranean Diet Intervention May Have Long Term Benefits

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Markos Klonizakis
Centre for Sports and Exercise Science
Sheffield Hallam University, UK

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Klonizakis: It is widely accepted that populations in the Eastern Mediterranean sea have historical lower rates of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. This has been attributed to a great extent, at following a diet based on dishes and ingredients, which are common in this region and are collectively known as “Mediterranean diet”.  Taking into consideration that cardiovascular disease is on the rise, particularly in the Western world, it did make sense to see if such a diet can be adapted for a population that has a largely different culinary tradition and what the results would be if this is combined with exercise of moderate-intensity. We therefore, designed and implemented an 8-week intervention, aiming at older, healthy but previously untrained people, comparing an exercise-only group vs one where exercise was combined with Mediterranean diet. Our work has shown that benefits of this intervention are still evident in the vascular function (measured by the function of the inner vein lining, called the endothelium) and the cardiopulmonary fitness, one year after the end of the intervention.

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High Fat Diets Worse for Male Brains

Deborah Clegg, PhD Research Scientist, Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute Associate Professor, Department of Biomedical Science Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Los Angeles, CA 90048MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Deborah Clegg, PhD
Research Scientist, Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute
Associate Professor, Department of Biomedical Science
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Los Angeles, CA 90048

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Clegg: The main findings are that males and females differ with respect to how they process and respond to diets high in fat!!!!  Males following consumption of a diet that is 42% of the calories coming from saturated fat (it would be analogous to eating a big mac and having a coke), gained the same amount of weight as did the females BUT the males had increased markers of inflammation in their brains and the females did not.  With the elevated markers of inflammation, the males had dysregulation in glucose homeostasis and alteration in cardiovascular function – yet the females did not!!
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Olive Oil and Mediterranean Diet May Improve Metabolic Syndrome

Jordi Salas-Salvadó Professor of Nutrition Human Nutrition Unit Department of Biochemistry & Biotechnology IISPV School of Medicine. Rovira i Virgili University CIBERobn, Instituto Carlos IIIMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Jordi Salas-Salvadó Professor of Nutrition
Human Nutrition Unit Department of Biochemistry & Biotechnology
IISPV School of Medicine.
Rovira i Virgili University CIBERobn, Instituto Carlos III

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Response: In this large, multicenter, randomized clinical trial conducted in Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk, Mediterranean-diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil was associated to a lower increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared to the advice on a control low-fat diet. However, no beneficial effect of Mediterranean-diet on the incidence of metabolic syndrome among participants free of this condition at baseline was observed. Therefore, the lower increase in prevalence was especially due to the reversion of metabolic syndrome in those individuals with metabolic syndrome at baseline.
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Fish Oil Found Not Effective in Atrial Fibrillation Prevention

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Anil Nigam MD MSc FRCPC Director, Research Program in Preventive Cardiology at ÉPIC Centre Montreal Heart Institute Associate Professor, Department of Medicine at Université de MontréalMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Anil Nigam MD MSc FRCPC
Director, Research Program in Preventive Cardiology at ÉPIC Centre
Montreal Heart Institute
Associate Professor, Department of Medicine at Université de Montréal

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Nigam: The main finding is that high-dose fish oil rich in marine omega-3 fatty acids did not reduce recurrence of atrial fibrillation in individuals with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation not receiving conventional anti-arrhythmic therapy.
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Foods With Polyunsaturated Fat May Decrease Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

Jyrki Virtanen, PhD Adjunct Professor of Nutritional Epidemiology University of Eastern Finland Kuopio, FinlandFor MedicalResearch.com
Jyrki Virtanen, PhD
Adjunct Professor of Nutritional Epidemiology
University of Eastern Finland
Kuopio, Finland


Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Virtanen: The main finding was that saturated fat intake was not an independent risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease even in a population with relatively high average saturated fat intake, like in this population with middle-aged and older men from Eastern Finland. In other words, intake of carbohydrates in place of saturated fat was not associated with lower risk, not even when the quality of carbohydrates was taken into account. Only when polyunsaturated fat replaced saturated fat in the diet, was the risk of Coronary Heart Disease, especially Coronary Heart Disease mortality, lower. In fact, also replacing trans fat or carbohydrates with polyunsaturated fat was associated with lower risk. The associations were similar with both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Trans fat intake was not associated with the Coronary Heart Disease risk, but that is most likely explained by the low intake of trans fat in Finland already in mid-1980s.

We also investigated the associations of the fatty acid intake with carotid artery atherosclerosis, and the results were generally similar to the findings with incident Coronary Heart Disease events.

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Is Pre-Pregnancy Diet Linked to Pregnancy Loss?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Audrey J. Gaskins, Sc.D.
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
Department of Nutrition
Harvard School of Public Health

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Answers: In our  large prospective cohort study, we found that higher adherence to several healthy dietary patterns (e.g. the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Fertility Diet) prior to pregnancy was not associated with risk of pregnancy loss.
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Diabetic? Tree Nuts May Help Control Your Blood Sugar

Effie Viguiliouk M.Sc. Candidate, Department of Nutritional Sciences University of TorontoMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Effie Viguiliouk
M.Sc. Candidate, Department of Nutritional Sciences
University of Toronto

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Effie Viguiliouk: This systematic review and meta-analysis of the totality of evidence from 12 randomized clinical trials in 450 participants with type 2 diabetes found that eating about 1/2 a cup of tree nuts per day (equivalent to about 60 g or 2 servings) significantly lowered the two key markers of blood sugar, HbA1c and fasting glucose, in comparison to calorically matched control diets without tree nuts.

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Healthiest Diets May Be Most Expen$ive

Dr Michelle Morris Research Fellow Nutritional Epidemiology Group School of Food Science & Nutrition University of LeedsMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr Michelle Morris
Research Fellow
Nutritional Epidemiology Group
School of Food Science & Nutrition
University of Leeds

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Morris: The healthiest diets consumed by UK Women are the most expensive. This study is UK centric, using dietary patterns consumed by UK women and scored for healthiness according to the UK Department of Health Eatwell Plate. Cost of diet was estimated using average prices taken from an evaluated UK food cost database.
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Canola Oil May Improve Glycemic Control, Reduce Cardiovascular Risk Factors

 David J.A. Jenkins Professor and Canada Research Chair in Nutrition and Metabolism, Dept. of Medicine and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
David J.A. Jenkins
Professor and Canada Research Chair in Nutrition and Metabolism,
Dept. of Medicine and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine,
University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

 

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Prof. Jenkins: The main findings were that inclusion of just over an once (31g) of canola oil in low glycemic index diets of type 2 diabetes study participants, to further reduce the glycemic load (GL), reduced HbAIC more than a high cereal fiber diet, as predicted. However the Canola oil low GL diet also reduced serum TG and LDL-C and thus Framingham risk score for cardiovascular disease. The effect was seen most clearly in those at highest CHD risk and those with features of the metabolic syndrome.
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Polyphenol Intake Linked To Decrease in Cardiovascular Mortality

Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventos, PhD Associate Professor Department of Nutrition and Food Science School of Pharmacy, University of BarcelonaMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventos, PhD
Associate Professor
Department of Nutrition and Food Science
School of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Lamuela-Raventós: We have found an inverse relationship between polyphenol intake and risk of overall mortality among elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk. Adjusting for confounders and comparing the highest versus the lowest quintiles of intake, total polyphenols were inversely associated with total mortality (HR=0.63, 95 CI=0.41-0.97, P-trend=0.12), as well as stilbenes (HR=0.48, 95 CI=0.25-0.91, P-trend=0.04) and lignans (HR=0.60, 95 CI=0.37-0.97, P-trend=0.03). In fact, our results showed that all polyphenols subgroups, except for dihydrochalcones, trended to be protective although their intake did not reach statistical significance. In stratified analyses we also found a stronger association between total polyphenol intake and mortality risk for women and for those who did not drink alcohol.
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Olive Oil in Diet Linked To Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

Prof Jordi Salas-Salvadó Professor of Nutrition. Human Nutrition Unit (Director) Department of Biochemistry & Biotechnology, IISPV School of Medicine. Rovira i Virgili University. Reus, Spain. CIBERobn, Instituto Carlos III. Centre Català de la Nutrició - Institut d'Estudis Catalans (Director). Federation of Spanish Food, Nutrition and Dietetic Scientific Societies (President). Red Iberoamericana RIBESMET (Director) INC - World Forum for Nutrition Research and Dissemination (Chairman).MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Prof Jordi Salas-Salvadó
Professor of Nutrition. Human Nutrition Unit (Director)
Department of Biochemistry & Biotechnology, IISPV
School of Medicine. Rovira i Virgili University. Reus, Spain.
CIBERobn, Instituto Carlos III.
Centre Català de la Nutrició – Institut d’Estudis Catalans (Director).
Federation of Spanish Food, Nutrition and Dietetic Scientific Societies (President).
Red Iberoamericana RIBESMET (Director)
INC – World Forum for Nutrition Research and Dissemination (Chairman).

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: The main findings of our study are that olive oil consumption, especially the extra-virgin variety (which is the olive oil with the best quality because it has higher amounts of bioactive compounds than other varieties), is associated with a reduced risk of suffering from cardiovascular disease (stroke, myocardial infarction…) and also cardiovascular death in an elderly Mediterranean population from Spain who were at high cardiovascular risk (because they had several cardiovscular risk factors such as smoking, being overweight or obese, having a family history of cardiovascular disease…). This means there is even more reason to visit gringocool.com. We have conducted an observational study including more than 7000 individuals who had participated in a randomized clinical trial to evaluate effects of a Mediterranean Diet in on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.
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Mediterranean Diet in Children Found Protective Against Obesity

Dr Gianluca Tognon University of Gothenburg Gothenburg, SwedenMedicalResearch Interview with:
Dr Gianluca Tognon
University of Gothenburg
Gothenburg, Sweden

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Tognon: We found that eating a pattern rich in vegetables, fruit, nuts, cereal grains and fish, that we call a Mediterranean-like diet was not only inversely associated to being overweight or obese, but also protective against an increase in body mass index and waist circumference at a 2-year follow up.
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Frequent Meals Don’t Promote Weight Loss

Dr. Milan K Piya NIHR Clinical Lecturer in Diabetes and Endocrinology Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick; University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust Coventry, UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Milan K Piya
NIHR Clinical Lecturer in Diabetes and Endocrinology
Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick;
University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust
Coventry, UK

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: Our studies have identified two main findings:

Firstly that the size or frequency of the meal doesn’t affect the calories we burn in a day, but what matters most for losing weight is counting calories.

Secondly, by carrying more weight, more endotoxin enters the circulation to cause inflammation and eating more often will exacerbate this risk which has been linked to metabolic diseases such as type-2 diabetes.

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Never Too Late To Switch to a Healthy Mediterranean Diet

Jordi Salas-Salvadó, MD, PhD Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Healthy Sciences Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/ Sant Llorenç, 21, 43201 Reus, SpainMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Jordi Salas-Salvadó, MD, PhD
Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Healthy Sciences
Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/ Sant Llorenç, 21, 43201 Reus, Spain

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: Randomized trials have shown that lifestyle interventions promoting weight loss can reduce the incidence of type-2diabetes, however, whether dietary changes without calorie restriction or increased physical activity also protect from diabetes development has not been evaluated in the past. In our study, we found that a long-term adherence to a high-quality dietary pattern akin to the traditional MedDiet and rich in extra-virgin olive oil was able to reduce the incidence of new cases of diabetes in older individuals at high cardiovascular risk. We have demonstrated for the first time that a beneficial effect on diabetes prevention could be obtained witha healthy dietary pattern (without calorie restriction, increased physical activity or weight loss). These benefits have been observed in participants between 55 to 80 years-old at high cardiovascular risk; therefore,the message is that it is never too late to switch to a healthy diet like the Mediterranean.
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Cognitive Decline: Dietary Patterns Associations

samantha_gardenerMedicalResearch.com:
Samantha Gardener PhD Student
Senior Research Assistant for DIAN and AIBL Studies
McCusker Alzheimer’s Research Foundation
2/142 Stirling Hwy 
NEDLANDS
6009
Western Australia

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of your study?

Answer: Our research indicates that consuming larger quantities of foods included in a western dietary pattern is associated with greater cognitive decline in visuospatial functioning after 36 months. Foods included in the western dietary pattern are red and processed meats, high fat dairy products, chips, refined grains, potatoes, sweets and condiments. Visuospatial functioning is an area which includes distance and depth perception, reproducing drawings and using components to construct objects or shapes.

In contrast, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, a healthy eating pattern is associated with less decline in executive function. Foods included in the Mediterranean diet are vegetables, fruits and fish. Examples of executive function include planning and organising, problem solving and time management.
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Mediterranean Diet May Be Helpful in Midlife and Beyond

Cécilia Samieri, PhD Institut pour la Santé Publique et le Développement, Case 11, Université Bordeaux Segalen, 146 rue Léo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, FranceMedicalResearch.com Interview with
Cécilia Samieri, PhD
Institut pour la Santé Publique et le Développement, Case 11, Université Bordeaux Segalen, 146 rue Léo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France


MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Samieri: That women with healthier dietary patterns at midlife were 40% more likely to survive age 70 or over free of major chronic diseases and with no impairment in physical function, cognition or mental health.
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Memory Performance: Negatively Impacted by Higher Glucose, even in Non-Diabetics

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Lucia Kerti MA
From the Departments of Neurology
Charité–University Medicine, Berlin

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: The results of our study on 141 healthy older people suggest that chronically higher blood glucose levels may have a negative influence on memory performance even in the absence of type 2 diabetes or even pre-diabetes. Moreover, our findings indicate that elevated blood glucose levels  impair the functioning of brain areas like the hippocampus, a structure particularly relevant for memory. An important novel aspect in our study was the additional analysis of diffusion tensor imaging-based mean diffusivity within the hippocampal, which allowed us to  obtain information on microstructure.  We here provided first-time data of an association between higher blood glucose levels and lower hippocampal microstructure. Decreased hippocampal microstructure as measured by mean diffusivity may reflect a disruption of neuronal membranes and increased extracellular water content, leading to decreased signaling within and between hippocampal cells. Thus, information transfer between cells, indispensable for memory encoding, storage and retrieval, would be compromised. In sum, our data suggest that chronically higher blood glucose levels even within the “normal range” may decrease memory functions, possibly in part mediated by microstructural changes within the hippocampus.

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Kidney Function Following Three Distinct Weight Loss Dietary Strategies

MedicalResearch.com eInterview with Iris Shai, RD, PhD
PI of the DIRECT trial
Ben Gurion University of the Negev,
Israel

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Shai: Low-carbohydrate is as effective as Mediterranean or low-fat diets in improving renal function among moderately obese participants with or without type 2 diabetes, with baseline serum creatinine<176µmol/L (not sever renal stage).  The effect is likely to be mediated by weight-loss induced improvements in insulin sensitivity and blood pressure.
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