Author Interviews, Diabetes, Weight Research / 11.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49712" align="alignleft" width="133"]MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kalypso Karastergiou, MD, PhD Assistant Professor, Medicine, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Disease Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism Institute Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai     MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?   Response: Multiple studies, epidemiological as well as clinical, have established that body shape is an important and independent predictor of cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk and ultimately total mortality. Subjects that preferentially store weight in the abdominal area (often described as android, upper-body or apple-shape obesity) are at increased risk, whereas those who preferentially store weight in the lower body, in the gluteofemoral area (gynoid, lower-body or pear-shape), appear to be protected. The former is more common in men, whereas the latter in women, especially premenopausal women.   The overarching questions in the field are:  •What factors determine body shape?  •	Why are subjects with lower-body shape protected?  •	Can we exploit the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms involved to improve stratification, prevention or treatment of obesity and related diseases?   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?   Response: Up to date, studies in body shape have focused on the distribution of the adipose (fat) tissue.  This report seeks to expand the investigation to other tissues as well. During the period from 1999-2006, 14,005 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (which represents the United States population), 20-69 years old, had a DXA test that allows total and regional estimation of fat, lean and bone tissue mass.   This preliminary analysis shows that body shape is determined by coordinated changes in the head, trunk and limbs that involve the fat, as well as the other tissues.     MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?  Response: This is an observational study that doesn’t allow us to draw conclusion as to cause and effect or prediction of future risk. It does suggest that body shape is a whole-body feature with systematic, coordinated changes in all body compartments and tissues.   The observations should be replicated in other populations and in prospective studies.      MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?  Response: This report generates more questions than it answers.   •	First of all, are there differences in the function of tissues that determine body shape between subjects with upper- versus lower body shape?   •	Which tissues drive differences in physiology and disease risk?   •	Can we identify the underlying molecular pathways?   •	Does any of these pathways represent a viable mechanistic target to prevent or treat disease and improve quality of life?     Dislosures The study is partly funded by grants from the MSHS Translational Science Hub at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (KL2TR001435) and the Einstein-Sinai Diabetes Research Center in New York City.     Citation: ADA 2019 abstract  277-OR: Lean Tissues as Novel Determinants of Pear vs. Apple Body Shape and Metabolic Health in Humans KALYPSO KARASTERGIOU Diabetes 2019 Jun; 68(Supplement 1): -.https://doi.org/10.2337/db19-277-OR    [wysija_form id="3"]  [last-modified]    The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website. Dr. Karastergiou[/caption]Kalypso Karastergiou, MD, PhD Assistant Professor, Medicine, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Disease Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism Institute Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: Multiple studies, epidemiological as well as clinical, have established that body shape is an important and independent predictor of cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk and ultimately total mortality. Subjects that preferentially store weight in the abdominal area (often described as android, upper-body or apple-shape obesity) are at increased risk, whereas those who preferentially store weight in the lower body, in the gluteofemoral area (gynoid, lower-body or pear-shape), appear to be protected. The former is more common in men, whereas the latter in women, especially premenopausal women. The overarching questions in the field are:
  • What factors determine body shape?
  • Why are subjects with lower-body shape protected?
  • Can we exploit the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms involved to improve stratification, prevention or treatment of obesity and related diseases? 
Author Interviews, PLoS, Weight Research / 25.02.2014

Nir Y. Krakauer Ph.D Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering The City College of New York New York, New YorkMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nir Y. Krakauer Ph.D Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering The City College of New York New York, New York MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Krakauer: We studied the association between the recently proposed body shape index (ABSI) -- which combines waist circumference, height and weight measurements -- and risk of death in a United Kingdom population sample. We found that high ABSI predicted greater mortality hazard, with death rates increasing by about 13% per standard deviation increase in ABSI. Further, ABSI was a stronger predictor of early death than BMI, waist circumference, or other indices based on waist circumference such as waist to height ratio and waist to hip ratio. For a given starting ABSI value, reducing A Body Shape Index over a 7-year period was associated with lowered mortality risk, .